Pneumatics
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Pneumatics

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Pneumatics Pneumatics Presentation Transcript

  • MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THIS PRESENTATION INCLUDES THE SOURCES OF AIR, THE MAJOR SYSTEMCOMPONENTS AND THE WAY THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE USED TO OPERATETHE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. FIRST, LETS LOOK AT THE SOURCES OF AIR.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE SOURCES OF AIR FOR THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM ARE: THE ENGINES (pause2) THEAUXILIARY POWER UNIT (pause2) OR A GROUND PNEUMATIC CARTMENU PRINCIPAL
  • DURING GROUND OPERATION, THE NORMAL SUPPLY OF BLEED AIR FOR THE PNEUMATICSYSTEM IS THE APU (pause2) (pause3) HOWEVER, A GROUND CART MAY BE USED WHEN ITIS AVAILABLE (pause2) (pause2) AFTER ENGINE START, BLEED AIR IS NORMALLYSUPPLIED BY THE ENGINES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF BLEED AIR IS THE MID OR EIGHTH STAGE OF THE ENGINECOMPRESSOR SECTION. IF THE VOLUME OF MID STAGE AIR IS INSUFFICIENT FOR THESYSTEM DEMAND, HIGH, OR 13TH STAGE, BLEED AIR AUGMENTS THE SUPPLY. CHECKVALVES ENSURE THE PROPER DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW. AIR FROM THE MID AND HIGHCOMPRESSOR SECTIONS IS HOT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THIS HOT AIR IS COOLED BY FAN AIR PASSING THROUGH HEAT EXCHANGERS (pause2) ATHERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED VALVE AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES THE VOLUMEOF FAN AIR REQUIRED FOR COOLING.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • ANSWER AA IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • BLEED AIR IS COOLED BY FAN AIR PASSING THROUGH HEAT EXCHANGERS. (pause4)NOW, LETS LOOK AT THE COCKPIT CONTROLS AND INDICATORS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS FOR THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM ARE LOCATED ON THERIGHT SIDE OF THE FORWARD OVERHEAD PANEL. LOCATE THESE CONTROLS ANDINDICATORS ON YOUR PANEL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • LETS LOOK AT THE PNEUMATIC CONTROLS AND INDICATORS IN GREATER DETAIL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ENGINE BLEED-AIR SWITCHES OPEN AND CLOSE THE RESPECTIVE BLEED AIRVALVE. THESE VALVES OPERATE ON AC POWER. (pause3) IF THE TEMPERATUREDOWNSTREAM OF THE VALVE IS EXCESSIVE, A TEMPERATURE SENSOR AUTOMATICALLYCLOSES THE RESPECTIVE VALVE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO AIRPLANE COMPONENTS.WITH AN OVER TEMPERATURE CONDITION, THE BLEED TRIP [`]OFF LIGHT ILLUMINATES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE APU BLEED AIR SWITCH OPENS AND CLOSES THE APU BLEED AIR VALVE. AS WITHTHE ENGINE BLEEDS, THE APU BLEED ALSO OPERATES ON AC POWER. WHEN THE VALVEOPENS, IT ALLOWS AIR TO FLOW FROM THE APU INTO THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. A CHECKVALVE PREVENTS ENGINE OR GROUND CART BLEED AIR FROM FLOWING INTO THE APU.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACK SWITCHES CONTROL ELECTRICAL POWER TO THE PACKVALVES. THE VALVES ARE SPRING-LOADED CLOSED. WITH AIR PRESSURE, THE VALVESOPEN AND REGULATE THE FLOW OF BLEED AIR ENTERING THE AIR CONDITIONINGPACKS. THESE VALVES OPERATE FROM BATTERY BUS POWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • AN AC POWERED ISOLATION VALVE SEPARATES THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THEPNEUMATIC MANIFOLD. THE NUMBER ONE ENGINE AND APU ARE ON THE LEFT SIDE OFTHE VALVE. THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE AND THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CARTCONNECTION ARE ON THE RIGHT SIDE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • PNEUMATIC PRESSURE IS SENSED ON EACH SIDE OF THE ISOLATION VALVE ANDDISPLAYED ON THE DUCT PRESSURE INDICATOR. THIS INDICATOR REQUIRES AC POWER.THE L POINTER INDICATES THE PRESSURE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE PNEUMATICMANIFOLD, AND THE R POINTER, THE PRESSURE ON THE RIGHT SIDE. IF THE ISOLATIONVALVE IS OPEN, BOTH PRESSURE INDICATIONS ARE THE SAME.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE DUCT PRESSURE INDICATOR DISPLAYS THE PRESSURE IN THE DUCTS FROM ANY OFTHE PNEUMATIC SOURCES (pause2) THE ENGINES, (pause2) THE APU, (pause2) OR THEGROUND PNEUMATIC CART. (pause4) WHEN THE APU IS PROVIDING THE BLEED AIR ANDTHE ISOLATION VALVE IS CLOSED, THE L POINTER INDICATES APU BLEED AIR PRESSURE.THE R POINTER INDICATES PRESSURE ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE VALVE. NOW LETSLOOK AT THE ISOLATION VALVE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH HAS THREE POSITIONS (pause2) CLOSE, AUTO, AND OPEN(pause2) THE NORMAL POSITION OF THE SWITCH IS AUTO. PLACING THE SWITCH TO OPENWILL OPEN THE VALVE (pause2) THE CLOSE POSITION WILL CLOSE THE VALVE. LETSEXAMINE THE AUTO POSITION OF THE SWITCH IN MORE DETAIL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • WITH THE SWITCH IN THE AUTO POSITION, THE ISOLATION VALVE IS CONTROLLED BYTHE POSITION OF THE ENGINE BLEED AND PACK SWITCHES (pause2) IF BOTH ENGINEBLEED SWITCHES AND BOTH PACK SWITCHES ARE ON, THE VALVE WILL BE CLOSED.THIS ISOLATES THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM SO THAT EACHENGINE SUPPLIES AIR TO ONE PACK. THIS IS A NORMAL IN-FLIGHT CONDITION. THE APUBLEED SWITCH HAS NO EFFECT ON THE ISOLATION VALVE OPERATION. COMPARETHE PANEL SWITCH SELECTION TO THE ACTUAL VALVE POSITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • WITH THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IN AUTO, POSITIONING AN ENGINE BLEED OR PACKSWITCH TO [`]OFF, (pause3) SIGNALS THE SWITCH LOGIC TO OPEN THE ISOLATION VALVE.THIS CONNECTS THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. (pause2) INTHIS SITUATION, THE LEFT PACK SWITCH IS [`]OFF (pause2) THEREFORE, THE ISOLATIONVALVE IS OPEN. STUDY THE SWITCH SELECTION AND COMPARE THE EFFECT ON THEISOLATION VALVE POSITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IS IN AUTO, AND ALL ENGINE BLEED AND PACKSWITCHES ARE ON. (pause2) THEREFORE, THE VALVE IS CLOSED. THIS IS A NORMAL IN-FLIGHT PANEL CONFIGURATION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE CORRECT ANSWER IS A.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ISOLATION VALVE IS CLOSED, AND THE RIGHT POINTER INDICATES THE PRESSUREDEVELOPED BY THE GROUND CART. (pause3) LETS PROCEED TO THE SWITCHSELECTION TO SET THE PANEL FOR ENGINE START.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • NORMALLY, APU BLEED AIR IS USED TO START THE ENGINESMENU PRINCIPAL
  • BOTH ENGINE BLEED VALVES AND THE ISOLATION VALVE MUST BE OPEN TO PERMIT AIRTO REACH THE STARTERS (pause2) FOR THIS REASON, THESE BLEED SWITCHES ARELEFT []ON PRIOR TO ENGINE SHUT DOWN. THIS INSURES THAT THE VALVES ARE OPENFOR ENGINE START IN THE EVENT THAT AC POWER IS NOT AVAILABLE, IN WHICH CASE(pause2) THE ENGINE BLEED VALVES MAY BE MANUALLY OPENED.COMPARE THE SWITCH SELECTIONS TO THE ACTUAL VALVE POSITIONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • AIR FROM THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CART MAY BE USED TO START THE ENGINESMENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ENGINE BLEED AND ISOLATION VALVES MUST BE OPEN. THE APU BLEED VALVEMUST BE CLOSED TO PREVENT THE POSSIBILITY OF GROUND CART OR ENGINE BLEEDAIR FROM ENTERING THE APU (pause2) COMPARE THE SWITCH SELECTIONS TO THEACTUAL VALVE POSITIONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • A CROSS BLEED START USES AN OPERATING ENGINE AS A BLEED AIR SOURCE TOSTART THE OTHER ENGINEMENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE ENGINE BLEED AND ISOLATION VALVES ARE OPEN FOR A CROSS BLEED START(pause2) THE APU BLEED VALVE WILL BE CLOSED FOR THIS OPERATION. THE ISOLATIONVALVE SWITCH REMAINS IN AUTOMATIC (pause2) COMPARE THE VALVE POSITIONS TOTHE SWITCH SELECTIONS. IN THIS SITUATION, THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE IS PROVIDINGTHE BLEED AIR. REVIEW THE CROSS BLEED START IN SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THERE IS A DUAL BLEED LIGHT LOCATED ABOVE THE PNEUMATIC PANEL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • WHEN BOTH AN ENGINE AND THE APU BLEED VALVE OPEN, THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT AIR FROM THE ENGINECOULD BACK PRESSURE THE APU. THE DUAL BLEED LIGHT ILLUMINATES WHENEVER BOTH OF THESE VALVES AREOPEN. ILLUMINATION OF THIS LIGHT IS AN INDICATION OF CERTAIN COMBINATIONS OF VALVE POSITIONS. (pause2) ITMEANS THAT THE ENGINE, ISOLATION, AND APU VALVES ARE POSITIONED OPEN SO THAT ANY ENGINE BLEED AIR CANBACK-PRESSURE THE APU BLEED AIR. (pause2) IN THIS CASE, THE BLACK ARROWS INDICATE THAT WITH THE APUBLEED VALVE, (pause2) THE ISOLATION VALVE (pause2) AND THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE BLEED VALVE OPEN, THENUMBER TWO ENGINE BLEED AIR CAN BACK PRESSURE THE APU, AND THE LIGHT ILLUMINATES. ILLUMINATION OF THEDUAL BLEED LIGHT IS A NORMAL INDICATION DURING ENGINE START. WHEN THE APU IS THE SOURCE OF BLEED AIR;AND DURING GROUND OPERATIONS WHEN THE APU IS USED AS A PNEUMATIC BLEED SOURCE FOR CABIN HEATING ORCOOLING. TO EXTINGUISH THE LIGHT, RE-CONFIGURE EITHER OR THE ENGINE BLEED, ISOLATION, AND APU BLEEDVALVE SWITCHES TO OFF. THIS ELIMINATES THE POTENTIAL FOR ANY ENGINE BLEED AIR TO BACK-PRESSURE THE APU.(pause4) THIS LIGHT OPERATES ONLY AS A FUNCTION OF VALVE POSITION AND CAN ILLUMINATE EVEN WITH THEENGINES SHUT DOWN AND NO ENGINE PNEUMATIC PRESSURE AVAILABLE. TO ENSURE THAT NO SIGNIFICANT BACK-PRESSURE OCCURS, ENGINE THRUST MUST BE LIMITED TO IDLE WHILE THIS LIGHT IS ILLUMINATED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • ANSWER C IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • POSITIONING THE APU BLEED SWITCH TO []OFF, ELIMINATES THE POSSIBILITY OF BACK-PRESSURING THE APU WITH ENGINE BLEED AIR, AND THE LIGHT EXTINGUISHES. THELIGHT WILL ALSO BE EXTINGUISHED BY LEAVING THE APU BLEED []ON, ANDPOSITIONING BOTH ENGINE BLEEDS TO []OFF.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • LETS EXAMINE THE NORMAL PREFLIGHT PNEUMATIC PANEL CONFIGURATION FOR ANENGINE START USING THE APU.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • FIRST, POSITION THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACK SWITCHES OFF, TO ENSURE ALL BLEED AIRIS AVAILABLE FOR THE STARTERS. A MINIMUM OF 30 PSI IS REQUIRED FOR NORMALENGINE START.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • SECOND, VERIFY THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IS IN THE AUTO POSITION, SO BLEED AIRCAN FLOW TO ENGINE NUMBER TWO. (pause2) THIRD, VERIFY THE ENGINE AND APUBLEED SWITCHES ARE ON. THIS ALLOWS BLEED AIR FROM THE APU TO ENTER THEPNEUMATIC MANIFOLD AND FLOW TO THE STARTERS (pause2) REVIEW THIS OPERATIONUNTIL YOU ARE CONFIDENT THAT YOU UNDERSTAND IT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • ANSWER C IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE NUMBER ONE ENGINE BLEED VALVE IS CLOSED SO THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CARTCAN SUPPLY AIR PRESSURE TO START ENGINE NUMBER TWO ONLY.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE AIRPLANE MAY BE OPERATED IN AN ENGINE BLEEDS []OFF CONFIGURATION FORTAKEOFF.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • IN THIS CONFIGURATION, THE APU SUPPLIES AIR TO THE LEFT AIR CONDITIONING PACK. THEISOLATION VALVE IS CLOSED BECAUSE THE APU CANNOT SUPPLY ENOUGH AIR FOR BOTH AIRCONDITIONING PACKS. THIS PROCEDURE PERMITS ENGINE TAKEOFF THRUST TO BE SET TO EITHERTHE LOWER E-P-R, THAT WOULD BE REQUIRED IF ENGINE BLEEDS WERE USED TO OPERATE THEPACKS, OR, TO THE MAXIMUM ENGINE BLEEDS []OFF E-P-R, WHEN ADDITIONAL THRUST IS REQUIREDFOR TAKEOFF. THE ENGINE BLEEDS []ON E-P-R IS POINT ZERO FOUR LESS THAN THE BLEEDS []OFFE-P-R. (pause3) USE OF THE LOWER E-P-R REDUCES INTERNAL ENGINE TEMPERATURES ANDEXTENDS ENGINE LIFE. THE LOWER E-P-R MAY BE USED WHENEVER THE ACTUAL TAKEOFF WEIGHTIS SUFFICIENTLY LESS THAN THE PUBLISHED MAXIMUM WEIGHT FOR EACH RUNWAY. REVIEW THEPANEL CONFIGURATION, AND ITS EFFECT ON SYSTEM OPERATION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • NOW, REFER TO THE TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE SECTION OF YOUR MANUAL AND REVIEWTHE WEIGHT REDUCTION REQUIRED WHEN USING THE ENGINE BLEEDS []ON E-P-R.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • NOW, LETS CONFIGURE THE PNEUMATIC PANEL FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS []OFF TAKEOFFOR LANDING.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS []OFF TAKEOFF, FIRST, POSITION THE RIGHT PACK SWITCH[]ON, THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH TO CLOSE, AND THE LEFT PACK SWITCH []ON.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • NEXT, POSITION THE NUMBER ONE BLEED SWITCH OFF, AND VERIFY THE APU BLEEDSWITCH IS ON. THIS ALLOWS BLEED AIR FROM THE APU TO FLOW TO THE LEFT PACK.FINALLY, POSITION THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE BLEED SWITCH TO OFF. NOTICE THAT THISOPERATION IS PERFORMED USING A LETTER C PATTERN FLOW. REVIEW THESE STEPSAS YOU TRACE THE C PATTERN.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • AFTER TAKEOFF, THE PANEL IS RE-CONFIGURED TO ALLOW THE ENGINES TO SUPPLYTHE AIR CONDITIONING PACKS. FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS [`]OFF LANDING, THE LETTER CPATTERN IS AGAIN USED TO POSITION THE SWITCHES EXACTLY AS FOR AN ENGINEBLEEDS [`]OFF TAKEOFFMENU PRINCIPAL
  • AFTER AN ENGINE BLEEDS-OFF LANDING, DURING TAXI IN, THE PANEL IS CONFIGUREDUSING THE REVERSE LETTER C PATTERN FLOW SO THAT THE ENGINE BLEEDS AREBOTH []ON, THE APU BLEED []OFF, THE ISOLATION VALVE AUTO, AND THE LEFT PACK[]OFF. (pause2) WE WILL CONCLUDE THIS SECTION WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEPNEUMATIC DUCT PROTECTION FEATURES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • OVERHEAT DETECTORS ARE INSTALLED ALONG THE PNEUMATIC DUCT SYSTEM TODETECT BLEED AIR LEAKAGE FROM THE DUCTS. THESE DETECTORS FOLLOW THEPNEUMATIC SYSTEM FROM THE FIRE WALLS TO THE AIR CONDITIONING PACKS. THEYARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE DUCTS IN BOTH THE WING AND BODY AREAS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • WHEN AN OVERHEAT CONDITION OCCURS, THE APPROPRIATE WING BODY OVERHEATLIGHT WILL ILLUMINATE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • REVIEW THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM IN THE LIMITATIONS SECTION OF YOUR OPERATIONSMANUAL AT THIS TIME.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • NOW, REVIEW THE TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE WING BODY OVERHEAT DETECTIONCIRCUITS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THIS IS FOUND IN THE AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION SECTION OFSUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • THIS CONCLUDES THE SECTION ON THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM.MENU PRINCIPALRETURN TO MENU