What change should extension be enabling in the name of climate change adaptation - Lauren Rickards, University of Melbourne
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What change should extension be enabling in the name of climate change adaptation - Lauren Rickards, University of Melbourne

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    What change should extension be enabling in the name of climate change adaptation - Lauren Rickards, University of Melbourne What change should extension be enabling in the name of climate change adaptation - Lauren Rickards, University of Melbourne Presentation Transcript

    • What change should extension be enabling in the name of climate change adaptation? Dr. Lauren Rickards Research Fellow, University of Melbourne: Primary Industries Adaptation Research Network, Victorian Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Research, and the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute Thinker in Residence, Birchip Cropping Group Deputy Chair, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
    • Extension – enabling change
      • Extension is about ‘enabling change’ in rural and regional communities (Vanclay and Leach 2006)
    • Extension – enabling change
      • Extension is about ‘enabling change’ in rural and regional communities (Vanclay and Leach 2006)
      • Sounds agnostic...
    • Extension – enabling change
      • Extension is about ‘enabling change’ in rural and regional communities (Vanclay and Leach 2006)
      • Sounds agnostic...
      • But change is not neutral.... Climate change adaptation included
    • Extension – enabling change
      • What sort of ‘ change in response to and in the context of climate change’ is needed and wanted?
      • The answer to this is currently shaped by
        • Dominant perception of climate change
          • ‘ Climate reductionism’ (Hulme, 2011)
        • Dominant perception of current desirable/”inevitable” trajectories of change
    • Framing the problem of CCA
      • Basic questions are often overlooked in policy arenas in the pursuit of detail and solutions
      • Pannell, D. (2008) Environmental Policy for Environmental Outcomes http://cyllene.uwa.edu.au/~dpannell/dp0804.htm
      • Problems being defined in terms of symptoms rather than causes may not only fail to solve the problem but make it worse
            • Cork, S. (2010) Resilience and Transformation , CSIRO
    • Framing the problem of CCA
      • Adaptation = reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts
    • Framing the problem of CCA
      • Adaptation = reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts
      • Vulnerability = Future Harm
    • Framing the problem of CCA
      • Adaptation as reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts
      • Vulnerability = Future Harm
      Unknown Context-dependent Unknowable Subjective Changing Changing
    • Neglected questions about CCA
      • Who is the subject of adaptation? And why?
      • What is the goal of adaptation?
    • Neglected questions about CCA
      • Who is the subject of adaptation? And why?
      • What is the goal of adaptation?
      • If adaptation is persistence thru change,
      • what is to persist, what is to change?
    • Framing CCA in agriculture 10:90 50:50 90:10 Keep : Change Who decides?
    • Neglected questions about CCA
      • Who is the subject of adaptation? And why?
      • What is the goal of adaptation?
      • What is to persist, what is to change?
      • Perceptions of the present: Where are we now? What do we want to change?
    • Neglected questions about CCA
      • Who is the subject of adaptation? And why?
      • What is the goal of adaptation?
      • What is to persist, what is to change?
      • Where are we now?
      • What do we want to change?
      • What sort of adaptation is needed/wanted?
    • Reframing the problem of CCA
      • Who is the subject of adaptation? And why?
      • What is the goal of adaptation?
      • What is to persist, what is to change?
      • Where are we now?
      • What do we want to change?
      • What sort of adaptation is needed/wanted? To what effect?
      • How are impacts defined and identified? What costs and benefits are taken into account?
    • Broadening our view of impacts
      • First order - Direct impacts
        • Effects of climate on a biophysical system
      • Second order – Indirect impacts
        • Flow on effects on social, cultural, political, economic systems
        • Exacerbation of existing pressures and reduced adaptive capacity
      • First order - Direct impacts
        • Effects of climate on a biophysical system
      • Second order – Indirect impacts
        • Flow on effects on social, cultural, political, economic systems
        • Exacerbation of existing pressures and reduced adaptive capacity
      • Third order – Adaptation impacts
        • Costs of change (transaction and opportunity costs)
        • Negative effects of adaptation responses on others
        • Missed opportunities for positive change
        • Worsening of the original problem (emission of GHG)
      Broadening our view of impacts
      • First order - Direct impacts Vulnerable Pop. 1
        • Effects of climate on a biophysical system
      • Second order – Indirect impacts Vulnerable Pop. 2
        • Flow on effects on social, cultural, political, economic systems
        • Exacerbation of existing pressures and reduced adaptive capacity
      • Third order – Adaptation impacts Vulnerable Pop. 3
        • Costs of change (transaction and opportunity costs)
        • Negative effects of adaptation responses on others
        • Missed opportunities for positive change
        • Worsening of the original problem (emission of GHG)
      Broadening our view of impacts
      • First order - Direct impacts
        • Effects of climate on a biophysical system
      • Second order – Indirect impacts
        • Flow on effects on social, cultural, political, economic systems
        • Exacerbation of existing pressures and reduced adaptive capacity
      • Third order – Adaptation impacts
        • Costs of change (transaction and opportunity costs)
        • Negative effects of adaptation responses on others
        • Missed opportunities for positive change
        • Worsening of the original problem (emission of GHG)
        • Not all adaptation efforts will necessarily “do good” – or do enough good
      Broadening our view of impacts
    • The need for good adaptation
      • A tripartite aim:
        • Reduce own vulnerability
        • Reduce others’ vulnerability
      • Adaptation is a process, not a list of measures addressing specific direct impacts
      • We need ‘sustainable adaptation’ that contributes to social justice and environmental sustainability (Eriksen et al 2011)
      • CC - opportunity for and need for ‘co-benefits’
      Reduce climate change
    •  
    • So… Some messages for extension
      • Address context
      • Address values and power relations
      • Seek multiple benefits/changes
      • Use systems perspective – trace linkages, relations, cross-scale and cross-discipline
      • Promote farmer and community perspective
      • Build generic adaptive capacity
      • Best practice extension an invaluable resource: needs to be ‘exported’ to other areas of CCA
    • Challenges for extension
      • Self-adaptation
      • Revitalisation of TOT thinking:
        • Adaptation as “deficit” issue (problem = farmers’ climate literacy)
        • Marginalisation of extension as mere ‘communication’ of science
      • CC throws into question scientific and experiential knowledge about future – a challenge to the professional role and identity of those in extension (and science)
      • Need for collective, coordinated, cross-sectoral action
      • Need for serious ongoing learning with other sectors
    • The Third Wave of agricultural extension? Key tasks
      • Give voice to diversity of adaptation subjects and goals.
      • Challenge dominant voices
      • Facilitate open-minded discussion among and between farmers, families, government, industry, community
      • Reflect on and acknowledge own values
      • Facilitate adaptation to all three orders of potential and actual CC impacts
      • Look beyond impacts to need for ‘enabling’ actions
      • Help develop collective vision and action
      • Encourage positive change
      • Continue working on integration of production and sustainability
      • Help identify research needed. What do we need to know? How can we know it?
      • Then and only then … promote “adoption of adaptation” among farmers…