Planet of slums


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Here is my powerpoint presentation on Plant of Slums for History 5 at Saddleback College

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Planet of slums

  1. 1. Planet of Slums<br />By: Cristin Croce<br />
  2. 2. Megacities<br />Ninety-five percent of the buildout of humanity will occur in the urban areas of developing countries. <br />These areas will drastically change and their population will double in size in the next generation.<br />An big urbanization country is China. Mike Davis states that they are urbanizing at an extraordinary rate in human history. <br />China began to add more city-dwellers in the 1980’s than all of Europe did in the entire 19th century.<br />There are numerous Third World megacities whose population has boomed between 1950 and 2004. An example would be Mexico City whose population jumped from 2.9 million to 22.1 million<br />Newer megacities have populations that exceed over 8 million. <br />Even though these cities are making new discoveries, but they are also becoming some of the biggest areas of urban poverty.<br />
  3. 3. Overurbanization<br />Overurbanization is caused by the reproduction of poverty, not by the supply of jobs. This particular problem is occurring in the megacities of the developing world. <br />Instead of countries resembling and following industrializing cities like Chicago or Los Angels, they more resemble a Victorian Dublin, who suffered from de-industrialization more than industrialization. <br />This rapid urban growth has resulted in the mass production of slums.<br />Since 1970 slum growth has outpaced urbanization, and slum growth is making an appearance in many countries.<br />
  4. 4. Global Slum Census<br />By the classical definition of a slum it is characterized by overcrowding, poor or informal housing, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, and insecurity of tenure.<br />UN researchers estimated that there were at least 921 million slum-dwellers in 2001 and more than 1 billion in 2005. That is almost the world’s population.<br />According to UN-HABITAT, the world’s highest percentages of slum-dwellers are in Ethiopia, Chad, Afghanistan, and Nepal. Followed by Mexico City and Dhaka.<br />The fastest grown slums are in the Russian Federation and the former Soviet republics.<br />
  5. 5. Slum Typology<br />Davis states that there are probably more than 200,000 slums on earth ranging in population from a few hundred to more than a million people.<br />The five great metropolises of South Asia: Karachi, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Dhaka; contain about 15,000 distinct slum communities which their populations exceed over 20 million.<br />Although some slums have long histories most megaslums have grown up since the 1960’s. Megaslums arise when shantytowns and squatter communities merge in continuous belts of informal housing and poverty. <br />Everywhere in the Third World, housing choice is a hard calculus of confusing trade-offs. The urban poor have to solve a difficult equation as they try to optimize housing cost, tenure security, quality of shelter, journey to work, and sometimes personal safety. <br />
  6. 6. Attempts to Improve<br />Attempts to improve began in the 1970’s when the Third World government renounced the battle against the slum.<br />The World Bank tried to set parameters in urban housing policy, but that did not go as planned. This attempt helped improve the slums rather than replacing them.<br />Their cost-recovery provisions priced the poorest of the poor out of the market for self-help loans. Also in result it caused people to try to upgrade and reduce self-help housing.<br />In 1987 a critic of the World Bank estimated about 30-60 percent of the population could not meet their financial obligations for sites-and-services provision or loans for upgrading.<br />