Here's one you probably don't use in everyday conversation, but it turns up in the newspaper with surprising frequency. It's a Procrustean effort that forces evidence into a theory when it doesn't fit, just as Procrustes violently adjusted his guests to fit their bed.
The word Promethean describes a daringly creative or defiantly original act, because of the Titan Prometheus, who defied the wrath of the gods in order to benefit humankind. (The full title of Mary Shelley's famous novel is "Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus".)
In another figure of speech from Greek mythology, a Sisyphean task is one that requires continual effort that never quite pays off. This is named for Sisyphus, who paid eternally for his crimes by rolling a boulder uphill. Every time it reached the top, it rolled back down again and Sisyphus was compelled to start anew.
It's because of a mythological sinner named Tantalus that to tantalize entails holding something desirable just out of reach. Like Sisyphus, Tantalus was sent to the Underworld's region of eternal punishment, where he stood in a pool of water under boughs laden with fruit yet could satisfy neither hunger nor thirst.