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Jeppesen 01-air-law

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  • 1. ii These materials are to be used only for the purpose of individual, private study and may not be reproduced in any form or medium, copied, stored in a retrieval system, lent, hired, rented, transmitted, or adapted in whole or in part without the prior written consent of Jeppesen. Copyright in all materials bound within these covers or attached hereto, excluding that material which is used with the permission of third parties and acknowledged as such, belongs exclusively to Jeppesen. Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, and the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). This book has been written and published to assist students enrolled in an approved JAA Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course in preparation for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations. Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or advice relating to practical flying. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this book, neither Jeppesen nor Atlantic Flight Training gives any warranty as to its accuracy or otherwise. Students preparing for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations should not regard this book as a substitute for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training syllabus published in the current edition of “JAR-FCL 1 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)” (the Syllabus). The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in a JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training programme. No student should prepare for, or is entitled to enter himself/herself for, the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations without first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training. Contact Details: Sales and Service Department Jeppesen GmbH Frankfurter Strasse 233 63263 Neu-Isenburg Germany Tel: ++49 (0)6102 5070 E-mail: fra-services@jeppesen.com For further information on products and services from Jeppesen, visit our web site at: www.jeppesen.com © Jeppesen Sanderson Inc., 2004 All Rights Reserved JA310112-000 ISBN 0-88487-362-5 Printed in Germany
  • 2. iii PREFACE_______________________ As the world moves toward a single standard for international pilot licensing, many nations have adopted the syllabi and regulations of the “Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing" (JAR-FCL), the licensing agency of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). Though training and licensing requirements of individual national aviation authorities are similar in content and scope to the JAA curriculum, individuals who wish to train for JAA licences need access to study materials which have been specifically designed to meet the requirements of the JAA licensing system. The volumes in this series aim to cover the subject matter tested in the JAA ATPL ground examinations as set forth in the ATPL training syllabus, contained in the JAA publication, “JAR-FCL 1 (Aeroplanes)”. The JAA regulations specify that all those who wish to obtain a JAA ATPL must study with a flying training organisation (FTO) which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training. While the formal responsibility to prepare you for both the skill tests and the ground examinations lies with the FTO, these Jeppesen manuals will provide a comprehensive and necessary background for your formal training. Jeppesen is acknowledged as the world's leading supplier of flight information services, and provides a full range of print and electronic flight information services, including navigation data, computerised flight planning, aviation software products, aviation weather services, maintenance information, and pilot training systems and supplies. Jeppesen counts among its customer base all US airlines and the majority of international airlines worldwide. It also serves the large general and business aviation markets. These manuals enable you to draw on Jeppesen’s vast experience as an acknowledged expert in the development and publication of pilot training materials. We at Jeppesen wish you success in your flying and training, and we are confident that your study of these manuals will be of great value in preparing for the JAA ATPL ground examinations. The next three pages contain a list and content description of all the volumes in the ATPL series.
  • 3. iv ATPL Series Meteorology (JAR Ref 050) • The Atmosphere • Air Masses and Fronts • Wind • Pressure System • Thermodynamics • Climatology • Clouds and Fog • Flight Hazards • Precipitation • Meteorological Information General Navigation (JAR Ref 061) • Basics of Navigation • Dead Reckoning Navigation • Magnetism • In-Flight Navigation • Compasses • Inertial Navigation Systems • Charts Radio Navigation (JAR Ref 062) • Radio Aids • Basic Radar Principles • Self-contained and • Area Navigation Systems External-Referenced • Basic Radio Propagation Theory Navigation Systems Airframes and Systems (JAR Ref 021 01) • Fuselage • Hydraulics • Windows • Pneumatic Systems • Wings • Air Conditioning System • Stabilising Surfaces • Pressurisation • Landing Gear • De-Ice / Anti-Ice Systems • Flight Controls • Fuel Systems Powerplant (JAR Ref 021 03) • Piston Engine • Engine Systems • Turbine Engine • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) • Engine Construction Electrics (JAR Ref 021 02) • Direct Current • Generator / Alternator • Alternating Current • Semiconductors • Batteries • Circuits • Magnetism
  • 4. v Instrumentation (JAR Ref 022) • Flight Instruments • Automatic Flight Control Systems • Warning and Recording Equipment • Powerplant and System Monitoring Instruments Principles of Flight (JAR Ref 080) • Laws and Definitions • Boundary Layer • Aerofoil Airflow • High Speed Flight • Aeroplane Airflow • Stability • Lift Coefficient • Flying Controls • Total Drag • Adverse Weather Conditions • Ground Effect • Propellers • Stall • Operating Limitations • CLMAX Augmentation • Flight Mechanics • Lift Coefficient and Speed Performance (JAR Ref 032) • Single-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) • Multi-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) • Aeroplanes certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class A) Mass and Balance (JAR Ref 031) • Definition and Terminology • Limits • Loading • Centre of Gravity Flight Planning (JAR Ref 033) • Flight Plan for Cross-Country • Meteorological Messages Flights • Point of Equal Time • ICAO ATC Flight Planning • Point of Safe Return • IFR (Airways) Flight Planning • Medium Range Jet Transport • Jeppesen Airway Manual Planning Air Law (JAR Ref 010) • International Agreements • Air Traffic Services and Organisations • Aerodromes • Annex 8 – Airworthiness of • Facilitation Aircraft • Search and Rescue • Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality • Security and Registration Marks • Aircraft Accident Investigation • Annex 1 – Licensing • JAR-FCL • Rules of the Air • National Law • Procedures for Air Navigation
  • 5. vi Human Performance and Limitations (JAR Ref 040) • Human Factors • Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance • Aviation Psychology Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) • Operator • Low Visibility Operations • Air Operations Certificate • Special Operational Procedures • Flight Operations and Hazards • Aerodrome Operating Minima • Transoceanic and Polar Flight Communications (JAR Ref 090) • Definitions • Distress and Urgency • General Operation Procedures Procedures • Relevant Weather Information • Aerodrome Control • Communication Failure • Approach Control • VHF Propagation • Area Control • Allocation of Frequencies
  • 6. Table of Contents Air Law vii CHAPTER 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Section 1 - Common abbreviations used in the JAA Central Question Bank ................................................1-1 Section 2 - ICAO Definitions .........................................................................................................................1-6 CHAPTER 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Background...................................................................................................................................................2-1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................2-1 Safety ..........................................................................................................................................................2-1 International Law...........................................................................................................................................2-1 Scheduled and Non Scheduled Air Services.................................................................................................2-2 1919 Aeronautical Commission of the Paris Peace Conference...................................................................2-2 Convention of the Unification of Certain Rules to International Carriage by Air (Warsaw 1929)...................2-2 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) ..................................................2-3 Part I – Air Navigation ...................................................................................................................................2-4 Part II - The International Civil Aviation Organisation....................................................................................2-8 The Organisation ..........................................................................................................................................2-8 The Assembly ...............................................................................................................................................2-9 Annexes to the Convention...........................................................................................................................2-9 Other International Agreements made at Chicago......................................................................................2-11 The International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services Transit Agreement.............2-11 Supplementary Freedoms...........................................................................................................................2-11 The Convention of Tokyo 1963...................................................................................................................2-12 The Hague Convention of 1970 ..................................................................................................................2-13 The Montreal Convention of 1971...............................................................................................................2-13 Addendum to Chapter 2..............................................................................................................................2-14 Chapter IX - The Council ............................................................................................................................2-17 Chapter X - The Air Navigation Commission...............................................................................................2-19 CHAPTER 3 Other International and European Organisations The International Air Transport Association (IATA).......................................................................................3-1 The Convention of Rome 1933/1952 ............................................................................................................3-1 Commercial Practices and Associated Rules (Leasing)................................................................................3-1 Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators ...........................................................................................3-2 Leasing of Aeroplanes Between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator......................3-2 Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice..........................................................................................................3-3 European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) ................................................................................................3-3 ECAC Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................3-3 Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).....................................................................................................................3-3 JAA Organisation..........................................................................................................................................3-3 Functions of JAA...........................................................................................................................................3-4 Organisation and Procedures .......................................................................................................................3-4 JAA/FAA Harmonisation ...............................................................................................................................3-5 Eurocontrol....................................................................................................................................................3-5
  • 7. Table of Contents viii Air Law CHAPTER 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 JAR-FCL ...................................................................................................................................................... 4-1 Licensing Requirements and Regulations.................................................................................................... 4-2 Specific Requirements for Licence Issue PPL(A)......................................................................................... 4-3 ATPL(A) Experience .................................................................................................................................... 4-5 CPL(A) Experience ...................................................................................................................................... 4-5 Instructor Ratings......................................................................................................................................... 4-6 Examiners (Aeroplane) ................................................................................................................................ 4-6 Class and Type Ratings............................................................................................................................... 4-7 Instrument Rating (IR(A)) ............................................................................................................................. 4-8 Recent Experience....................................................................................................................................... 4-9 Curtailment of Privileges of Licence Holders Aged 60 Years or More.......................................................... 4-9 Medical Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 4-10 JAA Theoretical Knowledge Examinations for ATPL (A)............................................................................ 4-12 CHAPTER 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Nationality, Common, and Registration Marks ............................................................................................. 5-1 Location of Nationality, Common, and Registration Marks........................................................................... 5-2 Registration of Aircraft.................................................................................................................................. 5-3 CHAPTER 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 6-1 Certificate of Airworthiness .......................................................................................................................... 6-1 CHAPTER 7 Rules of the Air Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 7-1 General Rules .............................................................................................................................................. 7-2 Negligent or Reckless Operation of Aircraft ................................................................................................. 7-2 Minimum Heights ......................................................................................................................................... 7-2 Cruising Levels............................................................................................................................................. 7-2 Prohibited and Restricted Areas................................................................................................................... 7-2 Avoidance of Collisions................................................................................................................................ 7-2 Simulated Instrument Flight (SIF)................................................................................................................. 7-7 Flight Plans .................................................................................................................................................. 7-7 Communications ........................................................................................................................................ 7-10 Visual Flight Rules (VFR)........................................................................................................................... 7-12 Instrument Flight Rules .............................................................................................................................. 7-14 Rules Applicable to IFR Flights within Controlled Airspace........................................................................ 7-15 IFR Flight Levels ........................................................................................................................................ 7-15 Rules Applicable to IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace..................................................................... 7-15 Communications ........................................................................................................................................ 7-16 Position Reports......................................................................................................................................... 7-16 Special VFR (SVFR) .................................................................................................................................. 7-16 Cruising Levels........................................................................................................................................... 7-17 Table of Cruising Levels............................................................................................................................. 7-20 Appendix 1 to Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................................ 7-22 Signals for Use in the Event of Interception ............................................................................................... 7-22
  • 8. Table of Contents Air Law ix CHAPTER 8 Signals Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................8-1 Emergency Signals .......................................................................................................................................8-1 Aerodrome Signals .......................................................................................................................................8-2 Acknowledgement.........................................................................................................................................8-2 Visual Ground Signals ..................................................................................................................................8-3 Signals from the Pilot of an Aircraft to a Marshaller ......................................................................................8-8 CHAPTER 9 Altimeter Setting Procedures Expression of Vertical Position......................................................................................................................9-1 Transition ......................................................................................................................................................9-2 Use of QNH or QFE......................................................................................................................................9-3 Flight Planning ..............................................................................................................................................9-4 CHAPTER 10 Instrument Procedures Introduction .................................................................................................................................................10-1 Publications.................................................................................................................................................10-1 Obstacle Clearance ....................................................................................................................................10-2 Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................................................10-2 Departure Procedures.................................................................................................................................10-2 The Instrument Departure Procedure .........................................................................................................10-3 Establishment of a Departure Procedure ....................................................................................................10-3 Standard Instrument Departures.................................................................................................................10-5 Contingency Procedures.............................................................................................................................10-6 Published Information .................................................................................................................................10-8 Airways Departure Routes (SID Charts) .....................................................................................................10-8 The Instrument Approach Procedure........................................................................................................10-13 Obstacle Clearance ..................................................................................................................................10-15 Accuracy of Fixes......................................................................................................................................10-21 Descent Gradient......................................................................................................................................10-24 Approach Segments .................................................................................................................................10-24 Standard Arrivals Routes (STARS)...........................................................................................................10-24 Missed Approach ......................................................................................................................................10-28 Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) VM(C)A in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome...................................................10-30 Published Information ...............................................................................................................................10-31 Holding Procedures ..................................................................................................................................10-36 Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways ............................................10-42 CHAPTER 11 Aeronautical Information Service Introduction .................................................................................................................................................11-1 Responsibilities and Function .....................................................................................................................11-1 The Integrated Aeronautical Information Package (IAIP)............................................................................11-1 Prohibited, Restricted, and Danger Areas...................................................................................................11-2 NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) .........................................................................................................................11-3 Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC) .........................................................................11-6 Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC).....................................................................................................11-7 Pre-Flight and Post Flight Information.........................................................................................................11-8 Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP)..................................................................................................11-8 Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) ..............................................................................11-9
  • 9. Table of Contents x Air Law CHAPTER 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 12-1 Objective of the Air Traffic Services (ATS)................................................................................................. 12-1 Divisions of the Air Traffic Services............................................................................................................ 12-2 Determination of the need for Air Traffic Services...................................................................................... 12-2 Classes of Airspace ................................................................................................................................... 12-2 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) .................................................................................................. 12-5 Units Providing Air Traffic Services............................................................................................................ 12-5 Flight Information Regions (FIRs) .............................................................................................................. 12-6 Control Areas ............................................................................................................................................. 12-6 Flight Information Regions or Control Areas in the Upper Airspace........................................................... 12-7 Control Zones............................................................................................................................................. 12-7 Service to Aircraft in the event of Emergency .......................................................................................... 12-10 Time in Air Traffic Services ...................................................................................................................... 12-10 ATS Route Designators ........................................................................................................................... 12-10 Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR)............................................................................................................. 12-14 Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS – Airborne; TCAS – Traffic) ........................................................... 12-15 Use of ACAS/TCAS Indications ............................................................................................................... 12-15 CHAPTER 13 Air Traffic Control Services Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 13-1 Air Traffic Control Service .......................................................................................................................... 13-1 Operation of Air Traffic Control Service...................................................................................................... 13-3 Emergency and Communication Failure .................................................................................................... 13-8 CHAPTER 14 Flight Information Service (FIS) Application ................................................................................................................................................. 14-1 What is provided by a FIS .......................................................................................................................... 14-1 Operational Flight Information Service Broadcasts (OFIS) ........................................................................ 14-2 CHAPTER 15 Aerodrome Control Service Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 15-1 Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ) ................................................................................................................... 15-1 Functions of Aerodrome Control Towers.................................................................................................... 15-2 Traffic and Taxi Circuits ............................................................................................................................. 15-2 Information to Aircraft by Aerodrome Control Towers ................................................................................ 15-5 Control of Aerodrome Traffic...................................................................................................................... 15-6 Control of other than Aircraft Traffic on the Manoeuvring Area .................................................................. 15-7 Control of Traffic in the Traffic Circuit......................................................................................................... 15-7 Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft and Increased Longitudinal Separation Minima.................... 15-9
  • 10. Table of Contents Air Law xi CHAPTER 16 Approach Control Service Introduction .................................................................................................................................................16-1 Departures ..................................................................................................................................................16-1 Arrivals........................................................................................................................................................16-2 Approach Sequence (Stacking) ..................................................................................................................16-4 Information for Arriving Aircraft ...................................................................................................................16-6 CHAPTER 17 Area Control Service Introduction .................................................................................................................................................17-1 Separation...................................................................................................................................................17-2 Vertical Separation......................................................................................................................................17-2 Horizontal Separation .................................................................................................................................17-3 Lateral Separation.......................................................................................................................................17-4 Longitudinal Separation ..............................................................................................................................17-6 Reduced Separation Minima.....................................................................................................................17-14 CHAPTER 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service Introduction .................................................................................................................................................18-1 Objective and Basic Principles....................................................................................................................18-1 Operation ....................................................................................................................................................18-1 Aircraft Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service.............................................................................................18-2 Aircraft Not Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service......................................................................................18-2 Air Traffic Services Units.............................................................................................................................18-2 CHAPTER 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Introduction .................................................................................................................................................19-1 Radar Coverage..........................................................................................................................................19-1 Identification of Aircraft ...............................................................................................................................19-3 SSR Identification Procedures ....................................................................................................................19-3 PSR Identification Procedures ....................................................................................................................19-3 Position Information ....................................................................................................................................19-4 Radar Vectoring..........................................................................................................................................19-4 Use of Radar in the Air Traffic Control Service ...........................................................................................19-7 Radar Separation Minima ...........................................................................................................................19-7 Emergencies, Hazards, and Equipment Failures........................................................................................19-9 Use of Radar in the Approach Control Service ...........................................................................................19-9 Radar Approaches....................................................................................................................................19-11 Use of Radar in Aerodrome Control..........................................................................................................19-12 CHAPTER 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar Introduction .................................................................................................................................................20-1 Operation of Transponders .........................................................................................................................20-2 Emergency Procedures ..............................................................................................................................20-3 Communication Failure Procedures............................................................................................................20-3 Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight.................................................................................................20-3 Phraseology................................................................................................................................................20-3
  • 11. Table of Contents xii Air Law CHAPTER 21 The Alerting Service Alerting Service.......................................................................................................................................... 21-1 Phases of the Alerting Procedure............................................................................................................... 21-2 Format of Notification of Declaration.......................................................................................................... 21-3 Additional Information for the RCC............................................................................................................. 21-3 Information to Aircraft Operating In the Vicinity of an Aircraft in a State of Emergency.............................. 21-3 Unlawful Interference ................................................................................................................................. 21-3 CHAPTER 22 Search and Rescue Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 22-1 Organisation............................................................................................................................................... 22-1 Operating Procedures................................................................................................................................ 22-2 Search and Rescue Signals....................................................................................................................... 22-4 Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units ................................................................................................. 22-6 Air-To-Ground Signals ............................................................................................................................... 22-6 CHAPTER 23 Aerodromes Annex 14.................................................................................................................................................... 23-1 Types of Aerodrome................................................................................................................................... 23-1 Parts of an Aerodrome............................................................................................................................... 23-1 Aerodrome Reference Code ...................................................................................................................... 23-1 Aeronautical Data....................................................................................................................................... 23-2 Runways .................................................................................................................................................... 23-5 Taxiways .................................................................................................................................................... 23-7 Taxiway Curve ........................................................................................................................................... 23-9 Holding Bays, Taxi Holding Positions......................................................................................................... 23-9 Aprons...................................................................................................................................................... 23-10 Visual Aids for Navigation ........................................................................................................................ 23-10 Markings .................................................................................................................................................. 23-11 Runway Markings..................................................................................................................................... 23-11 Runway Centre Line Marking................................................................................................................... 23-12 Threshold Markings.................................................................................................................................. 23-12 Displaced Threshold Marking................................................................................................................... 23-13 Aiming Point Marking ............................................................................................................................... 23-14 Touchdown Zone Marking........................................................................................................................ 23-14 Runway Side Stripe.................................................................................................................................. 23-16 Taxiway Markings .................................................................................................................................... 23-16 Taxiway Centre Line Marking................................................................................................................... 23-16 Runway Holding Position Marking............................................................................................................ 23-16 Taxiway Intersection Marking................................................................................................................... 23-17 VOR Aerodrome Check-Point Marking .................................................................................................... 23-18 Aircraft Stand Markings............................................................................................................................ 23-19 Apron Safety Lines................................................................................................................................... 23-19 Information Markings................................................................................................................................ 23-19 Signs ...................................................................................................................................................... 23-19 Markers .................................................................................................................................................... 23-23 Aerodrome Lighting.................................................................................................................................. 23-24 Approach Lighting Systems ..................................................................................................................... 23-25 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI and Abbreviated PAPI) ........................................................... 23-32 Minimum Eye Height (MEHT)................................................................................................................... 23-33
  • 12. Table of Contents Air Law xiii Runway Lights ..........................................................................................................................................23-34 Taxiway Lighting .......................................................................................................................................23-34 Obstacles..................................................................................................................................................23-38 Marking of Vehicles...................................................................................................................................23-40 Emergency Vehicles .................................................................................................................................23-40 Emergency Services .................................................................................................................................23-40 Bird Hazard...............................................................................................................................................23-40 CHAPTER 24 Aviation Security General .......................................................................................................................................................24-1 Aims and Objectives ...................................................................................................................................24-1 National Organisation .................................................................................................................................24-1 International Co-Operation..........................................................................................................................24-1 Preventative Security Measures .................................................................................................................24-2 Carriage of Legal Weapons ........................................................................................................................24-2 Pre-Flight Checks .......................................................................................................................................24-2 Measures Related to Passengers and their Cabin Baggage ......................................................................24-2 Missing Passengers....................................................................................................................................24-2 Measures Relating to Access Control .........................................................................................................24-2 Management of Response to Acts of Unlawful Interference .......................................................................24-3 Flight Deck Door .........................................................................................................................................24-3 Training Programmes .................................................................................................................................24-3 Isolated Aircraft Parking Position ................................................................................................................24-3 CHAPTER 25 Aircraft Accident Investigation Introduction .................................................................................................................................................25-1 Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................25-1 Objective of the Investigation......................................................................................................................25-2 Protection of Evidence, Custody, and Removal of Aircraft..........................................................................25-2 Request from State of Registry or State of Operator ..................................................................................25-2 Request from State of Design or State of Manufacturer .............................................................................25-3 Notification for Accidents or Serious Incidents............................................................................................25-3 Reports .......................................................................................................................................................25-4 CHAPTER 26 Facilitation Introduction .................................................................................................................................................26-1 Entry and Departure of Aircraft ...................................................................................................................26-1 Entry and Departure of Persons and their Baggage ...................................................................................26-3 Departure Requirements and Procedures ..................................................................................................26-4 Inadmissible Passengers, Deportees and Persons in Custody...................................................................26-4 CHAPTER 27 National Law Introduction .................................................................................................................................................27-1 The Law of the UK ......................................................................................................................................27-1 Major UK Differences..................................................................................................................................27-1 Royal Flights ...............................................................................................................................................27-3 Military Aerodrome Traffic Zones (MATZ)...................................................................................................27-3
  • 13. Table of Contents xiv Air Law
  • 14. Air Law 1-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter of Aviation Law contains two sections and is intended for use with all the course material provided: SECTION 1 — COMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE JAA CENTRAL QUESTION BANK A A Ampere ALT Altitude ABM Abeam ALTN Alternate ABN Aerodrome beacon APCH Approach AC Alternating current APT Airport AC Altocumulus APU Auxiliary power unit ACAS Airborne collision avoidance system ARR Arrival ACFT Aircraft AS Altostratus ACT Active ASDA Accelerate stop distance available AD Aerodrome AMSL Above mean sea level ADC Air data computer ATA Actual time of arrival ADDN Additional ATC Air traffic control ADF Automatic direction finding ATIS Automatic terminal information service ADI Attitude director indicator ATO Actual time overhead AEO All engines operating ATS Air traffic services AFIS Aerodrome flight information service AUX Auxiliary AFM Aircraft flight manual AVG Average AGL Above ground level AWY Airway AIP Aeronautical Information Publication AZM Azimuth B BKN Broken BRG Bearing C ºC Degrees Celsius CI Cirrus CAS Calibrated air speed CL Lift coefficient CAT Clear air turbulence Cm Centimetre CB Cumulonimbus CO Communications CC Cirrocumulus CP Critical point CD Drag coefficient CRM Crew resource management CDI Course direction indicator CS Cirrostratus CDU Control display unit CTR Control zone cg Centre of gravity CU Cumulus CWY Clearway
  • 15. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-2 D DA Decision altitude DG Directional gyroscope DC Direct current DH Decision height DEG Degrees DIST Distance DEP Departure DME Distance measuring equipment DES Descent DP Dew point DEST Destination DR Dead reckoning DEV Deviation DVOR Doppler VOR D/F Direction finding E E East EICAS Engine indicator and crew alerting system EAS Equivalent airspeed EOBT Estimated off blocks time EAT Expected approach time EPR Engine pressure ratio ECAM Engine condition aircraft monitoring EST Estimated EFIS Electronic flight instrument system ETA Estimated time of arrival EGT Exhaust gas temperature ETO Estimated time overhead F º F Degrees Fahrenheit FL Flight level FAF Final approach fix FLT Flight FCST Forecast FMS Flight management system FD Flight director FT Feet FIS Flight information system FT/MIN Feet per minute FIS Flight Information Service G G Gramme GP Glide path GAL Gallons GPWS Ground proximity warning system GND Ground GS Ground speed H HDG Heading HSI Horizontal situation indicator HF High frequency HT Height hPa Hectopascal Hz Hertz HR Hours I IAS Indicated airspeed INT Intersection ILS Instrument landing system ISA International standard atmosphere IMC Instrument meteorological conditions ISOL Isolated IMP GAL Imperial gallons ITCZ Inter-tropical convergence zone INS Inertial navigation systems IVSI Instantaneous vertical speed indicator J J Joule
  • 16. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-3 K kg Kilogramme kt Knot kHz Kilohertz kW Kilowatt km Kilometre L LAT Latitude LMT Local mean time LB Pounds LONG Longitude LDG Landing LT Local time LDP Landing decision point LTD Limited LEN Length LVL Level LLZ Localiser (Localizer) LYR Layer LMC Last minute change M m Metre MLS Microwave landing system M Mass MM Middle marker M Mach Number MNM Minimum MAC Mean aerodynamic chord MAP Manifold pressure MNPS Minimum navigation performance specification MAPt Missed approach point MOCA Minimum obstruction clearance altitude max Maximum MORA Minimum off route altitude MDH Minimum descent height MPH Miles per hour MDH/A Minimum descent height/altitude MPS, mps Metres per second MEA Minimum enroute altitude MSA Minimum sector altitude MET Meteorological MSL Mean sea level MIN Minutes MSU Mode selector unit N N Newton NDB Non-directional beacon NGT Night NM Nautical miles N North NOTAM Notice to airmen NAT North Atlantic track NS Nimbostratus NAV Navigation O OAT Outside air temperature OM Operating mass OBS Omni bearing selector OM Outer marker OCA(H) Obstacle clearance altitude (height) OPS Operations OCL Obstacle clearance limit O/R On request OEI One engine inoperative OVC Overcast P P Pressure POS Position PAX Passenger PSI Pounds per square inch PET Point of equal time PSR Point of Safe Return PIC Pilot in command PTS Polar track structure PLN Flight plan PWR Power PNR Point of no return
  • 17. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-4 R r Radius RNAV Area Navigation RAC Rules of the air and air traffic services ROC Rate of climb RAS Rectified airspeed ROD Rate of descent REP Reporting point RVR Runway visual range RMI Remote magnetic indicator RWY Runway RMK Remark S S South SR Sunrise SAR Search and rescue SS Sunset SARPs Standards and Recommended Practices SSR Secondary surveillance radar SC Stratocumulus ST Stratus SCT Scattered STAR Standard arrival route SDBY Standby STD Standard SEC Seconds STN Station SEV Severe STNR Stationary SFC Surface STS Status SID Standard instrument departure SVFR Special VFR SIM Simulator SWY Stop way SKC Sky clear T T Temperature THR Threshold TA Transition altitude TL Transition level TAS True airspeed T/O Take-off TAT Total air temperature TOC Top of climb TC Tropical cyclone TORA Take off run available TCAS Traffic collision avoidance system TS Thunderstorm TDP Take-off decision point TWY Taxiway U U/S Unserviceable UTC Co-ordinated universal time US-GAL US gallons V V Volt VSI Vertical speed indicator VAR Magnetic variation VV Vertical visibility VDF VHF direction finding station VA Design manoeuvring speed VG Vertical gyro VB Design speed for max gust intensity VHF Very high frequency VC/MC Design cruise speed / Mach number VIS Visibility VD Design dive speed VLF Very low frequency VF Design flap speed VMC Visual meteorological conditions VFE Flap extended speed VOLMET Meteorological information for aircraft in flight VFO Flap operating speed VOR VHF omni directional range VLE Landing gear extended speed vrb Variable VLO Maximum landing gear operating speed
  • 18. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-5 VLOF Lift off speed VR Rotating speed VMAX TYRE Maximum tyre speed VREF Landing reference speed VMBE Maximum break energy speed VS Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed at which the aeroplane is controllable VMC Minimum control speed VSO Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in landing configuration VMCA Air minimum control speed VS1 Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed obtained in best configuration VMCG Ground minimum control speed VX Speed for best angle of climb VMO/MMO Maximum operating limit speed / Maximum Mach number VY Speed for best rate of climb VMU Minimum un-stick speed V1 Critical engine failure speed VNE Never exceed speed V2 Take-off safety speed for piston engine aircraft VNO Normal operating speed W W Watt W/V Wind velocity W West WPT Way point WC Wind component WS Wind shear WCA Wind correction angle WX Weather X X Cross XX Heavy XTK Cross track Y YD Yard Z
  • 19. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-6 SECTION 2 — ICAO DEFINITIONS The following definitions are from the ICAO Annexes. The learning objectives for 010 Air Law require that the student is able to recall definitions from a given list. Do not memorise this list. By the time you complete the course, you will be able to define all the definitions necessary to pass the examination. Accepting Unit — ATCU next to take control of an aircraft. Accident — An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight, until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of: being in the aircraft, or direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or direct exposure to jet blast except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew, or the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which: adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; or for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin, or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. Note: An injury resulting in death within 30 days of the date of the accident is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO. Note: An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located. Advisory Airspace — Airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which air traffic advisory service is available. Advisory Route — A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available. Aerodrome — A defined area of land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of aircraft. Aerodrome Beacon — Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.
  • 20. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-7 Aerodrome Control Service — Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic. Aerodrome Control Tower — A unit established to provide air traffic control service. Aerodrome Elevation — The elevation of the highest point of the landing area. Aerodrome Identification Sign — A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying the aerodrome from the air. Aerodrome Operating Minima — The limits of usability of an aerodrome for: Take-off, expressed in terms of RVR and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions Landing in precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR and DA/DH, as appropriate to the category of the operation, and Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR, MDA/MDH and, if necessary, cloud conditions. Aerodrome Reference Field Length — The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air, and zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. Field length means balanced field length for aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases. Aerodrome Reference Point — The designated geographical location of the aerodrome. Aerodrome Taxi Circuit — The specified path of aircraft on the manoeuvring area during specific wind conditions. Aerodrome Traffic — All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all traffic flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome. Note: An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering, or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit. Aerodrome Traffic Zone — Airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic. Aeronautical Beacon — An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth. Aeronautical Ground Light — Any light specifically provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft. Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) — A notice containing information that does not qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the AlP, but which relates to flight safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters. Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) — A publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.
  • 21. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-8 Aeronautical Mobile Service — A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate; emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency frequencies. Aeronautical Station — A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea. Aeronautical Telecommunication Station — A station in the aeronautical telecommunication service. Aeroplane — A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. AIP Amendment — Permanent changes to the information contained in the AIP. AIP Supplement — Temporary changes to the information contained in the AIP that are published by means of special pages. AIRAC — An acronym (Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control) signifying a system aimed at advance notification based on common dates, of circumstances that necessitate significant changes in operating practices Air-Ground Communication — Two-way communication between aircraft and stations, or locations, on the surface of the earth. Air Report — A report from an aircraft in flight prepared in conformity with requirements for position, and operational and/or meteorological reporting. Air Traffic — All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome. Air Traffic Advisory Service — A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure separation, in so far as practical between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans. Air Traffic Control Clearance — Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. Note: For convenience the term “Air Traffic Control Clearance” is frequently abbreviated to “Clearance” when used in appropriate contexts. Note: The abbreviated term “Clearance” may be prefixed by the words “Taxi”, “Take-off”, “Departure”, “Enroute”, “Approach”, or "Landing” to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the Air Traffic Control Clearance relates. Air Traffic Control Instruction — Directives issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot to take a specific action.
  • 22. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-9 Air Traffic Control Service — A service provided for the purpose of: Preventing collisions between aircraft, and, On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. Air Traffic Control Unit — A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach control office, or aerodrome control tower. Air Traffic Service — A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service, or air traffic control service (area control service, approach control service, or aerodrome control service). Air Traffic Services Airspaces — Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetically designated, within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of operation are specified. Note: ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G Air Traffic Services Reporting Office — A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure. Note: An Air Traffic Services reporting office may be established as a separate unit or combined with an existing unit, such as another Air Traffic Services Unit, or a unit of the Aeronautical Information Service. Air Traffic Services Unit — A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight information centre, or air traffic services reporting office. Aircraft — Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface. Aircraft Category — Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics (e.g. aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon). Aircraft Certified For Single-Pilot Operation — A type of aircraft that the State of Registry has determined, during the certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew of one pilot. Aircraft Equipment — Articles, other than stores and spare parts of a removable nature, for use on board an aircraft during flight, including first aid and survival equipment. Aircraft Identification — A group of letters, figures, or a combination thereof which is either identical to, or the coded equivalent of, the aircraft callsign to be used in air-ground communications, and which is used to identify the aircraft in ground-ground ATS communications. Aircraft Observation — The evaluation of one or more meteorological elements made from an aircraft in flight.
  • 23. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-10 Aircraft Proximity — A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or ATS personnel, the distance between aircraft, as well as their relative positions and speed, have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised. Aircraft proximity is classified as follows: Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which serious risk of collision has existed. Safety Not Assured — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised. No Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which no risk of collision has existed. Risk Not Determined — The risk classification of aircraft proximity in which insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination. Aircraft Stand — A designated area on an apron intended for parking aircraft. Aircraft Type — All aircraft of the same basic design, including all modifications thereto, except those modifications which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics. AIRMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena that may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations and which was not already included in the forecast issued for low-level flights in the FIR concerned or sub-area thereof. Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) — An aircraft system based on SSR transponder signals that operates independently of ground based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders. Airline — As provided in Article 96 of the Convention, any air transport enterprise offering or operating a scheduled international air service. AIRPROX — The code word used in an air traffic incident report to designate aircraft proximity. Airway — A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with radio navigation aids. ALERFA — The code word used to designate an alert phase. Alert Phase — A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants. Alerting Service — A service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organisations as required.
  • 24. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-11 Alternate Aerodrome — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following: Take-off Alternate — An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure. Enroute Alternate — An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while enroute. Destination Alternate — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an enroute or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight. Altitude — The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point measured from mean sea level (MSL). Approach Control Office — A unit established to provide ATC service to controlled flights arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes. Approach Control Service — ATC service for arriving or departing controlled flights. Appropriate ATS Authority — The relevant authority designated by the state responsible for providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned. Appropriate Authority Regarding flight over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state of registry. Regarding flight other than over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state having sovereignty over the territory being over flown. Apron — A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail, or cargo, fuelling, parking, or maintenance. Apron Management Service — A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on an apron. Area Control Centre — A unit established to provide Air Traffic Control Service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. Area Control Service — Air Traffic Control Service for controlled flight in Control Areas. Area Navigation (RNAV) — A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of the station referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self contained aids, or a combination of these.
  • 25. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-12 Area Navigation Route — An ATS route established for the use of aircraft capable of employing area navigation. ATIS — The symbol used to designate automatic terminal information service. ATS Route — A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services. Note: The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) — A surveillance technique in which aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data derived from on board navigation and position fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four dimensional position, and additional data as appropriate. Automatic Terminal Information Service — The provision of current, routine information to arriving and departing aircraft by means of a continuous and repetitive broadcast throughout the day, or a specified portion of the day. Baggage — Personal property of passengers or crew carried on an aircraft by agreement with the operator. Barrette — Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a traverse line so that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light. Base Turn — A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. The tracks are not reciprocal. Note: Base turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure. Blind Transmission — A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances where two-way communication cannot be established, but where it is believed the called station is able to receive the transmission. Broadcast — A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed to a specific station or stations. Cargo — Any property carried on an aircraft other than mail, stores, and accompanied or mishandled baggage. Ceiling — The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 metres (20 000 ft) covering more than half the sky. Certify as Airworthy (to) — To certify that an aircraft or parts thereof comply with current airworthiness requirements after maintenance has been performed on the aircraft or parts thereof.
  • 26. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-13 Change-over Point — The point at which an aircraft navigating over an ATS route segment, defined by reference to very high frequency omni directional radio ranges, is expected to transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft. Note: Change-over points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the same portion of a route segment. Circling Approach — An extension of an instrument approach procedure which provides for visual circling of the aerodrome prior to landing. Clearance Limit — The point to which an aircraft is granted an Air Traffic Control Clearance. Clearway — A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. Code (SSR) — The number assigned to a particular multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by a transponder in Mode A or Mode C. Commercial Air Transport Operation — An aircraft operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire. Configuration (as applied to the aeroplane) — A particular combination of the positions of the moveable elements, such as wing flaps, landing gear etc, which affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the aeroplane. Control Area — A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth. Controlled Aerodrome — An aerodrome at which Air Traffic Control Service is provided to aerodrome traffic. Note: The term “Controlled Aerodrome” indicates that Air Traffic Control Service is provided to Aerodrome Traffic, but does not necessarily imply that a Control Zone exists. Controlled Airspace — An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Class A, B, C, D, and E. Controlled Flight — Any flight which is subject to an Air Traffic Control Clearance. Control Zone — A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified upper limit.
  • 27. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-14 Co-Pilot — A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as PIC, but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction. Crew Member — A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during flight time. Critical Power Unit(s) — The power unit(s) failure of which gives the most adverse effect on the aircraft characteristics relative to the case under consideration. Cruise Climb — An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the aeroplane mass decreases. Cruising Level — A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. Current Flight Plan — The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances. Danger Area — An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. Dead Reckoning (DR) Navigation — The estimating or determining of position by advancing an earlier known position by the application of direction, time, and speed data. Decision Altitude (DA) or Decision Height (DH) — A specified altitude or height in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. Note: DA is referenced to mean sea level, DH is referenced to threshold elevation Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the desired flight path. In Category III operations with a DH the required visual reference is that specified for the particular procedure and operation. Declared Distances Take-Off Run Available (TORA) — The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aircraft. Take-Off Distance Available (TODA) — The length of the take-off run available, plus the length of the clearway, if provided. Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) — The length of the take-off run available, plus the length of the stopway, if provided. Landing Distance Available (LDA) — The length of the runway that is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
  • 28. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-15 Dependent Parallel Approaches — Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are prescribed. Design Landing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which, for structural design purposes, it is assumed that it will be planned to land. Design Take-off Mass — The maximum mass at which the aircraft, for structural design purposes, is assumed to be planned to be at the start of the take-off run. Design Taxiing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which structural provision is made for load liable to occur during use of the aircraft on the ground prior to the start of take-off. DETRESFA — The code word used to designate a distress phase. Displaced Threshold — A threshold not located at the extremity of the runway. Distress Phase — A situation wherein there is a reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance. DME Distance — The line of sight distance (slant range) from the source of a DME signal to the receiving antenna. Dual Instruction Time — Flight time, during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorised pilot on board the aircraft. Elevation — The vertical distance of a point on or affixed to the surface of the earth, measured from mean sea level. Emergency Phase — A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert phase, or distress phase. Estimated Elapsed Time — The estimated time to fly from one significant point to another. Estimated Off-Blocks Time — The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence movement associated with departure. Estimated Time of Arrival — For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. For VFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. Expected Approach Time — The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing. Note: The actual time of leaving the holding point will depend upon the approach clearance.
  • 29. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-16 Filed Flight Plan — The flight plan, as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated representative, without any subsequent changes. Final Approach — That part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at the specified final approach fix or point, or where such a fix or point is not specified: At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if specified, or At the point of interception of the last track specified in the approach procedure, and ends at a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which: A landing can be made, or A missed approach procedure is initiated Final Approach and Take-Off Area (FATO) — A defined area over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to landing is completed and from which the take-off manoeuvre is commenced. Final Approach Segment — The segment of an instrument runway procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. Fixed Light — A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point. Flight Crew Member — A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time. Flight Information Centre — A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service. Flight Information Region — An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. Flight Information Service — A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful to the safe and effective conduct of flights. Flight Level — A surface of constant atmospheric pressure, which is related to a specific pressure datum, (1013.2 Hectopascals (hPa)) and is separated from other surfaces by specific pressure intervals. Note: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard Atmosphere: When set to a QNH — altimeter setting indicates altitude When set to a QFE — altimeter setting indicates height above the QFE reference datum When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa — altimeter can be used to indicate flight levels. Note: The terms “height” and “altitude” used in the above note, indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes.
  • 30. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-17 Flight Plan — Specified information provided to Air Traffic Services Units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. Flight Procedures Trainer — See Synthetic Flight Trainer. Flight Recorder — Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation. Flight Simulator — See Synthetic Flight Trainer. Flight Time — The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power for the purpose of taking-off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight. Note: Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the term “block to block” time or “chock to chock” time in general usage which is measured from the time an aircraft moves from the loading point until it stops at the unloading point. Flight Manual — A manual associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft. Flight Visibility — The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. Flow Control — Measures designed to adjust the flow of traffic into a given airspace, along a given route, or bound for a given aerodrome, so as to ensure the most effective utilization of the airspace. Forecast — A statement of expected meteorological conditions for a specified time or period, and for a specified area or portion of airspace. Frangible Object — An object of low mass designed to break, distort, or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft. Glide Path — A descent profile determined for vertical guidance during a final approach. Ground Equipment — Articles of a specialised nature for use in the maintenance, repair, and servicing of an aircraft on the ground, including testing equipment and cargo/passenger-handling equipment. Ground Visibility — The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer. Hazard Beacon — An aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation. Heading — The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, compass, or grid). Heavier-than-air Aircraft — Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces.
  • 31. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-18 Height — The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum, other than mean sea level (MSL). Heliport — An aerodrome, or a defined area on a structure, intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of helicopters. Holding Bay — A defined area where aircraft can be held, or bypassed, to facilitate efficient surface movement of aircraft. Holding Point — A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with ATC clearances. Holding Procedure — A pre-determined manoeuvre that keeps an aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance. Identification Beacon — An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal by means of which a particular point of reference can be identified. IFR — The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules. IFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with instrument flight rules. IMC — The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions. INCERFA — The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase. Incident — An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects, or could affect, the safety of operation Initial Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure between the initial approach fix and the intermediate approach fix or, where applicable, the final approach fix or point, Instrument Approach Procedure — A series of pre-determined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed to a position at which holding or enroute obstacle clearance criteria apply. Instrument Flight Time — Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points, Instrument Ground Time — Time during which a pilot is practising, on the ground, simulated instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer approved by the licensing authority, Instrument Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions. Note: The specified minima for VMC are contained within the Aviation Law Notes.
  • 32. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-19 Instrument Runway — One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures: Non-Precision Approach Runway — An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach. Precision Approach Runway, Category I — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m, or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. Precision Approach Runway, Category II — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and with visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than 350 m. Precision Approach Runway, Category III — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS to and along the surface of the runway and: CAT IIIA — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than 200 m. CAT IIIB — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m (JAR-OPS: 75 m). CAT IIIC — Intended for operations with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. Instrument Time — Instrument flight time or instrument ground time. Integrated Aeronautical Information Package — A package which consists of the following elements: AIP, including the AIP Amendment service. Supplements to the AIP. NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB). AIC. Checklists and summaries. Intermediate Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure between either: The intermediate approach fix and the final approach fix or point, or Between the end of a reversal, racetrack or DR track procedure and the final approach fix or point.
  • 33. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-20 International Airport — Any airport designated by the Contracting State in whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, where the formalities incident to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine, and similar procedures are carried out. International NOTAM Office — An office designated by a State for the exchange of NOTAM internationally. Investigation — A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention that includes the gathering and analysis of information for the drawing of conclusions, including the determination of causes, and when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations. Landing Area — That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. Landing Direction Indicator — A device to indicate visually the direction currently designated for landing and for take-off. Landing Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a particular direction. Level — A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight, and meaning variously, height, altitude, or flight level. Location Indicator — A four letter code group formulated in accordance with rules prescribed by ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed station. Maintenance — Tasks required ensuring the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including any one or combination of: overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification, or defect rectification. Manoeuvring Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing, and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons. Marker — An object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary. Marking — A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area in order to convey aeronautical information. Maximum Mass — Maximum certificated take-off mass. Medical Assessment — The evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder meets specific requirements of medical fitness. It is issued following an evaluation by the licensing authority of the report submitted by the designated medical examiner who conducted the examination of the applicant for the licence. Meteorological Office — An office designated to provide a meteorological service for international air navigation.
  • 34. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-21 Meteorological Information — A meteorological report, analysis, forecast, and any other statement relating to existing or expected meteorological conditions. Meteorological Report — A statement of observed meteorological conditions related to a specified time and location. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) — A specified altitude or height in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference. Note: MDA is referenced to mean sea level and MDH is referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. A MDH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation. Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area that should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to make an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the desired flight path. In the case of a circling approach the required visual reference is the runway environment. Minimum Sector Altitude — The lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation. Missed Approach Point (MAPt) — That point in an instrument approach procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed. Missed Approach Procedure — The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be continued. Mode (SSR) — The conventional identifier related to specific functions of the interrogation signals transmitted by an SSR interrogator. Movement Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing, and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the aprons. Non-Instrument Runway — A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures. Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) — Airspace of defined dimensions extending either side of an ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track. Only the inner half of the normal operating zone is taken into account in independent parallel approaches. NOTAM — A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
  • 35. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-22 No-transgression Zone (NTZ) — In the context of independent parallel approaches, a corridor of airspace of defined dimensions located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines, where a penetration by an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach. Obstacle — All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects, or parts thereof that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight. Obstacle Assessment Surface (OAS) — A defined surface intended for the purpose of determining those obstacles to be considered for the calculation of obstacle clearance altitude/height for a specific ILS facility and procedure. Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) — The lowest altitude or the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Note: OCA is referenced to mean sea level and OCH is referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. An OCH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation. Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) — The airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, and balked landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangible mounted one required for air navigation purposes. Operational Control — The exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion, or termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight. Operator — A person, organisation, or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in aircraft operation. Pavement Classification Number (PCN) — A number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operation. Pilot (to) — To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time. Pilot in Command — The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight. Power Unit — A system of one or more engines and ancillary parts that are together necessary to provide thrust, independently of the continued operation of any other power-unit(s), but not including short period thrust producing devices. Precision Approach Procedure — An instrument approach procedure utilizing azimuth and glide path information provided by ILS, MLS, or PAR.
  • 36. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-23 Precision Approach Runway — See Instrument Runway. Pre-flight Information Bulletin (PIB) — A presentation of current NOTAM information of operational significance prepared prior to flight. Pressure Altitude — An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude that corresponds to that pressure in the standard atmosphere. Primary Area — A defined area symmetrically disposed about the nominal flight track in which full obstacle clearance is provided. Primary Radar — A radar system that uses reflected radio signals. Primary Runway(s) — Runway(s) used in preference to others whenever conditions permit. Procedure Turn — A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of the designated track. Note: Procedure turns are designated “left” or “right” according to the direction of the initial turn. Note: Procedure turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure. Prohibited Area — An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. Racetrack Procedure — A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude during the initial approach segment and/or establish the aircraft inbound when the entry into a reversal procedure is not practical. Radar Approach — An approach in which the final approach phase is executed under the direction of a radar controller. Radar Clutter — The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted signals. Radar Contact — The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar display. Radar Control — Term used to indicate that radar derived information is employed directly in the provision of ATC service Radio Direction Finding Station — A radio station intended to determine only the direction of other stations by means of transmissions from the latter. Radar Identification — The situation that exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is seen on a radar display and positively identified by the ATC controller.
  • 37. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-24 Radar Monitoring — The use of radar for the purpose of providing aircraft with information and advice relative to significant deviations from nominal flight path, including deviations from the terms of their ATC clearances. Radar Position Indication (RPI) — The visual indication, in non symbolic and/or symbolic form, on a radar display, of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data derived from primary and/or SSR. Radar Position Symbol (RIPS) — The visual indication, in symbolic form, on a radar display, of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data derived from primary and/or SSR. Radar Separation — The separation used when aircraft position information is derived from radar sources. Radar Service — The term used to indicate a service provided directly by means of radar. Radar Vectoring — Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings, based on the use of radar. Rating — An authorisation entered on or associated with a licence and forming part thereof stating special conditions, privileges, or limitations pertaining to such a licence. Receiving Unit/Controller — ATS unit/ATC controller to which a message is sent. Rendering (a Licence) Valid — The action taken by a Contracting State, as an alternative to issuing its own licence, in accepting a licence issued by any other Contracting State as the equivalent of its own licence. Repetitive Flight Plan — A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS units. Reporting Point — A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) — A statement of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace. Rescue Co-ordination Centre — A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue services and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region. Restricted Area — An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
  • 38. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-25 Reversal Procedure — A procedure designed to enable aircraft to reverse direction during the initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure. The sequence may include procedure turns or base turns. Runway — A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. Runway End Safety Area (RESA) — An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome. Runway Guard Lights — A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an active runway. Runway Strip — A defined area including the runway and stop way, if provided, intended: To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway, and To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations. Runway Visual Range (RVR) — The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. Secondary Area — A defined area on each side of the primary area located along the nominal flight track in which decreasing obstacle clearance is provided. Secondary Radar — A radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted from the radar station initiates the transmission of a radio signal from another station. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) — A surveillance radar system that uses a transmitter receiver system of interrogators and transponders. Serious Incident — An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred. Note: The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result. Serious Injury — An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which: Requires hospitalisation for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from the date the injury was received, or Results in a fracture of any bone (Not simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose), or Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage, or Involves injury to any internal organ, or Involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface, or Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.
  • 39. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-26 Shoulder — An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface. SIGMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations. Signal Area — An area of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals. Significant Point — A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS route or the flight path of an aircraft, and for other navigation and ATS purposes. Slush — Water-saturated snow, which with a heel-and-toe slap down motion against the ground will be displaced with a splatter; Specific Gravity: 0.5 up to 0.8. Snow (On the ground) Dry Snow — Snow that can be blown if loose or, if compacted by hand, will fall apart again upon release: Specific Gravity is up to but not including 0.35. Wet Snow — Snow which, if compacted by hand, will stick together and tend to form a snowball: Specific Gravity is 0.35 up to but not including 0.45. Compacted Snow — Snow that has been compressed into a solid mass that resists further compression and will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up: Specific Gravity is 0.45 and over. SNOWTAM — A special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of hazardous conditions due to snow, slush, and ice on the movement area, by means of a special format. Special VFR Flight — A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC. Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR) — A designated IFR arrival route linking a significant point, normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure can be commenced. Standard Instrument Departure (SID) — A designated IFR departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on a designated ATS route, at which the enroute phase of a flight commences. State of Design — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the type design. State of Manufacture — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the final assembly of the aircraft. State of Occurrence — The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs.
  • 40. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-27 State of the Operator — The State in which the operator’s principal place of business is located or, if there is no such place of business, the operator’s permanent residence. State of Registry — The State on whose register the aircraft is entered. Stopway — A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of TORA prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off. Synthetic Flight Trainer — Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the ground: Flight Simulator — A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical and electrical systems control functions, the normal environment of flight crew members, and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically simulated. Flight Procedures Trainer — A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight deck environment, and which simulates instrument responses, simple control functions of mechanical and electrical systems, and the performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class. Basic Instrument Flight Trainer — A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped with appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions. Take-off Runway — A runway intended for take-off only. Take-off Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a particular direction. Taxi-Holding Position — A designated position at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold position, unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower. Taxiing — The movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing, but including, in the case of helicopters, operation over the surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds associated with taxiing (e.g. air-taxiing).
  • 41. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-28 Taxiway — A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including: Aircraft Stand Taxi Lane — A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only. Apron Taxiway — A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron. Rapid Exit Taxiway — A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designated to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways and thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. Taxiway Intersection — A junction of two or more taxiways. Taxiway Strip — An area including taxiway intended to protect an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the taxiway. Terminal Control Area — A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes. Threshold (THR) — The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing. Total Estimated Elapsed Time — For IFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome. Touchdown — The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway. Touchdown Zone — The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended landing aeroplanes first contact the runway. Track — The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, or grid). Traffic Avoidance Advice — Advice provided by Air Traffic Services Unit specifying manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a collision. Traffic Information — Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic, which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight, and to help the pilot avoid a collision. Transfer of Control Point — A defined point located along the flight path of an aircraft, at which the responsibility for providing ATC service to the aircraft is transferred from one control unit or control position to the next.
  • 42. Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Law 1-29 Transferring Unit — ATCU in the process of transferring the responsibility for providing ATC service to an aircraft to the next ATCU along the route of flight. Transition Altitude — The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to altitudes. Transition Layer — The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level. Transition Level — The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude. Uncertainty Phase — A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants. VFR — The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules. VFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules. Visibility — The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent objects by night. Visual Approach — An approach by an IFR aircraft when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed in visual reference to terrain. Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area — The area in which obstacle clearance should be taken into consideration for aircraft carrying out a circling approach. Visual Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than the specified minima. Note: The specified minima are contained within these notes. VMC — The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions. Way-Point — A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft employing area navigation.
  • 43. Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Air Law1-30
  • 44. Air Law 2-1 BACKGROUND Today, decisions concerning international civil aviation are taken by the member states of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The JAR Aviation Law exam follows the Annexes and other documents of ICAO. These notes are designed to follow the JAR syllabus and are a summary of the reference material. Some of the language is difficult to follow because of the use of the words SHALL and SHOULD. SHALL refers to Standards; SHOULD refers to recommended practices. INTRODUCTION For commercial aviation to operate, it is necessary for states to afford the airlines of other states the right to fly into and across their territory for both traffic and non-traffic purposes. Agreements are necessary to achieve this: Multilateral Agreements or conventions are entered into by a number of different states. The most obvious one to the aviator is the Chicago Convention, from which ICAO was established. Bilateral Agreements are agreements between two states. The two most important of these are the International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services Transit Agreement, discussed later in this chapter. SAFETY International air transport is not just about navigation. The competitive nature of the business could create the obvious temptation to 'cut corners' and increase profit, so strict regulation is required to maintain safety. Over the years, the philosophy of ‘a safe airline is a profitable airline' has evolved. Both Authorities and Operators have embraced safety through a system of international agreements, which have been translated into law in the contracting states. INTERNATIONAL LAW Just as no state has the right to interfere in the internal affairs of another state, no convention has the right to impose rules and regulations. Only the legislative body of a state can make and impose law in that state. So the agreements reached at international conventions have to be translated into national law. If a state accepts the agreement without modification, or after agreed modification, and it becomes national law, the process is known as 'ratification’. Because the text of the agreement is accepted by all states that ratify the agreement, the agreement is then 'international' in nature, and the ensuing law is also 'international'. The principal sources of International Air Law are treaties. They are the international agreements entered into between states. Such treaties or conventions may be multilateral or bilateral.
  • 45. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-2 SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED AIR SERVICES Since the Paris conference in 1919, the need has been recognised for international air services to be organised. Scheduling of flights by route and timing is essential for a successful commercial operation by giving the revenue paying users a reliable timetable and route structure. Within a state, scheduled operations are a matter for the authority of that state, whereas international scheduled operations require the compliance of the authorities of the states concerned. A scheduled air service requires international agreement negotiated at government level. A schedule implies that, once scheduled, the flight will be flown. An operator is not permitted to cancel a flight at short notice due to insufficient passengers. However, persistent low passenger numbers may force a revision or cancellation of the schedule or the combination of schedules (code sharing). Non-scheduled or charter operations are not generally open to the public. Charter operations are subject to international agreement for repetitive operations, whereas non- scheduled operations are 'one-off' and each flight is individually approved. 1919 AERONAUTICAL COMMISSION OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE At the time of the Paris Conference in 1919, the first international scheduled air service began between Croydon and Paris. This convention recognized that every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory, and provided for the innocent passage of civil aircraft of other contracting states over that state’s territory. The conference recommended the creation of an international body to regulate civil aviation, which led to the formation of the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN). The conference also decided that each state should keep a register of aircraft used for commercial purposes. CONVENTION OF THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES TO INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR (WARSAW 1929) This convention, to which 108 states are party, is one of the most widely accepted unifications of private law. It unifies legislation on: Documentation on the carriage of passengers, baggage, and cargo. The financial liability of airlines (operators). The question of jurisdiction, by defining the courts before which any action may be brought. This convention was amended and simplified by the 1955 Hague Protocol. The Montreal Agreement of 1966 further amended the financial liability of operators. The convention lays down uniform rules governing the air carrier's liabilities in respect of passengers and goods. The Warsaw Convention deals only with rights and obligations of contracting carriers and applies to the international carriage of persons, baggage, or cargo performed by aircraft for reward.
  • 46. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-3 PASSENGER TICKET A passenger ticket shall be issued for each flight containing: The place and date of issue. An indication of the place of departure and destination. The agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character. The name and address of the carrier or carriers. A statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to the liability established by this convention usually printed on the ticket jacket. The absence, irregularity, or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall be subject to the rules of the convention. If a carrier accepts a passenger without a ticket, the carrier will not be able to fall back on the provisions of the convention that limit liability. If a carrier issues an 'electronic' ticket, then the provisions of the Warsaw Convention must be communicated by other means. BAGGAGE CHECK For luggage, other than small personal objects that the passengers take themselves, the carrier must issue a luggage ticket. The luggage ticket is made out in duplicate, one for the passenger and the other for the carrier. LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER The Treaty also imposed limitations on the liability of the operator. However, where gross negligence can be proved, the limit of liability is removed. Currently, the limit of liability for death of a passenger is $100 000. 1944 CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION (THE CHICAGO CONVENTION) During the Second World War, the United States Government convened a conference at Chicago in 1944 to determine the future of commercial aviation when the war ended. Such importance was attached to the subject matter that 55 allied and neutral states sent representatives to Chicago. The outcome was the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which is now the fundamental basis for agreement upon which the industry is founded. The 'agreement' is in two parts. The first covers International Air Navigation, and the second covers the organisation that administers the terms and conditions of the agreement. In common with other international conferences, the agreement is laid out in article form, where each individual article stands alone as a definitive statement. You are not required to recall the content of articles by number, but to have a broad understanding of what the agreement contains.
  • 47. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-4 PART I – AIR NAVIGATION Article 1 — Sovereignty The Contracting States recognise that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. Article 2 — Territory For the purposes of this convention, the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection, or mandate of such a State. Suzerainty Is the acceptance by one state of the protection of another state. It has origins in feudal relationships. In aviation, it relates to the acceptance by one state of the regulation of its airspace by another state (e.g. the relationship between France and Monaco. Monaco has no aerodromes and no ATC system and has asked France to administer the control of air traffic over the territory of the State. French law is applied to Monegasque [Monaco] airspace). Article 3 — Civil and State Aircraft This convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft, and not to State aircraft: Aircraft used in military, customs, and police services shall be deemed to be State aircraft. No State aircraft of a Contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or land without authorization by special agreement or otherwise. The Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Article 4 — Misuse of Civil Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this convention. Article 5 — Right of Non-Scheduled Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees that all aircraft of other Contracting States, not engaged in scheduled international air services, shall have the right to make flights into or transit non-stop across its territory and to make stops for non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining prior permission. This is subject to the right of the state flown over, which may require the aircraft to land. Each Contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of safety of flight, to require aircraft desiring to proceed over regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation facilities to follow prescribed routes, or to obtain special permission for such flights. Such aircraft, if engaged on the carriage of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire on other than scheduled international air services, shall also subject to the provisions of Article 7, have the right to take on or discharge passengers, cargo, or mail. This is subject to the right of any State, where such embarkation or discharge takes place, to impose such regulations, conditions, or limitations as it may consider desirable. Article 6 — Scheduled Air Services No operation of scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a Contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State, and in accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization.
  • 48. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-5 Article 7 — Cabotage Each Contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other Contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail, and cargo carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each Contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements that specifically grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State, and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State. Article 10 — Landing At Customs Airport Except in a case where, under the terms of this Convention or a special authorization, aircraft are permitted to cross the territory of a Contracting State without landing, every aircraft which enters the territory of a Contracting State shall, if the regulations of that State so require, land at an airport for the purpose of customs and other examination. On departure from the territory of a Contracting State, aircraft shall also depart from a designated customs airport. Particulars of all designated customs airports shall be published by the State and transmitted to the ICAO established under Part II of this Convention for communication to all other Contracting States. Customs Airports are frequently called 'International' airports. Article 11 — Applicability of Air Regulations Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the laws and regulations of a Contracting State relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation, or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while within its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of all Contracting States without distinction as to nationality, and shall be complied with by aircraft upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of that State. Article 12 — Rules of the Air Each Contracting State agrees to adopt measures to ensure that all aircraft flying over or manoeuvring within its territory and that every aircraft carrying its nationality mark shall comply with the rules and regulations relating to the flight and manoeuvres of aircraft there in force. Each Contracting State undertakes to keep its own regulations uniform, to the greatest possible extent, with those rules established under the Convention. Over the high seas, the rules in force shall be those established under the Convention. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure the protection of all persons violating the regulations applicable. Article 13 — Entry and Clearance Regulations The laws and regulations of a Contracting State as to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers, crew, or cargo of aircraft, such as entry clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and quarantine, shall be complied with by or on behalf of passengers, crew or cargo upon entrance into or departure from, or while within the territory of that State. Article 17 — Nationality of Aircraft Aircraft have the nationality of the State in which they are registered. Article 18 — Dual Registration An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State, but its registration may be changed from one State to another.
  • 49. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-6 Article 19 — National Laws Governing Registration The registration or transfer of registration of aircraft in any Contracting State shall be made in accordance with its laws and regulations. Article 20 — Display of Marks Every aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall bear its appropriate nationality and registration marks. Article 22 — Facilitation of Formalities Each Contracting State agrees to adopt all practicable measures to facilitate and expedite navigation by aircraft between the territories of Contracting States. This includes the prevention of unnecessary delays to aircraft, crews, passengers, and cargo, especially in the administration of the laws relating to immigration, quarantine, customs, and clearance. Article 24 — Customs Duty Aircraft on a flight to, from, or across the territory of another Contracting State shall be admitted temporarily free of duty, subject to the customs regulations of the State. Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft spares on board an aircraft of a Contracting State, on arrival in the territory of another Contracting State and retained on board on leaving the territory of that State shall be exempt from customs duty, inspection fees or similar national or local duties and charges. This exemption shall not apply to any quantities or articles unloaded, except in accordance with the customs regulations of the State, which may require that they shall be kept under customs supervision. Spare parts and equipment imported into the territory of a Contracting State for incorporation in or use on an aircraft of another Contracting State engaged in international air navigation shall be admitted free of customs duty, subject to compliance with the regulations of the State concerned, which may provide that the articles shall be kept under customs supervision and control. Article 25 — Aircraft In Distress Each Contracting State undertakes to provide such measures of assistance to aircraft in distress in its territory as is practicable, and to permit, subject to control by its own authorities, the owners of the aircraft or authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered to provide assistance as may be necessitated by the circumstances. Each Contracting State, when undertaking a search for missing aircraft, will collaborate in co-ordinated measures which may be recommended from time to time by the convention. Article 26 — Investigation of Accidents In the event of an accident to an aircraft of a Contracting State occurring in the territory of another Contracting State, and involving death or serious injury, or indicating serious technical defect in the aircraft or air navigation facilities, the State in which the incident occurs will institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the accident, in accordance, so far as its laws permit, with the procedure which may be recommended by the ICAO. The State holding the inquiry shall communicate the report and findings in the matter to the other State.
  • 50. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-7 Article 31 — Certificates of Airworthiness All aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall be provided with a certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the State in which it is registered. Article 32 — Licences of Personnel The pilot of every aircraft and the other members of the operating crew of all aircraft engaged in international navigation shall be provided with: Certificates of competency, and Licences issued or rendered valid by the State in which the aircraft is registered. Each Contracting State reserves the right to refuse to recognize, for the purposes of flight above its own territory, certificates of competency and licences granted to any of its nationals by other Contracting States. Article 33 — Recognition of Certificates And Licences Certificates of airworthiness and certificates of competency and licences issued or rendered valid by the Contracting State in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognized as valid by other Contracting States, provided that the requirements under which certificates or licences were issued or rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum standards established by the Convention. Article 36 — Photographic Apparatus Each Contracting State may prohibit or regulate the use of photographic apparatus in aircraft over its territory. Article 37 — Adoption of International Standards And Procedures Each Contracting State undertakes to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity in regulations, standards, procedures and organization in relation to aircraft, personnel, airways and auxiliary services in all matters in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air navigation. To this end the ICAO shall adopt and amend, as may be necessary, international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with: Communications systems and air navigation aids, including ground marking Characteristics of airports and landing areas Rules of the air and air traffic control practices Licensing of operating and mechanical personnel Airworthiness of aircraft Registration and identification of aircraft Collection and exchange of meteorological information Log books Aeronautical maps and charts Customs and immigration procedures Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents and other such matters concerned with the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air navigation as may from time to time appear appropriate.
  • 51. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-8 Article 38 — Departures From International Standards and Procedures Any State which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by ICAO may give notice of such to the Council. Many states adopt the ICAO SARPS without reservation whilst others (the UK, the USA and Russia in particular) have notified extensive 'differences' in their procedures. The list of 'differences' is recorded in GEN section 7 of the AIP of the state. PART II — THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION An organization to be named the International Civil Aviation Organization is formed by the Convention. It is made up of an Assembly, a Council, and such other bodies as may be necessary. THE ORGANISATION Air Navigation Commission 15 members appointed by the Council. Air Transport Committee Appointed by the Council. Legal Committee Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Not more than 11 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council. Finance Committee Not more than 13 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council. Committee on Unlawful Interference 15 members appointed by the Council. ASSEMBLY All Contracting States one member one vote COUNCIL 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly (President of the Council is elected by the Council) Air Navigation Commission Air Transport Committee Legal Committee Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Finance Committee Committee on Unlawful Interference
  • 52. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-9 Objectives The aims and objectives of the organization are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to: Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes. Encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation. Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport. Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition. Ensure that the rights of Contracting States are fully respected and that every Contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines. Avoid discrimination between Contracting States. Promote safety of flight in international air navigation. Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics. THE ASSEMBLY The Assembly shall meet not less than once every three years and shall be convened by the Council at a suitable time and place. An extraordinary meeting of the Assembly may be held at any time upon the call of the Council or at the request of not less than 1/5th of the total number of Contracting States. All Contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the meetings of the Assembly and each Contracting State shall be entitled to one vote. A majority of the Contracting States is required to constitute a quorum for the meetings of the Assembly. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention, decisions of the Assembly shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast. ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION The annexes are the basis of the ICAO procedures and practices: Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing. Annex 2 — Rules of the Air. Annex 3 — Meteorological Services. Annex 4 — Aeronautical Charts. Annex 5 — Dimension Units. Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft. Annex 7 — Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks. Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft. Annex 9 — Facilitation. Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications. Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services. Annex 12 — Search and Rescue. Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident Investigation. Annex 14 — Aerodromes. Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Service. Annex 16 — Environmental Protection. Annex 17 — Security. Annex 18 — Transport of Dangerous Goods.
  • 53. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-10 ICAO regulations are not automatically the law of a contracting state. All regulations have to be enacted as part of the law of that state. Status of Annex Components All Annexes are made up of the following components, not all of which are necessarily found in every Annex: Standards and Recommended Practices Standards and Recommended Practices (generally known as SARPs) are adopted by the ICAO Council under the provisions of the Chicago Convention. They are defined as follows: Standard Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of International Navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the convention. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is compulsory. The word 'SHALL' defines a standard. Recommended Practice Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable for the safety or regularity of International Navigation and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the convention. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is not compulsory. The word 'SHOULD' defines a recommended practice. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) These are procedures that have been adopted by the council for worldwide use. They can contain: New procedures, or those which are too complicated or detailed for inclusion in an Annex. Operating procedures that have not attained a status for adoption as International Standards and Recommended Practices. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) These procedures are similar in status to the PANS but are for application in their respective regions. Technical Manuals These documents amplify the SARPs and PANS. They are designed to assist in the use of the relevant document. Air Navigation Plans Air Navigation Plans detail the requirements for facilities and services for international air navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions.
  • 54. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-11 ICAO Circulars Any information that is of specific interest to contracting states is transmitted by these documents. OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS MADE AT CHICAGO By the nature of the assembled national delegations at Chicago in 1944, it was not possible to reach unanimous agreement on all the matters discussed. Individual states demanded to retain territorial rights over their airspace, and in general this was respected. In order to make the agreements work, a system of bilateral agreements was established which permitted states to be selective in which other states they entered into the agreements with. In essence, if state A did not want the aircraft of state B flying unrestricted over its airspace, then it did not enter into an agreement with that state. THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT AND THE INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT These bilateral agreements established what are known as the “The Five Freedoms of the Air”. These freedoms are: One The freedom of innocent passage. The right to fly across the territory of a state without landing. Two Freedom of Facilities. The right to use (land in) foreign territory to refuel or carry out maintenance. This does not give any traffic rights. Three The right to carry revenue traffic(1) from the operator state (A) to a treaty partner state (B). Four The right to carry revenue traffic from a treaty partner state (B) to the operator state (A). Five The right to carry revenue traffic between any points of landing on flights between 3 or more treaty partner nations (A to B to C). This is the most important 'freedom' as it effectively facilitates international traffic operations. The term 'a fifth freedom flight' is used extensively. (Do not get this freedom mixed up with Cabotage) Note 1: Revenue traffic is defined as the carriage of passengers, mail, or cargo. Freedoms one and two are known as technical freedoms, and freedoms three, four, and five are the commercial freedoms. SUPPLEMENTARY FREEDOMS Since 1944, evolution of international air transport has led to situations not envisioned at Chicago. These are now embodied in 'new' freedoms. (These are outside the learning objectives for 010 — Air Law). Six A combination of Freedoms 3 and 4. Revenue traffic flown between two treaty partner states (A to C) through the carrier state (B).
  • 55. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-12 Seven Revenue traffic flown between two nations (A and B) by carrier of a third nation (C) without the flight originating, terminating, or landing in state C. Eight Cabotage (within the EEC) The right to carry revenue traffic between two points within a treaty (EEC) nation by the carrier of another EEC nation, whilst allowing the treaty organisation (EEC) to apply cabotage to non-treaty nations. Nine Code Sharing. The combining of two or more scheduled flights under one operation. This preserves the schedules but economises on aircraft and effectively increases passenger loading. Technically, this is a breach of the schedule agreement between states. However, reduced pollution, reduced noise nuisance, increased profits, and reduced aerodrome loading all make code sharing attractive to both aviation authorities and operators alike. THE CONVENTION OF TOKYO 1963 Following concern about unlawful seizure of aircraft in the early 1960s, the Japanese Government convened a meeting to tackle the problem. Unfortunately, there was no mechanism for the imposition of authority over flights outside the territory of a state as there was for shipping, so the convention was mainly concerned with establishing jurisdiction rather than addressing the problem of air piracy. The agreements made at this convention cover offences and certain other acts committed on board aircraft including unlawful seizure. The convention covers the jurisdiction of the pilot in command and national jurisdiction. National Jurisdiction The convention states that the State of Registry of an aircraft is responsible for exercising jurisdiction over offences and acts committed on board, with the stipulation that the authority of any other state does not apply (see Jurisdiction of Other States). The State of Registry should take all legal steps necessary to ensure this. Jurisdiction of Other States A contracting state, which is not the State of Registry, may interfere with an aircraft in flight in order to exercise legal control over any offence committed on board when: An offence has been committed on board in the territorial airspace of that state. An offence committed on board has an effect on the territory of the state. An offence has been committed on board against a national, or permanent resident, of that state. An offence has been committed on board against the security of that state. The offence committed is a breach of the rules or regulations relating to the flight of aircraft in that state. The exercise of jurisdiction is necessary to ensure the observance of any multi- national agreements between states. Pilot in Command If a person commits, or is about to commit, an unlawful act on board an aircraft, the aircraft commander may impose reasonable measures, including restraint, considered necessary: To protect the safety of the aircraft, persons or property on board. To maintain good order and discipline.
  • 56. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-13 To enable handing a person over to the competent authorities. This can include removal of a passenger from an aircraft, or refusal of permission for a person to board an aircraft. To carry out his task the aircraft commander may require the assistance of other crew members. Passengers may also be asked to assist, if necessary. THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970 Following the Tokyo Convention, and after a spate of politically motivated terrorists hijackings, ICAO called a convention hosted by the Dutch government to address this problem. The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft defines the act of unlawful seizure and the measures to be taken by contracting states to enforce severe punishment upon perpetrators. This agreement specifies extradition of offenders and obliges contracting states to extradite offenders. THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the safety of Civil Aviation compliments the Hague Convention by making it an offence to: Commit acts of violence on board aircraft that endanger people and property and the safety of the aircraft. Destroy an aircraft in service or cause damage which renders the aircraft incapable of flight or which is likely to endanger the safety of flight. Place a device on board an aircraft that is likely to destroy the aircraft, damage it, or render it unfit for flight. Destroy or damage any navigation facility or interference with its correct operation. Interfere with aircraft communications or transmit information known to be false that endangers the safety of an aeroplane in flight. THE PROTOCOL TO THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 This extended the Montreal Convention to include offences committed at aerodromes serving international civil aviation, including the intentional use of any device, substance or weapon: Likely to cause serious injury or death. To destroy or seriously damage the facilities of an airport. To destroy or damage aircraft not in service at the airport. To disrupt the services at an airport. Note: In this context, a protocol is a diplomatic method whereby the content of an agreement can be amended without the need to re-convene the entire convention.
  • 57. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-14 ADDENDUM TO CHAPTER 2 The LOs for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of defined parts of the Chicago Convention. For completeness, the remaining Articles of the Convention (those not covered in the body of Chapter 2) are reproduced below. The Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) Article 8 — Pilotless Aircraft No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of a Contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft. Article 9 — Prohibited Areas Each Contracting State may, for reasons of military necessity or public safety, restrict or prohibit the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its territory. This is provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the aircraft of the State whose territory is involved. Prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation. Descriptions of prohibited areas in the territory of a Contracting State, as well as any subsequent alterations, shall be communicated as soon as possible to other Contracting States and to the ICAO. Each Contracting State reserves the right, in exceptional circumstances or during a period of emergency, or in the interests of public safety, and with immediate effect, to restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory temporarily. Such a restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction of nationality to aircraft of all other States. Each Contracting State, under any regulations as it may prescribe may require any aircraft entering the areas in the paragraphs above to effect a landing as soon as practicable thereafter at a designated airport within its territory. Article 14 — Prevention of Spread of Disease Each Contracting State agrees to take effective measures to prevent the spread by means of air navigation of cholera, typhus (epidemic), smallpox, yellow fever, plague, and such other communicable disease as the Contracting States shall from time to time decide to designate. To that end Contracting States will keep in close consultation with the agencies concerned with international regulations relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircraft. Consultation shall be without prejudice to the application of any existing international convention on this subject to which the Contracting States may be parties. Article 16 — Search of Aircraft The appropriate authorities of each of the Contracting States shall have the right without unreasonable delay, to search aircraft of the other Contracting States on landing or departure, and to inspect the certificates and other documents prescribed by this Convention.
  • 58. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-15 Article 21 — Report of Registrations Each Contracting State undertakes to supply to any other Contracting State or to the ICAO, on demand, information concerning the registration and ownership of any particular aircraft registered in that State. Each Contracting State shall furnish reports to the ICAO, under any regulations as the latter may decide upon, pertinent data concerning the ownership and control of aircraft registered in that State and engaged in international air navigation. The data obtained by the ICAO shall be made available to the other Contracting States. Article 23 — Customs and Immigration Procedures Each Contracting State undertakes, so far as practicable, to establish customs and immigration procedures affecting international air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be established or recommended by the Convention. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing the establishment of customs free airports. Article 28 — Air Navigation Facilities and Standard Systems Each Contracting State undertakes, so far as it may be practicable, to: Provide, in its territory, airports, radio services, meteorological services and other air navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation, in accordance with the standards and practices recommended or established by the Convention. Adopt and put into operation the appropriate standard systems of communications procedures, codes, markings, signals, lighting and other operational practices and rules which may be recommended or established by the Convention. Collaborate in international measures to secure the publication of aeronautical maps and charts in accordance with standards that may be recommended or established by the Convention. Article 29 — Documents Carried in Aircraft An aircraft of a Contracting State, engaged in international air navigation, shall carry the following documents in order to conform with the Convention: A certificate of registration A certificate of airworthiness The appropriate licences for each member of the crew A journey log book If equipped with radio apparatus, the aircraft radio station licence If passengers are carried, a list of their names and places of embarkation and destination If cargo is carried, a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo Article 30 — Aircraft Radio Equipment Aircraft of a Contracting State may, in or over the territory of other Contracting States, carry radio-transmitting apparatus if a licence to install and operate the radio has been issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered. The use of radio transmitting apparatus in the territory of the Contracting State whose territory is flown over shall be in accordance with the regulations prescribed by that State. Radio transmitting apparatus can only be used by members of the flight crew who are provided with a radio licence issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered.
  • 59. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-16 Article 34 — Journey Log Books All aircraft engaged in international navigation shall have a journey log book in which shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, its crew and of each journey. Article 35 — Cargo Restrictions No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State by aircraft engaged in international navigation, except by permission of that State. Each State shall determine what constitutes munitions of war for the purposes of this article, giving due consideration, for the purposes of uniformity, to the recommendations made by ICAO. Each Contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of public order and safety, to regulate or prohibit the carriage in or above its territory of articles other than those listed in the paragraph above, provided that: No distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in international navigation and the aircraft of the other States, and No restriction shall be imposed which may interfere with the carriage and use on aircraft of apparatus necessary for the operation or navigation of the aircraft or the safety of the personnel or passengers. Article 39 — Endorsement of Certificates and Licences Any aircraft or part thereof with respect to which there exists an international standard of airworthiness or performance, and which failed in any respect to satisfy the standard at the time of its certification, shall have endorsed on or attached to its airworthiness certificate a complete list of the details in respect of which it failed. Any person holding a licence who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down in the international standard relating to the class of licence or certificate which he holds shall have endorsed on or attached to his licence the details of the particulars in which he does not satisfy such conditions. Article 40 — Validity of Endorsed Certificates and Licences No aircraft or personnel having certificates or licences so endorsed shall participate in international navigation, except with the permission of the State or States whose territory is entered. The registration or use of any such aircraft, or of any certificated aircraft part, in any State other than that in which it was originally certificated shall be at the discretion of the State into which the aircraft or part is imported. Article 47 — Legal Capacity The organization shall enjoy in the territory of each Contracting State such legal capacity as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. Article 49 — Powers and Duties of the Assembly The powers and duties of the Assembly shall be to: Elect at each meeting its president and other officers Elect the Contracting States to be represented on the Council, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter IX Examine and take appropriate action on the reports of the Council and decide on any matter referred to it by the Council Determine its own rules of procedure and establish such subsidiary commissions as it may consider to be necessary or desirable
  • 60. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-17 Vote annual budgets and determine the financial arrangements of the organization, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII Review expenditures and approve the accounts of the organization Refer, at its discretion, to the Council, to subsidiary commissions, or to any other body any matter within its sphere of action Delegate to the Council the powers and authority necessary or desirable for the discharge of the duties of the organization and revoke or modify the delegations of authority at any time Carry out the appropriate provisions of Chapter XIII Consider proposals for the modification or amendment of the provisions of this Convention and, if it approves of the proposals, recommend them to the Contracting States in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XXI Deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the Organization not specifically assigned to the Council CHAPTER IX — THE COUNCIL Article 50 — Composition and Election of the Council The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. It is composed of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly. An election shall be held at the first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every 3 years. Elected members of the Council hold office until the following election In electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall give adequate representation to: • The States of chief importance in air transport • The States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation, and • The States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major geographic areas of the world are represented • The Assembly shall fill any vacancy on the Council as soon as possible; any Contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired portion of its predecessor’s office No representative of a Contracting State on the Council shall be actively associated with the operation of an international air service or financially interested in such a service Article 51 — President of Council The Council shall elect its president for a term of 3 years. He may be re-elected. He shall have no vote. The Council shall elect from its members one or more vice presidents who shall retain their right to vote when serving as acting president. The president need not be selected from among the representatives of the members of the Council but, if a representative is elected, his seat shall be deemed vacant and it shall be filled by the State that he represented. The duties of the president shall be to: Convene meetings of The Council The Air Transport Committee The Air Navigation Commission Serve as representative of the Council Carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him
  • 61. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-18 Article 54 — Mandatory Functions of the Council The Council shall: Submit annual reports to the Assembly Carry out the directions of the Assembly and discharge the duties and obligations which are laid on it by this Convention Determine its organization and rules of procedure Appoint and define the duties of an Air Transport Committee, which shall be chosen from among the representatives of the members of the Council, and which shall be responsible to it Establish an Air Navigation Commission, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter X Administer the finances of the Organization in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII and XV Determine the emoluments of the president of the Council Appoint a chief executive officer who shall be called the secretary-general, and make provision for the appointment of such other personnel as may be necessary, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XI Request, collect, examine and publish information relating to the advancement of air navigation and the operation of international air services including information about the costs of operation and particulars of subsidies paid to airlines from public funds Report to Contracting States any infraction of this Convention, as well as any failure to carry out recommendations or determinations of the Council Report to the Assembly any infraction of this Convention where a Contracting State has failed to take appropriate action within a reasonable time after notice of the infraction Adopt, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of this Convention, international standards and recommended practices; for convenience designate them as Annexes to this Convention; and notify all Contracting States of the action taken Consider recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for amendment of the Annexes and take action in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX Consider any matter relating to the Convention to which any Contracting State refers Article 55 — Permissive Function of the Council The Council may: Where appropriate and as experience may show to be desirable, create subordinate air transport commissions on a regional or other basis and define groups of States or airlines with or through which it may deal to facilitate the carrying out of the aims of this Convention Delegate to the Air Navigation Commission duties additional to those in the Convention and revoke or modify such delegations of authority at any time Conduct research into all aspects of air transport and air navigation which are of international importance, communicate the results of its research to the Contracting States, and facilitate the exchange of information between Contracting States on air transport and air navigation matters Study any matters affecting the organization and operation of international air transport, including the international ownership and operation of international air services on trunk routes, and submit to the Assembly plans in relation thereto Investigate, at the request of any Contracting State, any situation which may appear to present avoidable obstacles to the development of international air navigation; and after such investigation, issue such reports as may appear to be desirable
  • 62. The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Air Law 2-19 CHAPTER X — THE AIR NAVIGATION COMMISSION Article 56 — Nomination and Appointment of the Commission The Air Navigation Commission is composed of 15 members appointed by the Council from among the persons nominated by Contracting States; these persons shall have suitable qualifications and experience in the science and practice of aeronautics. The Council shall request all Contracting States to submit nominations. The Council shall appoint the president of the Air Navigation Commission. Article 57 — Duties of the Commission The Air Navigation Commission shall: Consider and recommend to the Council for adoption, modifications of the Annexes to this Convention Establish technical sub-commissions on which any Contracting State may be represented, if it so desires Advise the Council concerning the collection and communication to the Contracting States of all information which it considers necessary and useful for the advancement of air navigation
  • 63. Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Air Law2-20
  • 64. Air Law 3-1 THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA) IATA is a body whose members are composed of airlines. The functions of IATA include the establishment of uniform fares, uniform ticketing arrangements, and other procedures. The IATA interlining agreements led to carriers accepting other carriers’ tickets and waybills. This not only allows 'consortium' operations (One World, etc.) but also makes regional feeder services viable. IATA acts as the fare distribution agent, paying the small feeder/regional airline, then recovers the cost from the primary (international) carrier. THE CONVENTION OF ROME 1933/1952 This convention produced uniformity in place of the differing national laws covering the liability of the owner or operator of an aircraft that causes damage to persons or property on the ground. In simple terms, the operator is liable for any damage, but the liability is limited to a sum that is proportionate to the weight of the aircraft. The Convention makes it compulsory to insure against this liability. A later Rome Convention looked at the problems of damage caused by foreign aircraft to third parties on the surface of the earth. The amount of compensation is limited, but carriers are liable for damage caused to third parties. The convention does accept compulsory recognition and execution of any foreign judgement on damage to third parties. The 1933 convention also regulated the right of arrest where an aircraft is seized in the case of debt. COMMERCIAL PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED RULES (LEASING) The learning objectives require the student to have knowledge of the practice and terminology of leasing aeroplanes. The reference for Leasing is JAR-OPS. Terms used in JAR-OPS 1.165 have the following meaning: AOC Air Operators Certificate, a document issued by the Authority of a State allowing an Operator to conduct public transport flights. Dry lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessee (the company leasing the aeroplane). Wet lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessor (the company who let the aircraft out). JAA operator An operator certificated under JAR-OPS Part 1 by one of the JAA Member States. Lease In The process of 'borrowing' an aeroplane. Lease Out The process of 'lending' an aeroplane.
  • 65. Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations Air Law3-2 LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN JAA OPERATORS Wet lease-out. If a JAA operator retains all functions and responsibilities prescribed in Subpart C of JAR- OPS when providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another JAA Operator, then that operator remains the operator of the aeroplane. All leases except wet lease-out. Any leasing activity other than the wet lease out described above requires approval of the appropriate JAA authority. LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN A JAA OPERATOR AND ANY BODY OTHER THAN A JAA OPERATOR Dry lease-in A JAA operator may not dry lease-in an aeroplane from any entity other than a JAA operator, unless approved by the Authority. Any conditions that are part of this approval must be included in the lease agreement. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are dry leased-in, any differences from the prescribed instrument, navigation, communication, and safety equipment are notified to, and are acceptable to, the Authority. Wet lease-in A JAA operator shall not wet lease-in an aeroplane from a body other than a JAA operator without the approval of the Authority. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are wet leased-in: The safety standards of the lessor with respect to maintenance and operation are equivalent to the JAR regulations The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention The aeroplane has a standard Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance with ICAO Annex 8. Standard Certificates of Airworthiness issued by a JAA Member State other than the State responsible for issue the AOC will be accepted without further showing when issued in accordance with JAR, and Any JAA requirements are complied with by the lessee's Authority. Dry lease-out A JAA operator may dry lease-out an aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air transportation to any operator of a State which is signatory to the Chicago Convention. In this case, the JAA Authority will exempt the JAA operator from the relevant provisions of JAR-OPS Part 1. Further, after the foreign regulatory authority has accepted responsibility in writing for surveillance of the maintenance and operation of the aeroplane(s), the aeroplane(s) will be removed from the JAA operator's AOC. Part of the leasing agreement is that the aeroplane(s) will be maintained according to an approved maintenance programme. Wet lease-out A JAA operator providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another entity and retaining all the prescribed functions and responsibilities shall remain the operator of the aeroplane.
  • 66. Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3 Air Law 3-3 LEASING OF AEROPLANES AT SHORT NOTICE In circumstances where a JAA operator is faced with an immediate, urgent, and unforeseen need for a replacement aeroplane, the required approval may be deemed to have been given, provided that the lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention, the lease-in period does not exceed 5 consecutive days, and the Authority is immediately notified of the use of this provision. EUROPEAN CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE (ECAC) INTRODUCTION In 1953 a European conference convened on Co-ordination of Air Transport in Europe (CATE), to discuss methods of improving commercial and technical co-operation between the airlines of the European countries participating in the conference, as well as the possibility of securing closer co-operation by the exchange of commercial rights between the European countries. In order to follow up on the recommendations adopted at the meeting, CATE proposed the establishment of a permanent organisation of the European aeronautical authorities. This organisation was called the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) and held its inaugural session in 1955. ECAC OBJECTIVES Continuing the work of the CATE conference. Reviewing the development of intra-European air transport with the object of improvement. Considering any special problem that might arise from the above. ECAC membership, which includes all EC countries, needed to institute procedures consistent with those resulting from the EC treaty and the Single European Act. The recommendations made by the European Parliament and the Council of Europe needed a co-ordinated approach to ensure air safety within Europe. In 1970, some European civil aviation authorities started to co- operate with a view to producing common Joint Airworthiness Requirements so as to facilitate certification of products built jointly in Europe. This led to the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Board becoming an associated body to ECAC in 1989. The JAA Board oversees arrangements between a number of ECAC states providing for co-operation in developing and implementing common safety standards and procedures. JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES (JAA) JAA ORGANISATION The JAA has developed since the 1970s and the members are bound by the “Arrangements” signed in Cyprus by the then member states in 1990. The main JAA objectives are: To ensure through co-operation common high levels of safety within the member states. Through the application of uniform safety standards, to contribute to fair and equal competition within the member states. To aim for cost effective safety and minimum regulatory burden so as to contribute to the European industries’ international competitiveness.
  • 67. Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations Air Law3-4 The JAA operates in a manner that is as close as possible to a single authority, without yet formally or legally becoming a single international body where each individual state gives up its ultimate responsibilities. JAA membership is open to the civil aviation authorities of the ECAC member States. Each National Aviation Authority (NAA) continues to exist and carry out specific delegated roles within the JAA. The NAA issues licences and regulates the operators of that state. FUNCTIONS OF JAA The authorities use the JAA to perform the following functions: To develop, adopt, and publish Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs) for the use of the Authorities in the field of design, manufacture, maintenance and operations, and the licensing of aviation personnel. To develop administrative and technical procedures for the implementation of JARs. To implement JARs and related administrative and technical procedures in a co- ordinated and uniform manner. To adopt measures to ensure, whenever possible, that pursuance of the JAA safety objective does not unreasonably distort competition between the aviation industries of member states or place companies of member states at a competitive disadvantage with those of non-member states. To provide the principal centre of professional expertise in Europe on the harmonisation of aviation safety regulations. To establish procedures for joint certification of products and services and where it is considered appropriate to perform joint certification. To co-operate on the harmonisation of requirements and procedures with other safety regulatory authorities, especially the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Where feasible, to co-operate with foreign safety regulatory authorities, especially the FAA, on the certification of products and services. ORGANISATION AND PROCEDURES The JAA is controlled by a committee that works under the authority of the Plenary Conference of the ECAC and reports to the JAA Board of Directors General (better known as the JAA Board). The JAA Board considers and reviews the general policies and long term objectives of the JAA.
  • 68. Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3 Air Law 3-5 JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES JAA/FAA HARMONISATION The two major aircraft producers in the world are the United States and Europe. In the USA the FAA regulates the industry, whereas in Europe the disparate national authorities were uncoordinated. In order to overcome this, the JAA acts as the regulatory body to bring the European procedures into line with the FAA. The effect of this has been to make European products acceptable to the North American market and also to give European manufacturers a market in Europe for spares for aircraft made in North America. It is no coincidence that the regulations concerning large aeroplanes are contained in JAR 25, whereas the FAA equivalent is FAR 25. Likewise, commuter category aircraft regulations are contained in JAR 23 and FAR 23. INTENTION It is the intention to eventually form the European Aviation Authority. This is in keeping with the aims of the EU and the Council of Europe. Once established, the EAA will be the regulatory body responsible for civil aviation in Europe. Until then, the NAAs will provide the regulatory framework and the necessary manpower. EUROCONTROL Eurocontrol was formed in 1965, and its membership encompasses most of Europe and some non-European adjacent states. The stated objectives of Eurocontrol are: To plan European air traffic management to meet future needs. To optimise the use of airspace by matching capacity to demand to carry out the above. From its origins as the Maastricht (Holland) ACC, providing a centralised ATC service for the Benelux countries and Northern Germany, Eurocontrol now provides ATC services for most European flight information regions (FIRs). It actually controls operations in the upper airspace from two ATCC (Maastricht and Vienna) and has R&D facilities in Luxembourg, Maastricht, and Bretigny near Paris. Eurocontrol also provides a very efficient centralised enroute charge recovery service on behalf of the states, which even non-Eurocontrol states use. JAA/FAA Harmonisation Joint Steering Committee Regulation Certification Maintenance Operations Licensing Administration Secretary General JAA Committee Executive Board Foundation Board JAA Board
  • 69. Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations Air Law3-6 FLOW MANAGEMENT Since 1988, Eurocontrol has provided the centralised flow management unit (CFMU) for European airspace. Virtually all flights within Europe are subject to flow management and the process is expanding to cover 'gate to gate' operations, including operations on the ground at airports. The R&D operations of Eurocontrol are involved in the use of PRNAV to eliminate airways and also the elimination of voice communications by the use of data link systems. ATC HARMONISATION Eurocontrol is also at the heart of the ATC harmonisation process in Europe and the surrounding states, which will lead to the development of a data processing and handling system capable of taking inputs from any ATC system in the world. The first link in this network is the new ATCC at Swanwick, near Southampton, providing area control for the London FIR and UIR.
  • 70. Air Law 4-1 INTRODUCTION For this particular subject, the Learning Objectives require the student to have knowledge of ICAO Annex 1 (Personnel Licensing) and JAR Flight Crew Licensing, commonly referred to as JAR-FCL. However, the majority of the questions in the CQB are drawn from ICAO. Unfortunately, there are areas where JAR FCL differs from Annex 1. As these notes are intended only to provide the references to pass the examinations, they must not be used as a reference for matters relating to your licence. In such cases, consult JAR FCL or your national Civil Aviation Authority. In the U.K., the U.K. CAA publishes LASORS as guidance. JAR-FCL JAR-FCL is published in four parts: JAR-FCL 1 Aeroplanes JAR-FCL 2 Helicopters JAR-FCL 3 Medical Requirements JAR-FCL 4 Flight Engineers The LOs require knowledge of JAR-FCL 1 and JAR-FCL 3. In addition to the general requirements, JAR-FCL 1 contains JARs for the licensing of: Student pilots Private Pilots - PPL(A) Commercial pilots - CPL(A) Instrument Rating (Aeroplane) - IR(A) Class and Type Rating (Aeroplane) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) - ATPL (A) Instructor ratings Examiners Theoretical knowledge requirements for examinations (1) Note 1: Because knowledge of the requirements for examinations is required by the LOs for 010 Air Law, the JAA FCL Committee have determined that the knowledge requirements for all subjects are examinable under subject 010 Air Law. For this reason, there are questions in the Air Law exam relating to Met, Mass and Balance, Communications etc.
  • 71. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-2 Annex 1 Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) have been established for licensing the following personnel: Private pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Commercial pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Airline transport pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Glider pilot Balloon pilot Flight navigator Flight engineer LICENSING REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS Authority to Act as a Flight-crew Member A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of an aircraft unless a valid licence is held. ICAO To be valid, the licence must have been issued by the State of Registry of that aircraft or by any other contracting state and rendered valid by the State of Registry. JAR-FCL A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of a civil aeroplane registered in a JAA Member State unless that person holds a valid licence and rating complying with the requirements of JAR-FCL. The licence shall have been issued by: A JAA Member State, or Another ICAO Contracting State and rendered valid in accordance with JAR-FCL Validity of Licence In order to exercise the privileges of the licence, the licence must remain valid by maintaining competency; maintaining necessary ratings; meeting recent experience requirements, and holding a valid medical assessment. Period of Licence Issue Providing the requirements for a valid licence are maintained, a licence issued will remain in force for a period determined by the State of Licence Issue (ICAO). JAR-FCL A licence holder shall not exercise the privileges granted by any licence or rating issued by a JAA Member State unless the holder maintains competency by meeting the relevant requirements of JAR-FCL. The validity of the licence is determined by the validity of the ratings contained therein and the medical certificate. The licence will be issued for a maximum period of 5 years. Within this period of 5 years the licence may be re-issued by the authority: After initial issue or renewal of a rating; When the licence is full (no space available for a renewal certificate); For any administrative reason; or At the discretion of the authority when a rating is revalidated.
  • 72. Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Air Law 4-3 The licence holder must apply for the re-issue of the licence. This application must include all necessary documentation. Valid ratings will be transferred to a new licence document by the authority. State of Licence Issue An applicant shall demonstrate the satisfactory completion of all requirements for licence issue to the authority of the State under whose authority the training and testing for the licence were carried out. Following licence issue, this State shall thereafter be referred to as the “State of licence issue”. Further ratings may be obtained under JAR-FCL requirements in any JAA Member State and will be entered into the licence by the State of Licence issue. Normal Residency Normal residency means the place where a person usually lives for at least 185 days in each calendar year because of personal and occupational ties or, in the case of a person with no occupational ties, because of personal ties which show close links between that person and the place where they are living. Exercising the Privileges of the Licence The holder of a licence or rating shall not exercise privileges other than those granted by that licence or rating. Licences, Ratings, Authorisations, Approvals or Certificates Issued by JAA Member States Where a person, organization, or a service has been licenced, issued with a rating, authorisation, approval, or certificate by the authority of a JAA member state in accordance with the requirements of JAR-FCL and associated procedures, such licences, ratings, authorisations, approvals or certificates shall be accepted without formality by other JAA member states. Licences Issued by Non-JAA States A licence issued by a non-JAA State may be rendered valid for use on aircraft registered in a JAA member state, at the discretion of the authority of that JAA member state. Validation of a professional pilot’s licence shall not exceed one year from the date of validation, provided that the basic licence remains valid. Any further validation for use on aircraft registered in any JAA member state is subject to agreement by the JAA member states and to any conditions seen fit within the JAA. The user of a licence validated by a JAA member state shall comply with the requirements stated in JAR-FCL. If the validation of a non-JAA licence is revoked for any reason, the State of Licence Issue will be informed by the JAA state. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENCE ISSUE PPL(A) Minimum Age 17 Medical Fitness Class 1 or Class 2 Privileges and Conditions To act as PIC or co-pilot of an aeroplane engaged in non-revenue flights.
  • 73. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-4 Experience and Crediting An applicant must have completed 45 hours flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes. Five hours may have been completed in an FNPT or a flight simulator. Where an applicant is the holder of one of the following licences then 10% of their total flight time up to a maximum of 10 hours may be credited towards the issue of the PPL(A): Helicopter Microlight helicopters Gyroplanes Microlights with fixed wings and moveable aerodynamic control surfaces Flight Instruction The applicant for a PPL(A) must have completed 25 hours dual instruction and 10 hours supervised solo, including 5 hours of cross-country flight time. One cross-country flight must be of at least 150 nm, and include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the original departure aerodrome. Where previous credit for PIC time is granted the dual instruction may be reduced to not less than 20 hours. Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) CPL(A) Airline Transport Licence Aeroplane (ATPL) Minimum Age 18 21 Medical Fitness Class 1 medical certificate Class 1 medical certificate Privileges and Conditions Subject to any other conditions specified in JARs, the privileges of the holder of a CPL(A) are to: Exercise all the privileges of the holder of a PPL(A) Act as PIC or co-pilot of any aeroplane engaged in operations other than commercial aviation Act as PIC in commercial air transportation of any single pilot aeroplane Act as co-pilot in commercial air transportation An applicant for a CPL(A) shall have fulfilled the requirements for the issue of at least a CPL(A) containing the class/type rating for the aeroplane type used on the skill test and, if an instrument rating course and test are included, the instrument rating Subject to any other conditions specified in JARs, the privileges of the holder of a ATPL(A) are to: Exercise all the privileges of the holder of a PPL(A), CPL(A) and an IR(A) Act as PIC or co-pilot in aeroplanes engaged in air transportation An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall have fulfilled the requirements for the issue of an ATPL(A) containing a type rating for the aeroplane type used on the skill test Experience and Crediting See CPL Experience below See ATPL experience below
  • 74. Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Air Law 4-5 ATPL(A) EXPERIENCE An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall have completed as a pilot of aeroplanes at least 1500 hours of flight time. A maximum of 100 hours flight simulator time may be included in this figure. Specific qualifications required within the 1500 hours flight time are: 500 hours in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes type certificated in accordance with JAR/FAR 25 (Transport Category) or JAR/FAR 23 (Commuter Category) or equivalent codes; 250 hours as PIC or at least 100 hours PIC and 150 hours as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority); 200 hours cross country flight of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority); 75 hours instrument flight time of which not more than 30 hours may be instrument ground time; and 100 hours of night flight as PIC or co-pilot. CREDIT TIME FOR ATPL: Helicopter flight time will be credited up to 50% of the flight time requirements; and Flight engineers will be credited with up to 50% of the flight time to a maximum of 250 hours flight engineer time CPL(A) EXPERIENCE Integrated Course 150 hours of flight time Modular Course 200 hours of flight time The applicant must have completed: 100 hours as PIC, 70 hours if completed during a course of integrated training; 20 hours of cross country flight time as PIC. This must include a cross-country flight of at least 300 nm during which include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the original departure aerodrome; 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours is to be instrument ground time; and 5 hours of night flight time. CREDITING OF FLIGHT TIME Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: Pilot in Command or Under Instruction Credited in full with all solo, dual instruction or pilot in command (PIC) flight time towards the total flight time required for the licence or rating; An ATPL/CPL graduate of an integrated CPL/ATPL course is entitled to be credited with up to 50 hours student pilot in command (SPIC) instrument time towards the pilot in command time required for the issue of the ATPL, CPL and a multi engine type or class rating.
  • 75. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-6 Co-Pilot Credited in full with all co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a higher grade of pilot licence; The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the functions and duties of a PIC shall be entitled to be credited in full with this flight time required for a higher grade of licence. The method of supervision must be approved by the authority. INSTRUCTOR RATINGS An instructor rating is valid for 3 years. To be allowed to begin a Flight Instructor (FI(A)) course the pilot must have 200 hours of flight time of which 100 hours must be PIC if the pilot is the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A); 150 hours PIC if the holder of a PPL(A) and be the holder of the knowledge requirements for CPL(A). The following must also have been carried out: Completed at least 30 hours on single engine piston aeroplanes of which 5 hours shall have been completed during the 6 months preceding the pre-flight entry flight test Received at least 10 hours instrument instruction of which not more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT or flight simulator Completed at least 20 hours of cross country as PIC including a flight totalling not less than 300 nm in the course of which full stop landings at two different aerodromes must have been made Passed a pre-entry flight test The minimum applicant age is 18 years old. INSTRUCTOR RATINGS – PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS To Instruct for the Issue of a PPL Completion of 15 hours on the relevant type in the preceding 12 months To Instruct for the Issue of a CPL 500 hours of flight time including at least 200 hours of flight instruction To Instruct for the Issue of an IR 200 hours flight time in accordance with IFR, 50 hours of which may be instrument ground time and have completed an approved course of at least 5 hours of flight instruction in an aeroplane, flight simulator or FNPT II EXAMINERS (AEROPLANE) The following examiner roles are recognised: Flight examiner (FE(A)) Type rating examiner (TRE(A)) Class rating examiner (CRE(A)) Instrument rating examiner (IRE(A)) Synthetic flight examiner (SFE(A)) Flight instructor examiner (FIE(A))
  • 76. Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Air Law 4-7 Qualification An applicant for authorisation as an examiner is to hold a licence and rating at least equal to the licence or rating for which they are applying to be authorised to examine. Validity of Authorisation An examiner’s authorisation is valid for a period of not more than 3 years. Examiner’s authorisation is renewed at the discretion of the Authority. FE(A) An FE(A) is permitted to conduct skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue of PPL(A) and CPL(A) licences provided he/she has not less than 2000 hours (1000 hours for PPL(A) only) flight experience including not less than 250 hours flight instruction. CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS The holder of a licence is not permitted to act in any capacity as a pilot (except when undergoing skill testing or receiving flight instruction) unless he/she holds a valid class or type rating for the type or class of aircraft to be flown. Any rating issued may limit the holder to operating as co-pilot only, in which case, the rating will be annotated accordingly. Presently, there is no limit to the number of class/type ratings a pilot may hold at any one time, however, the need to remain current on each type/class will be limiting. JAR OPS suggests that a pilot should not hold more class/type ratings than he/she can maintain. Type rating requires attendance at and successful completion of an approved type rating course. To successfully complete a TR course the candidate must pass an aircraft specific practical knowledge test that can be written, oral, or a combination of both. The flying practice element of a TR course may be flown in the specific type of aircraft or an approved flight simulator. Class and type ratings are valid for one year (JAR-FCL). ICAO does not set a validation period but leaves this to the individual contracting state to determine. CLASS RATINGS Class ratings are established for single pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type rating as follows: ICAO: Single engine land Single engine sea Multi engine land Multi engine sea JAR-FCL: All single engine piston aeroplanes (land and sea) All touring motor gliders Each manufacturer of single engined turbo-prop aeroplanes (land and sea) All multi engined piston aeroplanes (land and sea)
  • 77. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-8 TYPE RATINGS Other than those aeroplanes included in the class ratings above, the following aeroplanes require type ratings: Each type of multi-pilot aeroplane Each type of single pilot multi engine aeroplane fitted with turbo prop or turbojet engines Each type of single pilot single engine aeroplane fitted with a turbojet engine Any other type of aeroplane the authority considers necessary REVALIDATION OF TYPE/CLASS RATINGS Type ratings and multi engine class ratings are revalidated by successful completion of skill tests or proficiency checks, which may be carried out in a flight simulator. If a type rating has expired, refresher training may be required prior to the pilot taking a re-validating test. ICAO Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft) requires a pilot to demonstrate competency at two skill tests during any 12 month period with the proviso that the period between the tests is not less than 4 months. JAR-FCL Requires the pilot to pass a proficiency check once in every period of 12 months. The revalidation check taken is not more than 3 months before the expiry of the current rating. The new period of validation begins at the date of expiry of the old period. JAR-FCL also requires the pilot fly at least 10 sectors as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft, or one sector as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft with an examiner, during the period of the rating. Note: It is usual to revalidate the type rating at the same time as the renewal of the IR(A). INSTRUMENT RATING (IR(A)) In order to fly an aircraft under IFR, a pilot requires a valid instrument rating (IR). JAR-FCL generally requires a pilot to hold a valid IR for any flight under IFR but accepts national variations in law. Privileges To pilot a multi- or single-engined aeroplane under IFR to a minimum decision height of 200 ft. Experience The pilot must hold a PPL(A) with a night qualification or a CPL(A) and have completed at least 50 hours of cross country flight time as PIC in aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours shall be in aeroplanes. Application to ATPL(A) An instrument rating is an integral part of an ATPL (A), and a separate rating added to a CPL(A) to give the holder a CPL/IR. Without a valid IR the holder of an ATPL(A) is only permitted to exercise the privileges of a CPL licence.
  • 78. Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Air Law 4-9 Rating and Re-validation An IR(A) is gained by successful completion of an instrument rating test (IRT) carried out by an approved Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE). The IRT may be carried out in an approved flight simulator. An IR(A) is valid for a period of 1 year. Revalidation is achieved by successful completion of another full IRT conducted by an IRE. No period of extension is permitted for an IR(A). The revalidation IRT may be carried out during the last 3 months of validity of the current IR. If successful, the new IR will be valid from the original date of expiry of the previous IR. If unsuccessful, the current IR is then invalid and the pilot is not permitted to exercise the privileges of the IR until successful completion of another IRT. In the latter case, the period of validity of the new IR will be from the date of successful completion of the IRT. RECENT EXPERIENCE A pilot shall not operate an aeroplane carrying passengers as the pilot in command or co-pilot unless he has carried out: At least 3 take-offs and 3 landings as pilot flying in the same type/class or flight simulator in the preceding 90 days, and If the flight is at night, and the holder does not hold a valid Instrument Rating, one of the take-offs and one of the landings must be carried out at night. Operators who apply more stringent requirements may apply limiting criteria to pilots (in terms of Decision Height and prevailing RVR) who nevertheless meet the general recent experience criteria. CURTAILMENT OF PRIVILEGES OF LICENCE HOLDERS AGED 60 YEARS OR MORE Generally, a commercial pilot may not exercise the privileges of his/her licence unrestricted after attaining the age of 60. France and Italy prohibit commercial flying totally by pilots when they reach the age of 60, and the Czech Republic, at the age of 62. Age 60 – 64 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations except: As a member of a multi-pilot crew and, provided that The holder is the only pilot in the flight crew who has reached age 60. Age 65 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations. Note: Age 60 means the first day of the pilot’s 61st year of life. In other words, the day after he/she is 59 years and 364 days old. Generally, a pilot may exercise the privileges of an ATPL(A) licence throughout the inclusive ages of 21 – 59.
  • 79. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-10 MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS Fitness The holder of a medical certificate shall be mentally and physically fit to exercise safely the privileges of the applicable licence. Medical Fitness An applicant for a licence must hold a medical assessment applicable for the type of licence being applied for. An initial issue medical assessment in accordance with Annex 1 pt 6 or JAR- FCL 3 is required for flight-crew members. Re-validation of assessment is achieved by periodic examination accordance with Annex 1 part 6 or JAR-FCL 3, which is generally less demanding than the initial assessment. Only an approved aeromedical examiner (AME) may issue a medical assessment. Flight-crew members shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless their medical assessment is in date. ICAO Each contracting state designates medical examiners that are authorized to issue the medical assessment. ICAO has established 3 classes of medical assessment (Classes 1, 2, and 3). The class 3 medical is applicable to Air Traffic Controllers only. JAR-FCL In order to apply for or to exercise the privileges of a licence, the applicant or holder shall hold a medical certificate issued in accordance with the provisions of JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) and appropriate to the privileges of the licence. The JAA has established 2 classes of medical assessment (Classes 1 and 2). Periods of Validity of Medical Assessment A medical assessment has a period of validity after which re-validation (by medical examination) is required. Upon expiry of validation, a class 1 medical assessment is automatically reduced to class 2. Therefore the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A) will then not be permitted to exercise the privileges of their licence. ATPL(A) A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 12 months. This reduces to 6 months after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday. CPL(A) A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 12 months. This reduces (JAR-FCL) to 6 months (is recommended to reduce to 6 months - ICAO) after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday. PPL(A) A minimum of class 2 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 24 months. ICAO recommends that this is reduced to 12 months after the licence holder has reached their 40th birthday. Deferment ICAO permits the deferment of the required medical examination to revalidate a medical assessment under certain circumstances. JAR-FCL does not. According to ICAO, a licence holder engaged in commercial operations in a remote area where an aeromedical examiner is not resident, may, upon receipt of a favourable report by a physician, extend the period of validity of the medical assessment for two consecutive periods of three months. The report of the physician is to be sent to the authority issuing the licence.
  • 80. Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Air Law 4-11 Failure to Re-Validate the Medical Assessment After the expiry of a medical assessment, an examination, meeting the requirements of the initial issue assessment, will be required. At the discretion of the licence issuing authority, this may be waived and the medical assessment revalidated with a periodic assessment only. Students engaged on an approved course of training are not required to maintain their class 1 assessment throughout the course. The class 1 assessment will be revalidated on the successful completion of the course by periodic assessment to enable the licence holder to fly commercially. Decrease in Medical Fitness Licence holders or student pilots shall not exercise the privileges of their licences, related ratings or authorizations at any time when they are aware of any decrease in their medical fitness which might render them unable to safely exercise those privileges, and they shall, without undue delay, seek the advice of the authority or an AME when becoming aware of: Hospital or clinic admission for more than 12 hours Surgical operation or invasive procedure The regular use of medication The need for regular use of correcting lenses Notification Every holder of a medical certificate issued in accordance with JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) who is aware of any significant personal injury involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew, or any illness involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew throughout a period of 21 days or more, or being pregnant, is to inform the authority in writing immediately of injury or pregnancy, and as soon as the period of 21 days has elapsed in the case of illness. Suspension of Certificate After notification, the medical certificate shall be suspended and in the case of injury or illness, the suspension will be lifted after the holder has been subsequently medically examined and pronounced fit to function as a member of the flight crew, or the authority lifts the suspension. In the case of pregnancy, the suspension may be lifted by the authority after the pregnancy has ended and the licence holder pronounced fit to resume her functions as a member of the flight crew. The suspension may be temporarily lifted during the initial pregnancy period until the pilot is unable to continue her duties. Note: The suspension of a certificate is not the same as cancellation. A suspended certificate is in ‘suspended animation’. Once the suspension is lifted, the certificate will still be valid, providing the validity expiry date has not passed. If the expiry date has passed, the examination required to lift the suspension will also re-validate the certificate for a further year.
  • 81. Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Air Law4-12 JAA THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATIONS FOR ATPL(A) ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR STUDENTS (JAR-FCL 1.490A) There are 14 subject examinations which you must achieve 75% or more in each to pass. You are permitted to attend 6 examination sittings. If after you have attended 6 sittings and you have not attained 14 passes, you must sit all 14 examinations over again. If any subject examination is failed on four occasions, all the examinations must be retaken. Any candidate who has failed to obtain a pass in the ATPL(A) examinations within the permitted sittings, attempts or time limits, will be required to complete the minimum approved theoretical knowledge training specified below, prior to re-entering the examinations. For the integrated or modular ATPL theory course, this is a minimum of 60 hours theoretical knowledge instruction. 18 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.490b) You must pass all the examinations within a period of 18 months starting from the last day of the month in which you sat the first examination. For instance: If you sat the first examination in June 2004, you would have until the end of December 2005 to pass all the remaining examinations. 36 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495a) After you have passed all 14 examinations, you then have 36 months from the date of passing the last examination to attain an IR(A). If you fail to attain an IR(A) within 36 months, you will have to start the examinations all over again. 7 Year Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495b) Having attained an IR(A) as above, the pass in the theoretical knowledge examinations will remain valid for a period of 7 years from the last validity date of the IR(A).
  • 82. Air Law 5-1 The Conference of Paris in 1919 required all contracting states to establish registers of all aircraft in that state other than military. When establishing the register for that state, the state becomes the State of Registration for all the aircraft in the register. Annex 7 of the Convention of International Civil Aviation contains the Standards adopted by the ICAO for the marking of aircraft. NATIONALITY, COMMON, AND REGISTRATION MARKS A ‘registration’ marking on an aircraft consists of two parts: The nationality mark or common mark, and The registration mark (as entered in the register of that state) Composition Apart from Switzerland and Liechtenstein where the national symbols of the States are part of the markings, the nationality and registration marks consist of a group of characters (Letters or letters and numbers). Common Mark In order to meet the requirements of an international organisation, aircraft operated by such an organisation may be required to be registered in more than one state. As no aircraft is permitted to display nationality markings of more than one state, a common marking is used instead of the nationality mark. ICAO maintains the list of aircraft registered under any common mark, but allocates responsibility to a contracting state (usually a state involved in the operation) to act as the State of Registration for the purpose of determining the airworthiness of the aircraft concerned. The common mark is assigned by ICAO (the Common Mark Agency) from an available list produced by the International Telecommunications Agency. Nationality Mark The nationality mark is selected from the nationality symbols included in the radio call signs allocated to the State of Registry by the International Telecommunication Union.
  • 83. Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Air Law5-2 Combination The nationality or common mark precedes the registration mark. When the first character of the registration mark is a letter it is preceded by a hyphen. Acceptable Combinations The normal combination is one character for the nationality mark and four characters for the registration mark. Where the nationality mark consists of two characters (i.e. Eire - EI) the registration mark consists of only 3 characters (i.e. EI – ABC). Where the nationality mark consists of three characters (i.e. Oman – A4O) the registration mark consists of only two characters (i.e. A4O – AB). Prohibited Combinations When letters are used for the registration mark, combinations containing (in sequence) the following are not used: The five letter combinations used in the International Code of Signals (1) ;and The three letter combinations beginning with Q used in the Q code (ie QUG – ‘I am ditching’); and SOS, XXX, PAN and TTT (2) Note 1: These are the arrangement of signal flags, each of which indicates a particular letter or number, used at sea to pass messages visually. Certain arrangements of 5 flags (hence 5 letters) indicate specific meanings. Note 2: SOS = distress; XXX and PAN = urgency; TTT = safety (a third level of emergency communication alert now only used in maritime operations). LOCATION OF NATIONALITY, COMMON, AND REGISTRATION MARKS GENERAL The nationality or common mark and registration mark is painted on the aircraft or affixed by any other means ensuring a similar degree of permanence. The marks must be kept clean and visible at all times. G - ABCD Nationality Mark Hyphen Registration Mark
  • 84. Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Chapter 5 Air Law 5-3 HEAVIER-THAN-AIR AIRCRAFT Wings On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear once on the lower surface of the wing and shall be at least 50 cm in normally viewed vertical size. Fuselage and Vertical Tail Surfaces On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear on each side of the fuselage between the wings and the tail surface and shall be at least 30 cm in normally viewed vertical size. TYPE OF CHARACTERS FOR NATIONALITY, COMMON AND REGISTRATION MARKS The letters shall be in capital letters in Roman characters without ornamentation. Numbers shall be Arabic numbers without ornamentation. REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION The certificate of registration shall be carried in the aircraft at all times. The certificate of registration, in wording and arrangement, shall be a replica of the form shown below. Registration Certificate State or Common Mark Registering Authority Ministry Department or Service CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION 1. Nationality or Common Mark and Registration Mark 2. Manufacture and Manufacturer’s Designation of Aircraft 3. Aircraft Serial No 4. Name of Owner …………………………………………………………………. 5. Address of Owner ……………………………………………………………….. 6. It is hereby certified that the above described aircraft has been duly entered on the (Name of Register) in accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation dated 7th December 1944 and with the …………………………. Signature ………………… Date of Issue …………….. * For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority
  • 85. Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Air Law5-4 IDENTIFICATION PLATE All aircraft must carry an identification plate, secured to the aircraft in a prominent position near the main entrance plate, made of fireproof metal, or fireproof material inscribed with: Nationality or common mark Registration mark CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT Lighter-than-air Heavier-than-air Power driven Power drivenNon-Power driven Non-Power driven Free Balloon Captive Balloon Airship Glider Kite Aeroplane Rotorcraft Ornithopter Spherical free balloon Non spherical free balloon Spherical captive balloon Non spherical captive balloon Rigid airship Semi-rigid airship Non-rigid airship Landplane Seaplane Amphibian Gyroplane Helicopter Land gyroplane Sea gyroplane Amphibian gyroplanes Land helicopter Sea helicopter Amphibian helicopter Land ornithopter Sea ornithopter Amphibian ornithopter
  • 86. Air Law 6-1 INTRODUCTION Annex 8 contains the standards for airworthiness required for aircraft to meet the performance and operational requirements of Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft). States should not attempt to impose operational requirements on visiting aeroplanes other than those established by the State of Registry, providing they comply with Annex 6. Annex 8 is published in three parts; with part 3 applicable to aircraft engaged in commercial air transport with a MTOM greater than 5700 Kg. The standards are applicable to the entire aircraft and in order for the standards to be applicable the aircraft must have at least 2 engines. CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS (C OF A) The C of A for an aircraft is issued by the State of Registration (or approved representatives). A state can withhold a C of A if the aircraft is known, or suspected, to have dangerous features not specifically covered by the airworthiness requirements. An aircraft is not permitted to fly without a valid C of A. For the initial C of A to be issued the following are required: An approved design to show that the aircraft complies with the airworthiness requirements; Records kept to establish the identification of the aircraft with its approved design; An inspection of the aircraft during the course of construction to determine that it conforms to the approved design; An inspection of the aircraft to establish that its construction and assembly are satisfactory; Flight tests as deemed necessary to show compliance with the airworthiness requirements. Flight Crew The minimum number of flight crew personnel necessary to operate the aeroplane should be listed on the C of A. Transfer of Registration When an aircraft which has a valid C of A is entered on the register of another state, the new State of Registry may accept the C of A as satisfactory evidence that the aircraft is airworthy. Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft The continuing airworthiness of an aircraft shall be determined by the State of Registry in relation to the requirements in force for that aircraft. The State of Registry shall also develop or adopt requirements to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft throughout its life.
  • 87. Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft Air Law6-2 Validity of Certificate of Airworthiness A Certificate of Airworthiness shall be renewed, or shall remain valid, subject to the laws of the State of Registry. The State of Registry shall require that the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft shall be determined by periodical inspections at appropriate intervals. Method of Rendering a Certificate of Airworthiness Valid A State of Registry can validate the Certificate of Airworthiness issued by another state, as an alternative to issuing its own certificate. This validation shall not extend beyond the period of validation of the original Certificate of Airworthiness. Temporary Loss of Airworthiness Any failure to maintain an aircraft in an airworthy condition, will result in the suspension of the C of A until the aircraft is restored to an airworthy condition. Damage To Aircraft When an aircraft has sustained damage, the State of Registry shall judge whether the damage renders the aircraft un-airworthy. If the damage is sustained when the aircraft is in another state, the authorities of that state have the right to prevent the aircraft from flying. That state is to inform the State of Registry immediately. Aircraft Limitations and Information Each aircraft shall be provided with a flight manual, or other documents, stating the approved limitations within which the aircraft is considered airworthy. Instruments and Equipment The aeroplane has to be provided with approved instruments and equipment necessary for the safe operation of the aeroplane. These shall include the instruments and equipment necessary to enable the crew to operate the aeroplane within its operating limitations. Safety and Survival Equipment The specified safety and survival equipment is to be reliable, readily accessible and easily identified, and its method of operation plainly marked. Least-risk Bomb Location A least-risk location on the aeroplane shall be identified where a bomb or other explosive device may be placed to minimize the effects on the aeroplane in the case of detonation.
  • 88. Airworthiness of Aircraft Chapter 6 Air Law 6-3 CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS * * State of Registry Issuing Authority CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS 1. Nationality or Common Mark and Registration Mark 2. Manufacture and Manufacturer’s Designation of Aircraft 3. Aircraft Serial No 4. Categories …………………………………………………………………. This Certificate of Airworthiness is issued pursuant to the Convention on International Civil Aviation dated 7th December 1944 and …………………….. in respect of the above-mentioned aircraft which is considered to be airworthy when maintained and operated in accordance with the foregoing and the pertinent operating limitations. Date of Issue ……………… Signature ………………………….. * For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority
  • 89. Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft Air Law6-4
  • 90. Air Law 7-1 INTRODUCTION From the early days of flying, rules were established to prevent accidents. Many of the basic rules now in force have their origins in the days before the use of radios in aircraft and are based on visual observation of activity in the air and on the ground. Whilst these may seem somewhat quaint or unnecessary in the age of digital data and radar systems, when the new technology fails, the ‘mark one eyeball’ still functions. These rules are now known as the Rules of the Air (RoA). The Rules are defined as general rules with additional rules for flight under VFR and flight under IFR. Together the general rules and rules for flight under VFR are known as the Visual Flight Rules. The general rules and rules for flight under IFR are known as the Instrument Flight Rules. Reference: Annex 2— Rules of the Air Territorial Application of the RoA Wherever an aircraft is flying in the world, the rules of the air of the State of Registry of that aircraft apply to that aircraft. When flying over the territory of another state, the rules of the air of that state have priority over the rules of the air of the State of Registry. When an aircraft is flying outside of the airspace of the State of Registry and outside of the airspace of any other state, the rules of the air as defined in ICAO Annex 1 apply, without exception. Compliance with the Rules of the Air When an aircraft is in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome it must comply with a set of rules known as the Rules of the Air. When in flight it must comply with either the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), or the Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Responsibility for Compliance with the Rules of the Air The PIC, whether at the controls or not, is responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air. The PIC may depart from the rules of the air in the interests of safety. Note: ‘PIC’ should not be confused with ‘Commander’. The JAA recently revised the definitions of PIC and Commander to cover the situation where a ‘cruise crew’ is employed on long haul operations. PIC is the pilot who, for the time being, is responsible for piloting the aeroplane. The Commander is the pilot (he/she must be a pilot) responsible for the conduct of the flight. It could be that the Commander is absent from the flight deck resting, whilst another designated pilot is the PIC. ICAO Annex 1 retains the original definition of Commander which is synonymous with PIC.
  • 91. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-2 Pre-Flight Action The PIC of an aircraft must plan the flight after having pre-briefed himself with all available information appropriate to the flight. Flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and all IFR flights shall include a meteorological brief; a consideration of the fuel requirements and alternative actions if the flight cannot be completed as planned. Authority of the Pilot in Command (PIC) of an Aircraft The PIC of an aircraft shall have final authority over the disposition of an aircraft while in command. If for safety reasons the PIC decides to ignore the rules of the air or not comply with an ATC clearance, he/she must report the non-compliance as soon as possible. In any event, a report is to be submitted to the authority within 10 days. Use of Intoxicating Liquor, Narcotics, or Drugs No person is permitted to pilot an aircraft, or act as flight crew while under the influence of intoxicating liquor, or any narcotic or drug, by reason of which that person’s capacity to act is impaired. GENERAL RULES NEGLIGENT OR RECKLESS OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT An aircraft shall not be operated in a manner so as to endanger life or property of others. MINIMUM HEIGHTS An aircraft is not to be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an open air assembly of persons, unless at a height that will permit, in the event of an emergency (the failure of the critical power unit), a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. Exceptions to this rule are during take-off and landing, or with specific permission from the appropriate authority. Minimum heights for VFR and IFR flights are covered in the later sections. CRUISING LEVELS When established in the cruise, flights are conducted at flight levels (FLs) for flights above the lowest useable FL or where applicable, above the Transition Altitude; or at an altitude for flights below the lowest usable FL, or where applicable, at or below the Transition Altitude. PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED AREAS Aircraft are not to be flown in Prohibited or Restricted Areas except in accordance with the conditions of the restrictions, or by the permission of the state, over whose territories the areas are established. AVOIDANCE OF COLLISIONS Always maintain a good look-out to detect potential collisions, regardless of the type of flight, the flight conditions or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, and while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome. Note: The movement area of an aerodrome includes the apron and the manoeuvring area.
  • 92. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-3 Proximity An aircraft is not to be operated so close to another aircraft so as to create a collision hazard. Right of Way Right of way means the right to proceed without alteration of course. The aircraft that has the right of way is required to maintain its heading and speed, and observe the other aircraft whilst the collision risk exists. Nothing in these rules relieves the PIC of an aircraft that has the right of way, from the responsibility of taking such action where necessary, including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment. Giving Way Any aircraft that is obliged to keep out of the way of another aircraft (give way), must not pass over, under, or in front of that aircraft, unless it is well clear and takes into account the effect of wake turbulence. Approaching Head-On When two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so (+/- 10° of aircraft heading), and there is a danger of collision, both are required to alter heading to the right. There is no priority of aircraft type in this case. (“Turn the RIGHT way”. Why to the right? Because it is the RIGHT thing to do!) Approaching Head-On In the event that you see an aircraft approaching head-on, you and the pilot of the other aircraft must alter your courses to the right.
  • 93. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-4 Converging When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way. Converging If you are in this aircraft to the left, you must give way by turning away in a manner that will not interfere with the other aircraft's flight path. This aircraft, on the other's right, has the right-of-way. Old Pilots saying: Green to Green, all serene. Red to Red, go ahead. Red to Green, you must be seen. Green to Red, you could end up dead. Converging Exceptions The following exceptions apply to the general rule for converging aircraft: Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft (aeroplanes) shall give way to airships, gliders, and balloons. Airships shall give way to gliders and balloons. Gliders shall give way to balloons. Power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.
  • 94. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-5 Overtaking An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending, or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way by altering its heading to the right. No change in the relative positions of the two aircraft absolves the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70º. The pilot of an aircraft is to be alert at all times to the possibility of being overtaken, therefore before commencing a turn, a good visual scan is to be made to starboard and port as far as the view from the flight deck window will allow. Overtaking This aircraft, being overtaken, has the right-of-way. As you overtake another aircraft travelling in the same direction, you must pass well clear on the Note: The overtaking aircraft is in a position where it is unable to see either the aircraft’s left (red light) or right (green light) navigation lights. Landing An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land. Approaching to land When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome to land (straight in approach or final to land), aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level. No aircraft shall take advantage of this rule by cutting in front of another aircraft that is on its final approach. Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders. Emergency Landing An aircraft that is aware that another aircraft is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft. Taking-off An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking-off or about to take-off.
  • 95. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-6 Surface Movement of Aircraft When there is a danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome the following rules apply: Head-On Where two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so, each shall stop, or where practicable, alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear. Converging When two aircraft are on a converging course, the one that has the other on its right shall give way. Overtaking An aircraft that is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right of way. The overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft. Stopping An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all taxi-holding positions unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower to continue. This includes lighted stop bars. When the stop bar lights are switched off the aircraft may proceed. Lights to be Displayed by Aircraft The manner of lighting aircraft is covered in Operational Procedures. The law specifies the use of lights. When Lights must be Displayed From sunset to sunrise (or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority), all aircraft in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome must display: Anti collision lights intended to attract the attention of other aircraft. Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer. No other lights shall be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for the navigation lights. Unless stationary, and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure and to attract attention to the aircraft. (1) All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact. (2) Note 1: Lights such as landing lights and airframe floodlights may be used in addition to the anti collision light to enhance aircraft conspicuity. Note 2: Red anti collision lights may meet the requirements above provided that they do not subject observers to harmful dazzle.
  • 96. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-7 Failure of Lights When a pilot is aware that a navigation light has failed, ATC is to be informed and the aircraft is to land and have the light repaired before continuing the flight. Anti-Collision Lights All aircraft, in flight or operating on the movement area of an aerodrome, that are fitted with anti- collision lights, shall display these lights at all times. If an anti-collision light fails in flight, the light is to be repaired prior to the next flight. Harmful or Dazzling Lights Pilots are permitted to switch off, or reduce the intensity of, any flashing lights if they adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties, or subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle. SIMULATED INSTRUMENT FLIGHT (SIF) In order to train pilots in instrument flying, instrument meteorology conditions (IMC) have to be simulated. This requires some means of limiting the vision of the pilot flying. Non-compliance with the Rules of the Air will be in effect during visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Therefore, an aircraft shall not be flown under SIF conditions unless it has fully functioning dual controls and a qualified pilot (who does not need to be class/type rated on the aircraft) occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument flying conditions. The safety pilot should have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft. Where the vision of the safety pilot is not adequate, a competent observer, in communication with the safety pilot, shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the field of vision of the observer adequately supplements that of the safety pilot. Practice Instrument Approaches When a pilot is making an instrument approach for practice in VMC, ATC is to be informed and the aircraft landing lights are to be illuminated to draw the attention of other pilots to the aircraft. Operation on and In the Vicinity of an Aerodrome Pilots of aircraft operating on, or in the vicinity, of an aerodrome (inside or outside of an Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ)) are to: Observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision; Conform with, or avoid, the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation; Make all turns to the left, when approaching for landing or taking-off unless otherwise instructed; and Land and take-off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or an air traffic consideration determines that a different direction should be used. FLIGHT PLANS In this section, the term ‘Flight Plan’ refers to an ATC flight plan (FPL). An ATC FPL is the method by which the authority is notified of the intention of a pilot to make a flight where that flight is to be provided with an ATC service, or is to be conducted in airspace where the authority has determined that a FPL is to be submitted. The process of submitting a FPL is called ‘filing’ a FPL. ATC authorities provide approved formats for the information required in filing a full FPL. The UK CAA format is the form CA48 that follows the ICAO standard FPL filing form. The student should
  • 97. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-8 note that a FPL is what the pilot intends to do, not the form upon which the plan is filed. Indeed, in some circumstances it is not practical to use a form, and the pilot’s intention (his/her flight plan) may be communicated by radio to the ATC unit. FPLs are required to be filed before: Any flight or portion of a flight requiring an ATC service; Any IFR flight in advisory airspace; Any flight into authority designated areas or along designated routes where the appropriate ATC service is required to provide a flight information service (FIS), alerting service, and search and rescue (SAR) service; Where the authority has determined that a FPL should be filed to facilitate co- ordination between civilian and military authorities or between the ATC services of adjacent states to avoid the need for interception for identification purposes; and Any flight across international borders. Note: Flight across a Flight Information Region (FIR) boundary does not necessarily require the filing of a FPL. For instance, a flight across the English/Scottish border crosses the FIR boundary but does not cross an international boundary. Where and When to File a FPL When a FPL is necessary for a flight, file it to an Air Traffic Services (ATS) reporting office before departure. The method of delivering the completed FPL form may be by hand, mail, fax, electronic media, or verbally (phone). If the FPL is filed directly to the ATC Centre (ATCC), it cannot be delivered by hand because the security staff will not let you in. A pilot can file an FPL in flight by radio to an ATS unit, or an Air/Ground radio station. In the case of scheduled operations or multiple repeats of a flight, a repetitive FPL (RPL) may be filed. To file an RPL, the flight must be repeated 10 times or more, or repeated over a period of not less than 10 days. 60 minutes For a flight to be provided with an ATC service or advisory ATC, the FPL is to be filed at least 60 minutes before departure. 10 minutes For the filing of a FPL in flight, the FPL is to be filed at least 10 minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach: The intended point of entry into an area where ATC or advisory ATC is to be provided; or The point of crossing an airway or advisory route. Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) To comply with the requirements of ATFM, a FPL is to be filed not less than 3 hours before departure. This period is also required for filing FPLs for flight in Oceanic Control Areas (OCAs). For flights subject to ATFM, the ATC authority issues an estimated off-blocks time (EOBT), which becomes the defined departure time for that flight. Delays after Filing In the event of a delay of 30 minutes in excess of the estimated off-block time for a controlled flight or a delay of one hour for an uncontrolled flight for which a flight plan has been submitted, the flight plan should be amended or a new flight plan submitted and the old flight plan cancelled.
  • 98. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-9 Non-scheduled Non-commercial International Flights Annex 9 requires that non-scheduled, non-commercial flights crossing an international boundary are to be filed at least 2 hours before the aircraft is planned to land in the destination state. Note: ‘Departure’ is not defined. It is generally accepted to be the time at which the flight is intended to begin. Changing a FPL If it becomes necessary to change an IFR FPL, or a VFR FPL for a controlled VFR flight, communicate the necessary changes to the ATCU as soon as practicable. For other VFR flights, only significant changes need to be reported. Closing a FPL Until a FPL is closed, it remains active and subject to ATC action, including overdue action and costly SAR operations. At the completion of a flight for which a FPL is filed, the pilot is to make a report to the ATCU at the arrival aerodrome in person, by radio, or by data link. At an uncontrolled aerodrome, make the report to the nearest ATCU. If the facilities at the destination aerodrome are inadequate and no other procedures are in force, the pilot is to make a report shortly before landing by RTF to the appropriate ATCU providing the ATC service. Such a report is to contain: Aircraft identification; Departure aerodrome; Destination aerodrome in the case of a diversion to an alternate aerodrome; Arrival aerodrome; Time of arrival. Time In all communications, time is to be expressed as Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) utilising the 24 hour clock. A time check is to be obtained before operating a controlled flight. ATC Clearances Commencement of a controlled flight may only be commenced after the receipt of an ATC clearance. An initial ATC clearance includes the words ‘clear to….’ It also includes ATC instructions to be complied with by the pilot. If an ATC clearance received is not satisfactory or cannot be complied with, the PIC may request an amended clearance. Before taxiing at a controlled aerodrome a taxi clearance is to be obtained. Current Flight Plan (CPL) Flight in accordance with an ATC clearance and any subsequent re-clearance, is defined as flight in accordance with the current FPL (CPL). Adherence to the FPL A pilot operating a controlled flight is required to adhere to the CPL. When flying along a defined ATS route, the aircraft is to be flown along the centre line of the route. If no defined ATS route exists, fly the aircraft directly between the navigation facilities used or the points that define the route.
  • 99. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-10 Inadvertent Changes If a controlled flight deviates from the CPL, the following action is to be taken: Deviation from Track Adjust the heading to regain the desired track as soon as practicable. Variation in TAS If TAS at cruising level changes (or is expected to change) by 5% or more from that given in the FPL, inform the ATC. Change in ETA If the ETA changes by more than +/-3 minutes, the ETA is to be revised to ATC. In an Oceanic Control Area, report changes in ETA of +/- 3 mins or more. Position Reports Unless specifically exempted by the ATC authority, a pilot of a controlled flight is to make position reports at the designated reporting points. If no reporting points are specified for a route, position reports are to be made at intervals determined by the ATC authority. Such reports are to be made 30 minutes after commencement of the flight, then at hourly intervals. A position report includes: aircraft identification, position, time at that position, and altitude or FL. Where automatic altitude reporting has been confirmed, omit the altitude report. Additional information may be requested by the ATC authority. For an airways report, the next position and ETA should be included and optionally the ensuing position. An example of a full airways position report is: “London Control this is Atlantic 123, Daventry at 33, FL 170, Bookman’s Park at 49, Midhurst next” Termination of Control When a controlled flight leaves controlled airspace (CAS), the pilot reports that the aircraft is ‘clear of CAS’ at which point the provision of an ATC service ceases. COMMUNICATIONS A controlled flight is required to maintain two way RTF communications with the controlling ATCU. Where approved a SELCAL watch is an acceptable alternative. If Controller/Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) has been established, the requirement to maintain voice RTF remains. Communication Failure(1) If an aircraft is unable to communicate (receive and acknowledge ATC instructions and indicate a state of emergency), in addition to squawking Mode A/7600 and maintaining a visual watch for signals, if flying in VMC, maintain VMC and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome. ATC is to be informed as soon as possible once the aircraft lands. If flying in IMC (2) : Maintain the last assigned speed and/or level, for a period of 20 minutes after the failure to report over the last compulsory reporting point(3) ; then; Proceed in accordance with the FPL to the navigation facility serving the destination aerodrome and hold on that facility; and Descend from the facility at the last received and acknowledged Expected Approach Time (EAT), or where no EAT has been issued, at the ETA from the FPL (4) ; then Fly a normal instrument approach; and Land within 30 minutes of the ETA.
  • 100. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-11 Note 1: An aircraft may have many different systems for communication. These may include VHF, HF, Data Link, SATCOM, satellite telephone, cell phones, and SSR. ATC can also transmit voice RTF on the localiser channel of ILS. Total communications failure in a modern aircraft is a remote possibility. Note 2: Clearly, at any time during the procedure for failure in IMC, if the pilot finds VMC then the aircraft should attempt to land whilst maintaining VMC. Note 3: This would be the time when it can be assumed safely that the ATC authority is now aware of the communications failure situation. Note 4: If a communication failure occurs to an aircraft in a terminal holding pattern after the receipt of an ATC message indicating ‘delay not determined’ the descent at ETA would be dangerous as aircraft may still be in the holding pattern below. In this case, the advice is to leave the holding pattern in a safe direction maintaining the last assigned level, find VMC and land. Consideration should be given to squawking A/7700. Communications Failure During a Standard Instrument Departure in European Airspace A departing controlled IFR flight operating in IMC, having acknowledged an initial intermediate clearance to climb to a level other than the one specified in the current flight plan for the enroute phase of the flight, and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should, if no time limit or geographical limit was included in the climb clearance, maintain the level to which it was cleared for a period of 7 minutes and then continue its flight in accordance with the current flight plan. A departing controlled IFR flight vectored by radar away from the route specified in its current flight plan and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should proceed in the most direct manner to the route specified in the current flight plan. Interception Each State has the right to protect its territory and to satisfy itself that any aircraft applying the freedoms of the air is bona-fide. If the authority of a state has suspicions that a flight is not what is supposed to be, or has entered the airspace of a state without permission, it may invoke a process of interception. Interception Phraseology It is usual for military interceptor aircraft to be used for this purpose, and there is a strong likelihood that the military pilot may not speak English. ICAO has formulated standard phraseology (reproduced below) and signals to be used in this situation.
  • 101. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-12 Table: Interception Phraseology International Interception Signal Tables The carriage of the International Interception Signal Tables is mandatory for international flights and as such, learning the tables is not required. Indeed, it is considered dangerous to do so. In an interception situation, the pilot is required to have the tables available and use them. It is recommended that an aircraft being intercepted squawks A/7700. If interception occurs after communication with the ATC authority of a state by military aircraft of that state, then ATC will be aware of, and may have been instrumental in ordering the interception. The International Interception Signal Tables are reproduced at Appendix 1 at the end of this chapter. Unlawful Interference An aircraft subject to unlawful interference is to attempt to communicate the fact to the ATC authority together with details of any deviation from the CPL necessitated by the situation. The SSR system should be set to A/7500 unless A/7700 is more appropriate. Further advice on the management of situations of unlawful interference will be the subject of specific instruction by the operator during airline indoctrination. VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR) When permitted by the class of airspace and in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) a pilot may elect to fly under the Visual Flight Rules (VFR). In conditions less than VMC in a control zone (CTR) a pilot may request an ATC clearance to fly under modified VFR called Special VFR (SVFR). In determining the existence of VMC, the pilot is the sole arbiter. If a pilot is unsure as to the existence of VMC he/she should assume IMC and fly under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). In any event, a pilot without authorisation to fly under IFR is required to satisfy him/herself that before beginning a flight under VFR, VMC exists along the entire route, or that alternate aerodromes are available for landing without flight in IMC. Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft Phrase Pronunciation Meaning Phrase Pronunciation Meaning CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN What is your call sign? CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN My call sign is FOLLOW FOL-LO Follow me WILCO VILL-CO Understood, will comply DESCEND DEE-SEND Descend for landing CAN NOT KANN-NOTT Unable to comply YOU LAND YOU-LAND Land at this aerodrome REPEAT REE-PEET Repeat your instruction PROCEED PRO-SEED You may proceed AM LOST AM LOSST Position unknown MAYDAY MAYDAY I am in distress HIJACK HI-JACK I have been hijacked LAND (Place name) LAAND I request to land at (Place name) DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent
  • 102. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-13 VMC Minima VMC is determined by a required forward visibility from the flight deck (flight visibility) and required vertical and horizontal distances from cloud. As the reference for this section of the LOs is ICAO Annex 2, the VMC minima applicable to the RoA as defined in Annex 2 are stated in Annex 2; Chapter 3; and paragraph 3.9. These are graphically illustrated in table 3-1 which is reproduced below. The ICAO minima are different from those stated in JAR OPS-1 and those applied by the UK CAA. The major difference is in the VMC minima specified for class B airspace. F GAirspace Class A, B, C, D & E (Note 3) Above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is higher At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is higher Distance From Cloud 1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface Flight Visibility 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA (Note 1) 5 km (Note 2) Notes: 1. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft. 2. When the ATS authority prescribe: a. Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating: 1) At speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision, or 2) In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels. b. Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that gives adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. 3. The inclusion of VMC minima for Class A airspace does not imply permitted VFR in Class A airspace. Take-off and Landing Except when a clearance is given from an ATCU, VFR flights cannot take-off or land at an aerodrome in a CTR, or enter an aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern when: The ceiling is less than 1500 ft The visibility is less than 5 km Night ATS authorities may impose conditions, or proscribe VFR flights between sunset and sunrise. Limits Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights are not operated above FL200 or at transonic and supersonic speeds.
  • 103. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-14 Minimum Heights Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or where permission has been granted from the appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown: Over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an open air assembly of persons, at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft. Elsewhere, at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water. VFR Flight Levels Except where indicated in ATC clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3000 ft) from the ground or water, or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, are to be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels. ATC Clearances VFR flights shall comply with the provisions laid out in ATC clearances when operated in Class B, C and D airspace, when forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, or when operated as special VFR flights. Radio Watch A VFR flight operating within ATS routes, or areas specified by the appropriate ATS authority, shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. The aircraft must report its position as necessary to the ATS unit providing the FIS. Weather Deterioration below VMC If it becomes evident that a controlled VFR flight will not remain in VMC, the pilot is to: Request an amended clearance to continue to the destination aerodrome by another route remaining in VMC; or Land at the nearest useable aerodrome; or If operating in a CTR, request a SVFR clearance; or File an IFR FPL. VFR Flight Plan When a flight plan for a VFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form, the flight rules to be observed are indicated in field 8 of the form. For VFR, the entry in field 8 is “V”. If it is intended that the flight will start under VFR and at some point change to IFR, the letter “Z” is entered in field 8. Aide memoir: VFR requires good VIZ. V to I = Z. (VIZ) INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES Where VMC does not exist, IMC must exist. In IMC the ability to navigate with reference to the ground and to maintain a good look out for possible collision hazards is not always possible. In order for commercial aviation to meet the expectations of the travelling public, flight in IMC has to be made possible and safe. In order to fly in IMC a commercial pilot must elect to fly under the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Before electing to fly under IFR, the commercial pilot must be satisfied that the aircraft is properly equipped for IFR flight and that any commercial pilot permitted to fly the aeroplane under IFR has an instrument rating (IR).
  • 104. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-15 Aircraft Equipment All aircraft flying under IFR are required to be equipped with suitable instruments and navigation equipment appropriate to the route to be flown. The exact requirements are detailed in JAR OPS- 1 and are covered in Operational Procedures. Minimum Levels Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or when specifically authorized by the appropriate authority, an IFR flight is to be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight altitude established by the state whose territory is being over flown. If a minimum altitude has not been established, an IFR flight shall be flown at a level which is at least 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within 8 km (5 nm) of the estimated position of the aircraft. In mountainous terrain, this is increased to 600 m (2000 ft). Note: Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the prevailing wind of 37 kts produces significant downdraughts. Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight An aircraft wishing to change from IFR to VFR in flight shall notify the appropriate ATS unit that the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate the changes to be made to the current flight plan to allow the flight to continue under VFR. The phraseology used is: “Coventry Approach this is Atlantic 123, cancel IFR, joining visually for runway….” The reply must be “Atlantic 123 roger, IFR cancelled at time ….” Note: It is the IFR flight that is cancelled, not the IFR flight plan. Temporary Cancellation of IFR When an aircraft operating under IFR is flown in, or encounters VMC, IFR shall not be cancelled unless it is anticipated, and intended, that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of time in uninterrupted VMC. Note: ‘Reasonable period’ is interpreted as about 1/3rd of the total expected flight time. RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS WITHIN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of the rules laid out in ATC clearances. IFR FLIGHT LEVELS An IFR flight operating in cruising flight shall be flown at a cruising level, or if authorized to employ cruise climb techniques, between two levels or above a level, selected from the table of cruising levels found after this section. The correlation to track does not apply when indicated in ATC clearances or specified in the appropriate ATS authority AIP. RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS OUTSIDE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside controlled airspace is flown at a cruising level appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels.
  • 105. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-16 COMMUNICATIONS All IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas, or along routes designated by the appropriate ATS authority shall maintain a listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. Two-way communications must be established with the ATS unit providing the FIS. POSITION REPORTS Position reports are to be made by all IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace, and by aircraft which are required by the appropriate ATS authority to submit a flight plan, maintain a listening watch on the appropriate frequency or establish two way communications with the appropriate ATS authority. IFR FLIGHT PLAN When a flight plan for an IFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form, the flight rules to be observed are indicated in field 8 of the form. For IFR, the entry in field 8 is “I”. If it is intended that the flight will start under IFR and at some point change to VFR, the letter “Y” is entered in field 8. Aide memoir: IFR to VFR = Y. (IVY). SPECIAL VFR (SVFR) SVFR is defined as a clearance to fly within a CTR in conditions less than VMC in which the pilot remains clear of cloud and in visual contact with the ground. Provision of SVFR Where a pilot cannot, or has good reason not to, comply with IFR in a CTR he/she may request a special VFR (SVFR) clearance to: Enter a CTR to land at an aerodrome within the CTR; Take off from an aerodrome within a CTR and depart from the CTR; or To fly between aerodromes within a CTR. Procedure The clearance given permits flight in meteorological conditions less than VMC providing the pilot remains clear of cloud and in sight of the ground, and can navigate the aircraft by visual means. In class A airspace, a SVFR clearance overrides the requirement for mandatory compliance with IFR. A pilot must request SVFR. It will not be offered by ATC. SVFR is only applicable to CTRs. The limit of the clearance is to or from the CTR boundary and does not extend beyond the CTR. In busy CTRs, SVFR traffic lanes (SVFR corridors) are established as standard SVFR routes beginning at specified points on the CTR boundary and terminating at the aerodrome served by the route. Under certain circumstances, ATCOs will provide separation of IFR flights from SVFR flights. Take-off Conditions According to ICAO a SVFR flight may take off from an aerodrome in a CTR providing the ground visibility is not less than 1500 m. JAR OPS requires a ground visibility of not less than 3000 m. Both references require a minimum flight visibility of 1500 m to continue a SVFR flight.
  • 106. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-17 CRUISING LEVELS Semi Circular Rule The table of flight levels is based on VFR and IFR flight levels determined by reference to the magnetic track flown. In areas where RVSM is applied, the table is modified. The basic rule is that vertical separation between IFR FLs below FL290 is 1000 ft, as is the separation between VFR FLs. Above FL290, the separation is increased to 2000 ft to allow for the inaccuracies in barometric altimeters at altitudes where the barometric lapse rate is high (see Met notes). 000° Mag 180° Mag FLs 50 70 90 etc… up to 290 then 330 370 410 etc… FLs 40 60 80 etc… up to 280 then 310 350 390 etc… Odd FLs Even FLs 000° Mag 180° Mag FLs 55 75 95 etc… up to 275 then 300 340 380 etc… FLs 45 65 85 etc… up to 285 then 320 360 400 etc… Odd FLs +500ft Even FLs +500ft IFR Flight Levels VFR Flight Levels In non – RVSM Airspace 000° Mag 180° Mag FLs 40, 60, 80 etc… up to 280 then 300 320 340 etc… up to 400 then 430 470 Etc… Odd FLs Even FLs FLs 30, 50, 70 etc… up to 290 then 310 330 350 etc… up to 410 then 450 490 Etc… IFR Flight Levels 000° Mag 180° Mag FLs 55 75 95 etc… up to 275 FLs 45 65 85 etc… up to 285 Odd FLs +500ft Even FLs +500ft VFR Flight Levels In RVSM Airspace
  • 107. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-18 Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) The desired cruising levels for turbo-jet aircraft are adjacent to the tropopause (typically FL350 – 370). In the upper airspace (in UIRs and OCAs) these levels quickly become occupied and congestion arises. To overcome this (in part), a system of reduced vertical separation is applied whereby the 1000 ft separation between FLs is maintained up to FL410. Above FL410, the inaccuracy in the altimeter operation is too great for continuation of the reduced minima. This immediately doubles the available FLs between FL290 and the limit of the application, FL410. This standard is known as Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM). Where RVSM is applied, VFR flight is not permitted under any circumstance above FL285. Domestic Airspace In the upper airspace where RVSM is applied, the RVSM levels are defined as FL300 – FL410 (implying that FL290 is not an RVSM level). Oceanic Airspace In the upper airspace of an OCA, from 24 Jan 2002 RVSM is applied between FL290 and FL410 inclusive (implying that FL290 is an RVSM level). Requirements To fly in airspace where RVSM is applied, an aircraft must be equipped with two independent altitude measuring systems; an altitude alerting system (activated by deviation from the selected altitude); an automatic altitude control system (height lock), and an SSR system with altitude reporting (mode C) connected to the system used for the automatic altitude control system. Additionally, the operator must be approved for RVSM operations.
  • 108. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-19 CRUISING LEVELS APPROPRIATE TO DIRECTION OF FLIGHT Track from 180° to 359° Track from 000° to 179° FL 430 FL 400 FL 380 FL 360 FL 340 FL 320 FL 300 FL 280 FL 410 FL 390 FL 370 FL 350 FL 330 FL 310 FL 290 (Outside of RVSM airspace) (Outside of RVSM airspace)
  • 109. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-20 TABLE OF CRUISING LEVELS The cruising levels to be observed when required by Annex 2 are listed in the two tables below. In areas where Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) of 300 m (1000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive (1) TRACK (2) From 000º to 179º (3) From 180º to 359º (3) IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 390 410 450 490 etc 300 900 1500 2150 2750 3350 3950 4550 5200 5800 6400 7000 7600 8250 8850 9450 10 050 10 650 11 300 11 900 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 11 000 13 000 15 000 17 000 19 000 21 000 23 000 25 000 27 000 29 000 31 000 33 000 35 000 37 000 39 000 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc 35 55 75 95 115 135 155 175 195 215 235 255 275 1050 1700 2300 2900 3500 4100 4700 5350 5950 6550 7150 7750 8400 3500 5500 7500 9500 11 500 13 500 15 500 17 500 19 500 21 500 23 500 25 500 27 500 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 430 470 510 etc 600 1200 1850 2450 3050 3650 4250 4900 5500 6100 6700 7300 7900 8550 9150 9750 10 350 10 950 11 600 12 200 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc 2000 4000 6000 8000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 30 000 32 000 34 000 36 000 38 000 40 000 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc 45 65 85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265 285 1350 2000 2600 3200 3800 4400 5050 5650 6250 6850 7450 8100 8700 4500 6500 8500 10 500 12 500 14 500 16 500 18 500 20 500 22 500 24 500 26 500 28 500 Note 1: Except when, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a modified table of cruising levels based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1000 ft) is prescribed for use, under specified conditions, by aircraft operating above FL 410 within designated portions of the airspace Note 2: Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North Note 3: Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified
  • 110. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-21 In Other Areas TRACK (1) From 000º to 179º (2) From 180º to 359º (2) IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 330 370 410 450 490 etc 300 900 1500 2150 2750 3350 3950 4550 5200 5800 6400 7000 7600 8250 8850 10 050 11 300 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 11 000 13 000 15 000 17 000 19 000 21 000 23 000 25 000 27 000 29 000 33 000 37 000 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc 35 55 75 95 115 135 155 175 195 215 235 255 275 300 340 380 420 460 500 etc 1050 1700 2300 2900 3500 4100 4700 5350 5950 6550 7150 7750 8400 9150 10 350 11 600 12 800 14 000 15 250 etc 3500 5500 7500 9500 11 500 13 500 15 500 17 500 19 500 21 500 23 500 25 500 27 500 30 000 34 000 38 000 42 000 46 000 50 000 etc 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 310 350 390 430 470 510 etc 600 1200 1850 2450 3050 3650 4250 4900 5500 6100 6700 7300 7900 8550 9150 10 650 11 900 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc 2000 4000 6000 8000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 31 000 35 000 39 000 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc 45 65 85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265 285 320 360 400 440 480 520 etc 1350 2000 2600 3200 3800 4400 5050 5650 6250 6850 7450 8100 8700 9750 10 950 12 200 13 400 14 650 15 850 etc 4500 6500 8500 10 500 12 500 14 500 16 500 18 500 20 500 22 500 24 500 26 500 28 500 32 000 36 000 40 000 44 000 48 000 52 000 etc Note 1: Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North Note 2: Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified.
  • 111. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-22 APPENDIX 1 TO CHAPTER 7 SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION Air-to-Air Visual Signals Both intercepting and intercepted aircraft must adhere strictly to the following signals. All signals must be given as per the tables below. The intercepting aircraft must pay particular attention to any signals given by the intercepted aircraft that indicate it is in a state of distress. Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft Intercepting Aircraft Signals Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Responds Meaning 1 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT Rocking aircraft and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally to the left of, the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and after acknowledgement, a slow level turn, normally to the left, (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) on the desired heading NOTE: Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and directions of the turn above. If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft, the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft You have been intercepted follow me Rocking aircraft, flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals and following Understood will comply
  • 112. Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Air Law 7-23 Intercepting Aircraft Signals Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Responds Meaning 2 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT An abrupt breakaway manoeuvre from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90º or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft You may proceed Rocking the aircraft Understood will comply 3 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and overflying the runway in use or, if the aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area. In the case of helicopters, the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach coming to hover near the landing area Land at this aerodrome Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and, if, after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area, landing is considered safe, proceeding to land Understood will comply Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft Intercepted Aircraft Signals Meaning Intercepting Aircraft Responds Meaning 4 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over runway in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 1000 ft but not exceeding 2000 ft (in the case of a helicopter, at a height exceeding 170 ft but not exceeding 330 ft) above the aerodrome level, and continue to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft Understood follow me 5 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT Regular switching on and off of all available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights Cannot comply Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft Understood 6 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT Irregular flashing of all available lights In distress Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft Understood
  • 113. Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Air Law7-24
  • 114. Air Law 8-1 Reference: Annex 2 – Rules of the Air INTRODUCTION When observing or receiving any of the following signals, the pilot of an aircraft shall take the actions required by the signal. The signals are to be used only for the purposes indicated. No other signals that are likely to be confused with the authorised signals shall be used. EMERGENCY SIGNALS Distress and Urgency Signals These signals are used to indicate that an aircraft (or other vehicle) is in a state of emergency. However, an aircraft in distress may use any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position, and obtain help. Distress Signals The state of DISTRESS means that an aircraft is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance. The following signals may be used separately or together: Use of the Morse code group SOS ( - - - ) The spoken word MAYDAY (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal) Rockets or shells showing red lights, fired one at a time or at intervals A parachute flare showing a red light Urgency Signals The state of URGENCY exists when an aircraft has an urgent message to transmit regarding the safety of persons or property on board or within sight. The following signals may be used separately, or together: Use of the Morse code group XXX (- - - - - -) The spoken words PAN PAN (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal) Assistance not Required When used separately, or together, the following signals mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties that compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: The repeated switching on and off of the landing lights, or The repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in a manner that is distinctive from flashing navigation lights
  • 115. Chapter 8 Signals Air Law8-2 AERODROME SIGNALS Signals for Aerodrome Traffic Aircraft manoeuvring on or flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome are required to look out for and comply with visual signals from the ground. If an aerodrome accepts non-radio traffic, a signal square is positioned on the aerodrome side of the control tower to give information to aircraft airborne. To complement this, a signals mast is positioned near the control tower to give information to aircraft taxiing or stationary on the ground. All visual control rooms (VCR) in control towers are required to be equipped with a signal lamp capable of being aimed at a particular aircraft; showing red, green, and white light; and capable of transmitting visual Morse code. VCRs and where situated, runway caravans, are also equipped with pyrotechnic (flare) cartridges and a means of firing them. The following table contains the lamp and pyrotechnic signals from the VCR or a runway caravan. FROM AERODROME CONTROL TOLIGHT AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND Steady Green Steady Red Series of Green flashes Series of Red flashes Series of White flashes Red Pyrotechnic Cleared to land Give way to other aircraft and continue circling Return for landing* Aerodrome unsafe, do not land Land at this aerodrome and proceed to apron Notwithstanding any previous instructions, do not land for the time being * Clearances to land and taxi will be given in due course Cleared for take-off Stop Cleared to taxi Taxi clear of landing area in use Return to starting point on the aerodrome ACKNOWLEDGEMENT When seen an acknowledgement is given by: When in Flight During the hours of daylight by rocking the aircraft’s wings; During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice or, if not so equipped, by switching its navigation lights on and off twice. When on the Ground During the hours of daylight by moving the aircraft’s ailerons or rudder. During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice or, if not so equipped, by switching its navigation lights on and off twice.
  • 116. Signals Chapter 8 Air Law 8-3 VISUAL GROUND SIGNALS These signals are displayed in the signal square: Prohibition of Landing A horizontal red square with yellow diagonals when displayed in a signal area indicates that landings are prohibited and that prohibition is likely to be prolonged. A horizontal red square with one yellow diagonal when displayed in a signal area indicates that owing to the bad state of the manoeuvring area, or for any other reason, special precautions must be observed in approaching to land or in landing. Use of Runways and Taxiways A horizontal white dumbbell (the name of the shape) when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are required to land, take-off, and taxi on runways and taxiways only. The same dumbbell but with black bars indicates that aircraft are required to land and take-off on runways only, but other manoeuvres need not be confined to runways and taxiways. Direction for Take-off or Landing A horizontal white or orange landing T indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing and take-off. The same signal may be displayed on the surface of a grass aerodrome without defined runways, to indicate the landing direction. In the absence of a landing “T” pilots should observe the wind indicator (wind-sock) and land in the appropriate direction. LAND OR T AKE OFF T HIS WAY LANDING DIRECT ION
  • 117. Chapter 8 Signals Air Law8-4 Right Hand Traffic A right hand arrow of conspicuous colour (usually red and yellow stripes) indicates that turns are to be made to the right, before landing and after take-off. Turns are normally made to the left and the absence of this signal implies left turns. Glider Flights in Operation A double white cross displayed horizontally in the signal area indicates that gliders are using the aerodrome. QDM Boards Two digits displayed vertically at or near to the aerodrome control tower indicate the direction for take-off. These units are expressed in units of 10° to the nearest 10° of the magnetic compass. Closed Runways or Taxiways A cross of a single contrasting colour, yellow or white, displayed horizontally on runways or taxiways indicate an area unfit for the movement of aircraft. Air Traffic Services Reporting Office The letter C vertically in black against a yellow background indicates the location of the ATS reporting office. Mandatory and Information Signs These signs are used on aerodromes. They are covered in detail in the aerodrome section of the notes. Marshalling Signals These signals are designed for use by the marshaller with hands illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the pilot, and facing the aircraft in a position: For Fixed Wing Aircraft Forward of the left wing tip within view of the pilot For Helicopters Where the marshaller can best be seen by the pilot C 26 X XRunway Taxiway
  • 118. Signals Chapter 8 Air Law 8-5 The aircraft engines are numbered: 1 Port (left) outer 2 Port (left) inner 3 Starboard (right) inner 4 Starboard (right) outer To Proceed Under Guidance of another Marshaller Marshaller directs pilot if traffic conditions on aerodrome require this action. Right or left arm down, the other arm moved across the body and extended to indicate position of the other marshaller. This Bay Arms above head in vertical position with palms facing forward. Proceed to Next Marshaller Right or left arm down, other arm moved across the body and extended to indicate direction of next marshaller. TURN Turn to Your Left Right arm downward, left arm repeatedly moved upward- backward. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn. Turn to Your Right Left arm downward, right arm repeatedly moved upward- backward. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn. Move Ahead Arms a little aside, palms facing backward and repeatedly moved upward-backward from shoulder height.
  • 119. Chapter 8 Signals Air Law8-6 Stop Arms repeatedly crossed above the head (the rapidity of the arm movement should be related to the urgency of the stop ie the faster the movement the quicker the stop). BRAKES Engage Brakes Raise arm, and hand with fingers extended, horizontally in front of the body, then clench the fingers. Release Brakes Raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of body, then extend fingers. CHOCKS Chocks Inserted Arms down, palms facing inwards, move arms from extended position inwards. Chocks Removed Arms down, palms facing outwards, move arms outwards. Start Engine(s) Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended, to indicate the number of the engine to be started, and circular motion of right hand at head level. Cut Engines Either arm and hand level with shoulder, hand across the throat, palm downward. The hand is moved sideways with the arm remaining bent. Slow Down Arms down with palms toward ground.
  • 120. Signals Chapter 8 Air Law 8-7 Slow Down Engine(s) on Indicated Side Arms down with palms towards ground, then either right or left hand waved up and down indicating the left or right side engine(s) respectively should be slowed down. Move Back Arms by sides, palms facing forward, swept forward and upward repeatedly to shoulder height. All Clear Right arm raised at elbow with thumb erect.
  • 121. Chapter 8 Signals Air Law8-8 SIGNALS FROM THE PILOT OF AN AIRCRAFT TO A MARSHALLER These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the marshaller, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the marshaller. (a) Raise arm and hand with fingers extended horizontally in front of face, then clench fist. Meaning Brakes engaged. (b) Raise arm with fist clenched horizontally in front of face, then extend fingers. Meaning Brakes released. (c) Arms extended palms facing outwards, move hands inwards to cross in front of face. Meaning Insert chocks. (d) Hands crossed in front of face, palms facing outwards, move arms outward. Meaning Remove chocks. (e) Raise the number of fingers on one hand indicating the number of the engine to be started. For this purpose the aircraft engines shall be numbered as follows, No. 1 engine shall be port outer engine. No. 2, the port inner engine, No. 3, the starboard inner engine and No. 4, the starboard outer engine. Meaning Ready to start engine.
  • 122. Air Law 9-1 References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document 8168- Ops/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services (Document 4444 –RAC/501) EXPRESSION OF VERTICAL POSITION Altitude The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to mean sea level is referred to as altitude. To display this on the aircraft altimeter, the mean sea level barometric pressure derived for a known location is set in the altimeter sub scale. This setting is referred to as QNH. Height The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to a defined position on the surface of the Earth is referred to as height. To display this on the aircraft altimeter, the barometric pressure observed at a known location is set in the altimeter sub scale. This setting is referred to as QFE. Unit of Measure Altitude and height are measured in metres (the SI unit defined in Annex 5) or by use of the alternative SI unit of measure, feet. The majority of altimeters in use in aircraft are calibrated in feet. The alternative unit of measure will continue to be used until the North American states decide to fully metricise units of measure used in those states. Flight Levels Cruising levels are usually defined as Flight Levels (FLs). A flight level (FL) is the vertical position of an aircraft above a constant plane of equal barometric pressure. The standard pressure setting (SPS) is 1013 hPa (or the more commonly used unit; mb. 1hPa = 1 mb). FLs are defined by thousands of feet with intervals of 500 ft. FL0 (flight level zero) exists at the vertical position where the barometric pressure is (or would be) 1013 mb. Therefore FL50 is 5000 feet above the pressure level of 1013 mb, and FL55 is 5500 ft above the pressure level of 1013 mb. By using FLs all transiting aircraft in the vicinity of each other can be separated vertically without the need to reference to either local QNH or local QFE. QNE If the local QNH is below the limit of the altimeter subscale (usually about 930 mb), the altitude at touchdown will not be displayed. In order to overcome this, the pilot is instructed to set the SPS (1013 mb) and land with a reference altitude displayed on the altimeter. This reference altitude is referred to as QNE. Many pilots mistakenly think that QNE is the SPS. It is not. It is the altitude displayed at touchdown with 1013 mb set in the sub scale of the altimeter.
  • 123. Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures Air Law9-2 TRANSITION Changing from QNH to SPS and the Reverse In order to maintain ATC separation between arriving and departing IFR flights, the points at which the altimeter setting is changed from QNH to SPS for departing aircraft, and from SPS to QNH for arriving aircraft is defined by the authority. ICAO requires that the authorities of all states define a transition altitude either generally or for each individual aerodrome. At the transition altitude the QNH is replaced by SPS for departing aircraft. By use of defined tables, the ATC authority at an aerodrome calculates the transition level at which arriving aircraft reset the altimeter subscale from SPS to QNH. Transition Altitude (TA) ICAO requires the TA at an aerodrome to be not less than 3000 ft. States are permitted to specify a general TA as in the case of the USA and Canada. In these states the TA is 18 000 ft. In the UK the TA varies between 3000 ft as generally applied, and 6000 ft for the London CTR. It has been suggested that a general TA of 6000 ft be applied over the whole of the UK. Transition Level (TL) Approach control offices or aerodrome control towers are required to establish the TL to be used in the vicinity of the aerodrome(s) for the appropriate period of time, on the basis of QNH reports and forecast msl pressure if required. Adjacent aerodromes may define a common TL based on the lowest of the aerodromes QNH. The TL is defined as the first available FL above the TA. Example of Determining the TL If the TA at an aerodrome is 3000 ft and the QNH is 1012 mb, when a departing pilot reaches 3000 ft the altimeter is reset from QNH to 1013 mb. This requires 1 mb to be ‘wound on’, increasing the displayed altitude by approx 27 ft. Thus the altimeter will read 3027 ft with 1013 set. The first FL above 3027 ft is FL35. This is then the TL. This assumes that FL35 is the first available FL. Some states specify a minimum depth to the Transition Layer (see below). For IFR traffic the first available FL would be FL40 (FL35 is a VFR FL). Transition Layer The airspace between the TA and TL is called the Transition Layer. Generally the maximum depth of the Transition Layer is 500 ft. However, some states (Norway for example) specify a minimum depth for the Transition Layer. In the case of Norway, it is 1000 ft. Note: In the above example of determining the TL, if the state specified a minimum depth of the Transition Layer of 1000 ft, the TL in that example would be 3027 + 1000 = 4027 ft. First available FL above 4027 is FL45.
  • 124. Altimeter Settings Procedures Chapter 9 Air Law 9-3 Reporting Vertical Position in the Transition Layer While ascending through the transition layer, vertical position is reported as a flight level (SPS is set), and as altitude when descending (QNH is set). USE OF QNH OR QFE Instrument Approach Pilots are normally instructed to set the QNH at the commencement of an instrument approach procedure even though the aircraft is above the TL. Use of QFE A pilot may elect to use either QNH or QFE as the reference for vertical position during an approach to land. When an aircraft is completing its approach using QFE, the datum reference for height will be the aerodrome elevation except where the elevation of a runway being used for an instrument approach is 2 m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation. Runway threshold elevation is always used as the reference for precision instrument approaches. Transition Altitude 3000 ft Set 1013 Altimeter reads 3270 ft QNH 1003 mb 1013 mb 1003 mb Transition Layer 230 ft Transition Level FL35 TAlt TL Set QNH 1003 Altimeter reads 3230 ft Climbing through transition level, 1013 set, report FL Descending through transition level, QNH set, report altitude
  • 125. Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures Air Law9-4 FLIGHT PLANNING Enroute Where a transition altitude has not been established, for flights enroute the vertical position of aircraft is expressed in terms of: Flight levels at or above the lowest usable flight level Altitudes below the lowest usable flight level Provision of Information Altimeter setting information is available from ATCUs and FICs to allow pilots to verify lowest enroute altitudes and lowest safe FLs and to calculate terrain clearance. The transition level should be included in an approach clearance when requested by the pilot or when the appropriate authority deems it necessary. QNH is included in approach clearances or clearances to enter the traffic circuit, and in taxi clearances for departing aircraft, except when it is known that the aircraft has already received the information. QFE is provided to aircraft on request or on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements. Round Down Altimeter settings provided to aircraft are rounded down to the nearest lower whole hectopascal (mb). Pre-Flight Altimeter Operational Test The following test is carried out in an aircraft by flight crew members prior to commencement of a flight. With the aircraft at a known elevation on the aerodrome: Set the altimeter pressure scale on the current QNH/QFE setting Vibrate the instrument by tapping unless mechanical vibration is provided A serviceable altimeter indicates the elevation of the point selected, plus the height of the altimeter above this point, within a tolerance of: ± 20 m (60 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 9000 m (0 to 30 000 ft) ± 25 m (80 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 15 000 m (0 to 50 000 ft) Minimum Sector Altitude Within 25 nm of an aerodrome, the authority defines minimum sector altitudes (MSA) for each quadrant of the magnetic compass. The MSA is the lowest altitude to which an approaching aircraft (under approach control) is permitted to descend prior to commencing an instrument approach or before visual contact with the ground is established and maintained. The MSA is published on each approach plate for the aerodrome.
  • 126. Altimeter Settings Procedures Chapter 9 Air Law 9-5 MSA shown on SID plate MSA shown on arrival plate
  • 127. Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures Air Law9-6
  • 128. Air Law 10-1 References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document 8168- OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures It is not always possible to operate in good visual met conditions. Modern aircraft and radio navigation facilities permit operations in poor weather and low visibility so that a scheduled commercial service can meet the commitment of the schedule and the expectation of the travelling public. In ATC the use of radar has revolutionised terminal control but there is still a need for the pilot to gain some sort of visual criteria (visual contact with the ground) during landing operation. To this end, highly technical systems and strictly imposed procedures have been devised to reduce reliance on visual contact to the minimum. This chapter of the notes explores the instrument procedures and associated systems which permit what is termed as ‘low visibility’ operations. ICAO details the SARPs for low visibility operations in Annex 6. Because the subject is large and technically complex, technical details, procedural amplification, and guidance to operators is contained in ICAO Document 8168 - Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (This book is known as PANS-OPS). The document consists of two volumes: Volume I - Flight Procedures This volume describes the operational procedures recommended for the guidance of flight operations personnel. It also outlines the various parameters on which the criteria in Volume II are based so as to illustrate the need for operational personnel including flight crew to adhere strictly to the published procedures in order to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of safety in operations. Volume II - Construction of Visual and Instrument Procedures This volume is intended for the guidance of procedure specialists and describes the essential areas and obstacle clearance requirements for the achievement of safe, regular instrument flight operations. It provides the basic guidelines to States, and those operators and organizations producing instrument flight charts, that will result in uniform practices at all aerodromes where instrument flight procedures are carried out. The LOs do not require the student to study this part of Doc 8168. INTRODUCTION PUBLICATIONS
  • 129. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-2 OBSTACLE CLEARANCE The overriding concern with regard to low visibility operations is the unwanted occurrence of ‘controlled flight into terrain’. Once above the transition level or whilst in the cruise, the procedures outlined in Chapter 9 provide the necessary elements of safety from terrain. However, in the process of taking-off and landing the aircraft must inevitably be flown below the defined safety altitude. During these phases of flights, strict adherence to the procedures and the laid down minima is required; complying with these minima will keep the aircraft on the specified flight path and, therefore, safe. However, the man/machine system, despite being highly trained and technically complex, is not perfect, and tolerances have to be applied to cover inadvertent deviation. This must inevitably lead to the introduction of risk. In compiling the procedures using the systems specified in PANS-OPS, an acceptable risk factor has been defined at 1:10 000 000. ABBREVIATIONS In Chapter 1, there is a comprehensive list of abbreviations used in the examinations. In this section, certain specific abbreviations are detailed as required knowledge. These are reproduced below. Abbreviations Used ATIS C/L DA/H DER DR EFIS FAF FAP FMS HSI IAF IF MAPt MDA/H MOC Automatic terminal information service Centre line Decision altitude/height Departure end of the runway Dead reckoning Electronic flight instrument system Final approach fix Final approach point Flight management system Horizontal situation indicator Initial approach fix Intermediate fix Missed approach point Minimum descent altitude/height Minimum obstacle clearance NOZ NTZ OCA/H OIS OM PAR PDG RNAV RSR RSS SID SOC SPI STAR TAR TP Normal operating zone No transgression zone Obstacle clearance altitude/height Obstacle identification surface Outer marker Precision approach radar Procedure design gradient Area navigation En-route surveillance radar Root sum square Standard instrument departure Start of climb Special position indicator Standard instrument arrival Terminal area surveillance radar Turning point The natural environment of an aircraft is in the air. On the ground or during the transition from ground to air the machine is at its most vulnerable. Departure procedures ensure the safe take-off and initial climb to safe flying speed, and then concentrate on positioning the aircraft at the right point and altitude to commence the en-route portion of the flight. The criteria in part 1 of PANS- OPS are designed to provide flight crews and other flight operations personnel with an appreciation, from the operational point of view, of the parameters and criteria used in the design of instrument departure procedures which include, but are not limited to, standard instrument departure (SID) routes and associated procedures. These assume that all engines are operating normally. The ‘engine-out’ case or other emergency situation is the subject of special instructions which the operator is required by law to define. Such procedures are outside the LOs for Air Law. In order to ensure acceptable clearance above obstacles during the departure phase, instrument departure procedures may be published as specific routes to be followed (SIDs), or omni- directional departures (which may specify sectors to be avoided), together with procedure design gradients (PDGs) and details of significant obstacles. DEPARTURE PROCEDURES
  • 130. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-3 THE INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE The design of an instrument departure procedure, including the positioning of navigation aids, is dictated by factors such as the terrain surrounding the aerodrome and ATC requirements. At many aerodromes, a defined departure route is not required for ATC purposes. However, there may be obstacles in the vicinity of the aerodrome that will have to be considered in determining whether restrictions to departures are to be applied. In these cases, departure procedures may be restricted to a given sector(s), or published with a PDG in the sector containing the obstacle. Noise Abatement The use of automatic take-off thrust control systems (ATTCS) and noise abatement procedures will need to be taken into consideration by the pilot and the operator. Lack of Navigation Aids Where no suitable navigation aid is available, the criteria for omni-directional departures are applied. Visual Minima Where obstacles cannot be cleared by the appropriate margin when the aeroplane is flown on instruments, aerodrome operating minima are established to permit visual flight clear of obstacles. Visual minima are defined as required ground visibility and cloud base prevailing at the departure aerodrome. Straight Departures Wherever possible, a straight departure will be specified which is aligned with the runway centre line. Turning Departures When a departure route requires a turn of more than 15° to avoid an obstacle, a turning departure is constructed. Wherever limiting speeds or flight speeds are promulgated, they must be complied with to remain within the appropriate areas. If an aeroplane operation requires a higher speed, then an alternative departure procedure must be requested. ESTABLISHMENT OF A DEPARTURE PROCEDURE A departure procedure will be established for each runway where instrument departures are expected to be used. This will define a departure procedure for the various categories of aircraft based on all-engines running PDG of 3.3% or an increased PDG if required to achieve minimum obstacle clearance. Wind Effect The procedures will assume that pilots will not compensate for wind effects when being radar vectored, but will compensate for known or estimated wind effect when flying departure routes which are expressed as track to be made good. Procedure Design Gradient Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument departure procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in the PANS- OPS Volume II. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of departure are discussed later in this chapter. Unless otherwise published, a PDG of 3.3% is assumed.
  • 131. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-4 The PDG is made up of 2.5% gradient of obstacle identification surfaces or the gradient based on the most critical obstacle penetrating these surfaces, whichever is the higher gradient, plus 0.8% increasing obstacle clearance. Gradients published will be specified to an altitude/height after which the minimum gradient of 3.3% is used. The final PDG continues until obstacle clearance is ensured for the next phase of flight. At this point the departure procedure ends and is marked by a significant point. The minimum obstacle clearance equals zero at the DER and increases by 0.8% of the horizontal distance in the direction of flight assuming a maximum turn of 15°. In the turn initiation area and turn area a minimum obstacle clearance of 90 m (295 ft) is provided. Where mountainous terrain exists, consideration is given by the procedure designer to increasing the minimum obstacle clearance. Whenever a suitably located DME exists, additional specific height/distance information intended for obstacle avoidance may be published. RNAV way-points or other suitable fixes may be used to provide a means of monitoring climb performance. Where obstacles exist affecting the departure route, PDGs greater than 3.3% are promulgated to an altitude/height after which the 3.3% gradient is considered to prevail. Gradients to a height of 60 m (200 ft) or less, caused by close-in obstacles, are not specified. Mountainous Terrain In areas where the terrain is described as ‘mountainous’ the minimum obstacle clearance (MOC) is increased from 1000 ft to 2000 ft. Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the prevailing wind of 37 km/h generates significant downdraughts. Procedure Design Gradient DER 5m (16ft) OIS 2.5% 2.5% = 0.8% PDG = 3.3% 3.7% 4.5% Aerodrome Elevation Obstacle This altitude/height is to be published if more than 200 ft
  • 132. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-5 Aircraft Categories In defining procedures where turns are required, the aircraft speed must be taken into account so that the aircraft remains in the protected zone, established by the procedure designer, during the turn. The following table defines the maximum speeds for the different categories of aircraft: Maximum Speeds For Turning Departures Aeroplane Category Maximum Speed km/h (kts) A B C D E 225(120) 305(165) 490(265) 540(290) 560(360) Table: Max Speed for Turning Departures STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES A SID is normally developed to accommodate as many aircraft categories as possible. Departures that are limited to specific aircraft categories are clearly annotated. The SID terminates at the first fix/facility/way-point of the enroute phase following the departure procedure. There are two basic types of departure route, straight and turning. The design of instrument departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance criteria are based on the definition of tracks to be followed by the aeroplane. When flying the published track, the pilot is expected to correct for known wind to remain within the protected airspace. STRAIGHT DEPARTURES A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is within 15° of the runway centre line. Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV. By definition, track guidance for a straight departure must be attained from a navigation facility within 20 km (10.8 nm) from DER. Area for a Straight Departure with Track Guidance DER 1.9 nm 15° 15° Area 1 Max 15° VOR/NDB 3.7 km (2 nm) VOR 4.6 km (2.5nm) NDB Area 2 Departure Track VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3° VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3° C/L
  • 133. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-6 TURNING DEPARTURES When a turning departure requires a turn of more than 15°, a turning area is constructed and the turn required is commenced upon reaching a specified altitude/height, at a fix or at a facility (VOR/NDB). Straight flight is assumed until reaching an altitude of 120 m (394 ft) above the elevation of DER. Track guidance must be obtained within 10 km (5.4 nm) after the completion of the turn. Turning Departure – Turn at a Fix Development of contingency procedures required covering the case of engine failure or an emergency in flight that occurs after V1, is the responsibility of the operator. When it is necessary to develop turning procedures to avoid an obstacle which would have become limiting, then the procedure should be detailed in the appropriate operator’s manual. The point for a start of a turn in this procedure must be readily identifiable by the pilot when flying under instrument conditions. Omni-directional Departures Where no track guidance is provided in the design, the departure criteria are developed by using the omni-directional method. The departure procedure commences at the DER, which is the end of the area declared suitable for take-off, either the end of the runway or clearway as appropriate. Since the point of lift-off will vary, the departure is constructed on the assumption that a turn at 120 m (394 ft) above the elevation of the aerodrome will not be initiated sooner than 600 m from the beginning of the runway. CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES VOR/NDB Departure Track DER 15° 15° 15° 30° 30° 3.7 km (2 nm) VOR 4.6 km (2.5nm) NDB Splay angle VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3° C/L Fix Tolerance
  • 134. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-7 Unless otherwise specified, a 3.3% PDG is presumed. The basic procedure ensures that the aircraft will climb on the extended runway centre line to 120 m (394 ft) before turns can be specified, and at least 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle clearance will be provided before turns greater than 15° can be specified. Where obstacles do not permit the development of omni-directional procedures, it is necessary to fly a departure route, or ensure that the ceiling and visibility will permit obstacles to be avoided by visual means. The omni-directional departure procedure is designed using any one of a combination of the following: Turn Initiation Area for Omnidirectional Departure Standard Case Where no obstacles penetrate the 2.5% OIS and 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle prevails; a 3.3% climb to 120 m (394 ft) will satisfy the obstacle clearance requirements. Specified Turn Altitude/Height Where obstacle(s) preclude omni-directional turns at 120 m (394 ft), the procedure will specify a 3.3% climb to an altitude/height where omni-directional turns can be made. Specified Procedure Design Gradient Where obstacle(s) exist, the procedure may define a minimum gradient of more than 3.3% to a specified altitude/height before turns are permitted. Sector Departures Where obstacle(s) exist, the procedure may identify sector(s) for which either a minimum gradient or a minimum turn altitude/height is specified. A clearance for such a procedure “Climb straight ahead to 1000 ft before commencing a turn to the South” Area 1 Area 2 Centre Line 30° 15° 3.5 km (1.9 nm) or less d d = distance where the aircraft climbing at the minimum gradient (3.3% or the gradient specified in the procedure whichever is the higher) will have reached the specified turn height/altitude. If the turn height is 120m above the DER this distance is 3.5 km (1.9 nm) for a 3.3% gradient.
  • 135. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-8 Departure routes and standard instrument departures (SIDs) are produced and published in accordance with Annex 11 and Annex 4. The information listed will be published for operational reasons. For departure routes, the following information is promulgated: Significant obstacles which penetrate the OIS; The position and height of close-in obstacles penetrating the OIS. A note is included on the SID chart whenever close-in obstacles exist which were not considered for the published PDG; The highest obstacle in the departure area, and any significant obstacle outside the area which dictates the design of the procedure; The altitude/height at which a gradient in excess of 3.3% is no longer used. A note is included whenever the published PDG is based only on airspace restriction; All navigation facilities, fixes or way points, radials and DME distances depicting route segments are clearly indicated on the SID chart. RNAV Routes Departure routes are labelled as RNAV only when that is the primary means of navigation utilized. Omnidirectional Departures For omni-directional departures, the restrictions will be expressed as sectors in which minimum gradients and/or minimum altitudes are specified to enable an aeroplane to safely overfly obstacles. The published minimum gradient will be the highest in any sector that may be expected to be overflown. The altitude to which the minimum gradient is specified will permit the aircraft to continue at the 3.3% minimum gradient through that sector; a succeeding sector, or to an altitude authorized for another phase of flight eg en-route, holding or approach. A fix may also be designated to mark the point at which a gradient in excess of 3.3% is no longer required. For aerodromes which are used for IFR flights for commercial aviation, SIDs are published to cater for the operator preferred departure directions. A SID will provide track and altitude information to place the departing aircraft in the most advantageous position to enter the appropriate airway at the commencement of the enroute phase. The SID will also specify limitations to altitude and specific track requirements to avoid arriving traffic, restricted, prohibited, and danger areas, and also other aerodromes and their specific departure and arrival routes. Typically, a SID will require more than one radio beacon (VOR/NDB) and will normally use DME information from VOR/DME or VORTAC facilities. Due to the limited requirements for IFR navigation equipment in aircraft (1 ADF and 2 NAV receivers), SIDS will not specify data to be obtained at any one instant from more than 2 VORs and 1 NDB. SIDs will normally be restricted to 25 nm from DER, and ATC service will be provided by the approach controller responsible for traffic in the CTR. PUBLISHED INFORMATION AIRWAYS DEPARTURE ROUTES (SID CHARTS)
  • 136. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-9 Radar Where radar is used for approach control, once identified by SSR a pilot may be instructed to route directly to position. In such cases the aircraft will be navigated directly to that position without compliance with the SID. Noise Abatement SIDs reflect the preferred noise abatement routes. Initially, the SID will require a climb to 120 m (394 ft) but in practice (and to make system management easier) a climb to 500 ft is specified. At 500 ft turns may be commenced, and the pilot is required to continue the climb as required by the SID with power, gear, flaps and lift enhancers in the noise abatement configuration, and to fly at the specified speed. In an emergency, or when the PIC considers that his aircraft would be hazarded by compliance with noise abatement procedures, any power or configuration may be used, however, the operator/pilot will have to justify the action subsequently. GNSS Procedures The use of GNSS is approved for departure procedures in many states and procedures are published in the form of GNSS/FMS/RNAV SIDS. Where a GNSS SID is used, the pilot must have available data from non GNSS sources (i.e. VOR/DME) so that a cross check can be made to ensure the system is functioning correctly. GNSS SIDs are titled RNAV (PRNAV). SID Chart Publication Each state publishes SID charts in the AIP AD section as part of the entry for the appropriate aerodrome. Charts are also commercially published by Jeppesen, Aeradio, and some operators print their own (e.g. Airtours). The SARPs specify the basic information to be displayed but the commercial charts are usually far more comprehensive. If a pilot is instructed to fly a procedure for which he/she doesn’t have the chart, ATC will, on request, detail the procedure by RTF. The following SID charts are reproductions of aerodrome procedures from the UK AIP. The first chart depicts the Midhurst SIDs from Heathrow. These departure procedures would be used for flights to Northwest France, The Channel Islands and possibly Spain and Portugal. They place the departing aircraft in a position to join airway A34 and then into A1 at FL75 and above. The Manchester SIDs via Honiley depict the route flown by flights joining A1 southbound. The final chart depicts a trial route for FMS/GNSS operations from Luton to the East and South East. Note the accuracy of the check positions for the waypoints (accurate to 1/100 of a second of longitude, approximately 30 cm). SID Designators SIDs are ATS routes (see Chapter regarding ATS and Airspace). Each SID is given a unique identifier called a designator. The chart below (London Heathrow – Midhurst SIDs) shows all the current SIDs from the departure runways at Heathrow terminating at the Midhurst VOR. The route from 27R is called MID4F. The full designator would be ‘London Heathrow SID MID4F’. The number relates to the progressive series of routes. At some point in history there was MID1, the current MID series is 3 and 4. The letter shows the ‘amendment/change’ status of the SID route. When the series reaches 9 and a new series is required, the number reverts to 1. An amendment to SID MID4F would be called MID4G.
  • 137. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-10 Standard Instrument Departures from Heathrow via Midhurst VOR Note that SIDs 3G; 3H and 4F use the Burnham NDB as well as the London and Midhurst VORs with their associated DME. The ‘S’ bend on the westerly routes is to avoid the airspace associated with Farnborough.
  • 138. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-11 Standard Instrument Departures from Manchester via Honiley VOR
  • 139. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-12 Example of a GNSS SID for London Luton
  • 140. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-13 The objective of an instrument approach procedure is to provide the pilot with specific track guidance such that a descent can be made to an altitude where the required visual criteria are obtained and the aircraft landed visually. The design of an instrument approach procedure is, in general, dictated by the terrain surrounding an aerodrome, the type of operations contemplated, and the aircraft to be accommodated. There are two types of instrument procedures: Non precision approaches (an airfield approach); and Precision approach (runway approach). Non Precision Procedures A non precision procedure is defined as an approach to an aerodrome made with reference to instruments in which guidance is given in azimuth (laterally) only. Typically an NDB or VOR procedure is non precision. Precision Procedures Precision procedures give the pilot guidance in azimuth (by defining a track to be flown) and elevation (by defining a glide path with reference to electronic equipment). Typically, an ILS approach is a precision procedure. Precision Categories ICAO and JARs specify categories of precision approach in terms of decision height/altitude and required runway visual range. The ICAO categories are: Table: Precision categories Category System minima Decision Height RVR requirement CAT I 60 m (200 ft) Not less than 200 ft Not less than 550 m or ground visibility not less than 800 m CAT II 30 m (100 ft) Less than 200 ft but not less than 100 ft Not less than 350 m CAT III A Nil Less than 100 ft or no DH Not less than 200 m CAT III B Nil Less than 50 ft or no DH Not less than 50 m * CAT III C Nil No DH None * JAR OPS specifies 75 m RVR minimum for CAT III B Speed Aircraft performance has a direct effect on the airspace and visibility needed to perform the various manoeuvres associated with the conduct of instrument approach procedures. The most significant performance factor is aircraft speed. Accordingly, five categories of typical aircraft have been established. Each category is based on the speed at which the pilot attempts to cross the threshold of the landing runway, Vat. (Defined as 1.3 times stalling speed in the landing configuration at maximum certificated landing mass). This provides a standardised basis for relating aircraft manoeuvrability to specific instrument approach procedures. The instrument approach chart will specify the individual categories of aircraft for which the procedure is approved. Normally, procedures will be designed to provide protected airspace and obstacle clearance for aircraft up to and including Category D. Where airspace requirements are critical, procedures may be restricted to lower speed categories. THE INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE
  • 141. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-14 Table: Aircraft categories for Instrument Approaches Max speed for missed approach Aircraft category Vat Range of speeds for initial approach Range of final approach speeds Max speed for visual circling Intermediate Final A <91 90/150 (110*) 70/100 100 100 110 B 91/120 120/180 (140*) 85/130 135 130 150 C 121/140 160/240 115/160 180 160 240 D 141/165 185/250 130/185 205 185 265 E 166/210 185/250 155/230 240 230 275 * Max speed for track reversal or racetrack procedures Visual Approach As the intention of the procedures is to place the aeroplane in a position from which the pilot can see either the aerodrome or the landing runway, once established on final approach to land the pilot has the option of continuing the approach visually providing the aerodrome or runway is, and will remain, in sight. This is not converting an IFR approach into a VFR approach; neither is it flying under VFR. Visual Criteria For all approaches except CATIIIC, the pilot must have visual references to the position of the runway centre line and the location of the aiming point within the touch-down zone. (These will be defined in the chapter devoted to Aerodromes). The exact requirements are the responsibility of the operator to define in the Operations Manual. Completing the Procedure Unless a pilot is given instructions to the contrary, once an instrument approach procedure has been started, it must be finished. It will end with either a successful landing or the execution of a missed approach procedure. Procedure Design When flying a departure procedure, the aeroplane climbs to and above safety height, thus safety increases with time and altitude. For an approach procedure the reverse is true. In order to compensate for the reduction in safety inherent in flying close to the ground in poor or zero visibility, track guidance and, where offered, elevation guidance, is required to be more accurate the closer the aeroplane gets to the ground. CATII and CATIII precision procedures require the use of an autopilot to achieve the accuracy of flying necessary for the low visibility operations specifications, whereas CATI and non-precision procedures, being less accurate in vertical positioning, specify high DH and minimum descent height (MDH). From the start of the procedure, the designer also applies increasing accuracy requirements for track guidance. To achieve this, all instrument procedures have 5 segments. The Arrival Route The Initial Segment The Intermediate Segment The Final Segment The Missed Approach Procedure
  • 142. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-15 Fixes The approach segments begin and end at designated fixes. Under certain circumstances the segments may begin at specified points where no fixes are available. For example: The final approach segment of a precision approach may originate at the point of intersection of the designated intermediate flight altitude with the nominal glide path. Straight In Approaches Wherever possible, a straight-in approach will be specified which is aligned with the runway centre line. In the case of non-precision approaches, a straight-in approach is considered acceptable if the angle between the final approach track and the runway centre line is 30º or less. Circling Approach In those cases where terrain or other constraints cause the final approach track alignment or descent gradient to fall outside the criteria for a straight-in approach a circling approach will be specified. The final approach track of a circling approach procedure is in most cases aligned to pass over a portion of the usable landing surface of the aerodrome. Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) Minimum sector altitudes are established for each aerodrome and provide at least 300 m (984 ft) obstacle clearance within 46 km (25 nm) of the homing facility associated with the approach procedure for that aerodrome. Track Maintenance The procedures are defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are expected to allow for the wind. During Precision Approach Radar (PAR) and Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA) procedures, the controller ‘talking the aircraft down’ will adjust the required heading to counter the effects of drift. For ILS approaches pilots are required to maintain aircraft position to within half scale disposition of the deviation displays. Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument approach procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in PANS-OPS, Volume II. The obstacle clearance applied in the development of each instrument approach procedure is considered to be the minimum required for an acceptable level of safety in operations. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of approaches are specified later. Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCA/H) For each individual approach procedure an obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) is calculated for a procedure and published on the instrument approach chart. In the case of precision approach and circling approach procedures an OCA/H is specified for each category of aircraft. OCA/H for Precision Procedures A precision procedure is a runway approach procedure therefore the reference for the calculation of OCA/H must be the elevation of the threshold of the landing runway. OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
  • 143. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-16 OCA/H for Non-Precision Procedures A non-precision procedure is an aerodrome approach procedure in which the final segment is up to 30° displaced from the landing runway direction. In this case, the reference for OCA/H is the aerodrome elevation as determined by survey. If however, the threshold of the landing runway is 2m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation, the threshold elevation is used. OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C)) At the end of a non-precision approach a pilot may manoeuvre the aircraft to land in a different direction from which the approach is made. In this case, the aerodrome elevation is always used as the reference for OCA/H. Factors Affecting Operational Minima In general minima are developed by adding the effect of a number of operational factors to OCA/H to produce, in the case of precision approaches a DA or DH, or in the case of a non- precision approach, MDA or MDH. The general operational factors to be considered are aircraft mass, elevation or the pressure altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome, temperature, wind, runway gradient and condition. The relationship of OCA/H to operating minima (landing) is shown in the following 3 diagrams. Margin or Lower Limit Operators are required to specify the margin or lower limit to be added to the OCA/H to determine the DH/A or MDH/A. This is determined in accordance with the criteria stated and may be zero. If you have your own aircraft you are not required to add a margin or lower limit. System Minima Regardless of the result of calculation of DH or MDH, for each approach system (procedure or equipment), a minimum height above the datum is established as a ‘never below’ figure. The following table shows the system minima which override a lower DH or MDH. For instance, if the published OCH for a VOR/DME approach (non precision) was 130 ft and the margin or lower limit was 20 ft, theoretically the MDH would be 150 ft. However, the system minimum for VOR/DME is 250 ft, therefore the MDH is 250 ft. System Minimum (ft) System Minimum (ft) Full ILS CATII 100 SRA (RTR* 0.5 nm) 250 Full ILS CATI 200 SRA (RTR* 1 nm) 300 ILS (no glide path) 250 VOR 300 ILS back beam (not approved) 250 NDB or Locator 300 PAR (no glide path) 250 VDF 300 VOR/DME 250 SRA (RTR* 2 nm) 350 Table: System Minima * RTR = Radar Termination Range
  • 144. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-17 NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation or the elevation of the relevant runway threshold, if the threshold elevation is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation (OCH), below which the aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Mean Sea Level Aerodrome Elevation or Threshold Elevation if more than 2 m (7 ft) below Aerodrome Elevation Height of the highest obstacle in the final approach M D A M D H O C A O C H Altitude Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) Or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) for the Final Segment Fixed margin for all aircraft 90 m (295 ft) without FAF 75 m (246 ft) with FAF Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: ground/airborne equipment characteristics; crew qualifications; aircraft performance; met conditions; aerodrome characteristics; location of guidance aid relative to runway
  • 145. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-18 PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold (OCH), at which a missed approach must be initiated to ensure compliance with the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Mean Sea Level Threshold Elevation Height of the highest obstacle or the highest missed approach obstacle, whichever is the higher M D A M D H O C A O C H Altitude Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) Decision Altitude (DA) Or Decision Height (DH) Margin The margin is dependent upon aircraft approach speed, height loss and altimetry and is adjustable for steep glide paths and high level aerodromes Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: category of operation, ground/airborne equipment characteristics; crew qualifications; aircraft performance; met conditions; aerodrome characteristics; terrain profile (Rad Alt); pressure error (pressure altimeter) Identification of obstacles is dependent upon: Category of operation; ILS geometry (GP angle, distance from Loc Ae to R/W threshold; Loc course width); aircraft dimensions, missed approach turn point, use of autopilot (CatII approaches only)
  • 146. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-19 Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C)) Procedure The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation (OCH) below which an aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria Mean Sea Level Aerodrome Elevation Height of the highest obstacle in the circling area M D A M D H O C A O C H Altitude Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for Circling Or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) for Circling Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) Category A and B 90 m (295 ft). Category C and D 120 m (394 ft). Category E 150 m (492 ft). Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: aircraft characteristics; crew qualifications; aircraft performance; met conditions; aerodrome characteristics The OCH shall not be less than: Cat A 120 m (394 ft) Cat B 150 m (492 ft) Cat C 180 m (591 ft) Cat D 210 m (689 ft) Cat E 240 m (787 ft)
  • 147. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-20 Approach Procedure Design Where track guidance is provided in the design of an instrument approach procedure, each of the five segments of the approach is comprised of a specified volume of airspace, the vertical cross section of which is an area located symmetrically about the centre line of each segment. The vertical cross section is broken down into primary and secondary areas as shown in the diagram below. Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) For non-precision approaches, the MOC is defined as a fixed margin to be added to the height of the dominant obstacle in the final approach segment. For precision approaches, glide path information is provided which, by definition, must be free of obstacles. The angle of the glide path is set to provide the required clearance from obstacles. The MOC for a non-precision approach is made up of two areas; the primary MOC area and the Secondary MOC area. At any point the width of the primary area is equal to ½ of the total width. The width of each secondary area is equal to ¼ of the total width. Where no track guidance is provided during a turn specified by the procedure, the total width of the area is considered as a primary area. MOC is provided for the whole width of the primary area. For the secondary area, MOC is provided at the inner edges gradually reducing to zero at the outer edge. The degree of MOC in the primary area depends upon the availability of a Final Approach Fix (FAF) (FAF - see below). With a defined FAF the MOC is 70 m (246 ft) and 90 m (295 ft) without. MOC MOC Primary Area Secondary Area Secondary Area Total width Assumed lowest path Obstacle Obstacle MOC for a Non-precision Approach
  • 148. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-21 Fixes and points used in designing approach procedures are normally based on standard navigation systems. These include, but are not limited to: The initial approach fix (IAF); The intermediate approach fix (IF); The final approach fix (FAF) or final approach point (FAP); The holding fix, and When necessary the MAPt. Fixes Formed by Intersection Because all navigational facilities have accuracy limitations, the geographic point that is identified is not precise, but may be anywhere within an area called the fix tolerance area which surrounds its plotted point of intersection. The diagram below illustrates the intersection of two radials or tracks from different navigation facilities. Intersection Fix Tolerance Factors The dimensions of the intersection fix are determined by the accuracy of the navigational system that supplies the information to define the fix. The factors from which the accuracy of a system is determined are: Ground station tolerance Airborne receiving system tolerance Flight technical tolerance Distance from the facility ACCURACY OF FIXES Nominal Fix Fix Tolerance Area
  • 149. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-22 Accuracy of Facility Providing Track Certain radio navigation aids provide track guidance information. When attempting to fly along the defined track from an aid, the accuracy with which the pilot accomplishes this is allowed for in an addition to the basic accuracy of the equipment. The pilot accuracy addition is known as flight technical tolerance. VOR ± 5.2º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2.5º) ILS Localiser ± 2.4º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2º) NDB ± 6.9º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 3º) Overall Tolerance of the Intersecting Facility When intersecting fixes are based on radio nav aids, the overall tolerance of the fix is assumed to be: VOR ± 4.5º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails; accuracy is considered to be ± 7.8º ILS Localizer ± 1.4º NDB ± 6.2º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails; accuracy is considered to be ± 10.3º Other Fix Tolerance Factors Where no radio nav aid is available or other factors constrain the use of such aids, positions and turning points may be referenced by other means. For instance, when leaving an airway, an aircraft may be given radar vectors to a point marking the beginning of the arrival route, or the start of the final segment of a CATI ILS may be marked by a 75 Mhz marker beacon. The fix tolerance factors of such aids are: Surveillance Radar Radar fix accuracy is based on consideration of: radar mapping accuracy, azimuth resolution, flight technical tolerance, controller technical tolerances, and the speed of the aircraft in the terminal area. Terminal Area Radar (TAR) within 37km (20 nm) Fix tolerance is ± 1.5 km (± 0.8 nm). En-Route Surveillance Radar (ESR) within 74 km (40 nm) Fix tolerance is ± 3.1 km (± 1.7 nm). DME Fix tolerance is ± 0.46 km (± 0.25 nm) + 1.25% of the distance to the antenna. 75 MHz Marker Beacons Fix tolerances for ILS and “Z” markers for use with instrument approach procedures are calculated using the aerial polar diagram. Typically fix tolerance is +/- 0.8 km (0.45 nm) at 6000 ft and 0.35 km (0.2 nm) at 1000 ft.
  • 150. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-23 Fix Tolerance Overhead a Facility Most procedures require the aircraft to be flown over the facility providing track guidance at some point in the procedure. The accuracy of the ‘on top’ is a factor of the width of the cone of confusion over the beacon which is a function of the aerial design of the ground installation. VOR VOR provides excellent track guidance but fix tolerance overhead a VOR is based upon a cone of confusion 50º from the vertical. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given by: 2 x tan 50° x 3000 = 2 x 1.19 x 3000 = 7140 ft or 1.17 nm NDB Fix tolerance overhead an NDB is based upon an inverted cone of ambiguity extending at an angle of 40º either side of the facility. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given by: 2 x tan 40° x 3000 = 2 x 0.84 x 3000 = 5040 ft or 0.83 nm Locator To improve the accuracy of ‘on tops’ some procedures employ an NDB with a 75Mhz marker co-located. This gives reasonable track guidance with an accurate ‘on top’. This system is called a locator and is shown on the chart as NDB(L). Approach Area Splays The tolerances described above are used to narrow and widen instrument approach areas as the aircraft flies to and from a facility respectively. The areas where the primary and secondary areas are increasing/decreasing in width are known as ‘splays’. FAF Location For the final approach segment (contained between FAF and MAPt), the optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively. VOR = 2.0 nm NDB = 2.5 nm Splay width at facilitySecondary area Primary area Final Approach Splay Reducing in width closer to the facility FAF Missed approach Point (MAPt)
  • 151. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-24 In designing instrument approach procedures adequate space is allowed for descent from the facility crossing altitude/height to the runway threshold for straight-in approach or to OCA/H for circling approaches. Establishing a maximum allowable descent gradient for each segment of the procedure provides adequate space for descent. The optimum descent gradient in the final approach should not exceed 5% (50 m/km, approximately 300 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3º glidepath. Where a steeper descent gradient is necessary, the maximum permissible is 6.5% (65 m/km, approximately 400 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3.8º glidepath. In the case of a precision approach the operationally preferred glidepath angle is 3º. An ILS glidepath in excess of 3º is used only where alternate means of satisfying obstacle clearance requirements are impractical. In certain cases the maximum descent gradient of 6.5% (65 m/km) results in descent rates that exceed the recommended rates of descent for some aircraft. Pilots should consider carefully the descent rate required for non-precision final approach segments before starting the approach. There are five segments to a standard instrument approach procedure. Segments of an Instrument Approach Procedure When necessary, or where an operational advantage is obtained, arrival routes from the enroute phase to a fix or facility used in the procedure are published. When arrival routes are published, the width of the associated area decreases from the “enroute” value to the “initial approach” value with a convergence angle of 30º each side of the axis. DESCENT GRADIENT APPROACH SEGMENTS STANDARD ARRIVAL ROUTES (STARS)
  • 152. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-25 This convergence begins at 46 km (25 nm) before the IAF if the length of the arrival route is greater than or equal to 46 km (25 nm). It begins at the starting point of the arrival route if the length is less than 46 km (25 nm). The arrival route normally ends at the initial approach fix. Omni-directional or sector arrivals can be provided taking into account MSA. When terminal radar is employed the aircraft is vectored to a fix, or onto the intermediate or final approach track, at a point where the pilot may continue the approach. STARs are published in the AD section of the AIP under the appropriate aerodrome. An example of a STAR is reproduced below. This particular STAR covers arrivals from the West and North West and terminates at the Ockham VOR. This is the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) for procedures to land on runway 09L at Heathrow. STARS for Heathrow via the Ockham VOR
  • 153. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-26 Initial Approach Segment The initial approach segment commences at the IAF and ends at the intermediate fix (IF). In the initial approach segment, the aircraft has departed the enroute structure and is manoeuvring to enter the intermediate approach segment. Aircraft speed and configuration will depend on the distance from the aerodrome and the descent required. The initial approach segment provides at least 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance in the primary area. Track guidance is provided along the initial approach segment to the IF, with a maximum angle of interception of 90º for a precision approach and 120º for a non-precision approach. Where no suitable lAF or IF is available, a racetrack or holding pattern is required. Intermediate Approach Segment This is the segment during which the aircraft speed and configuration are adjusted to prepare the aircraft for final approach. The descent gradient is kept as shallow as possible. During the intermediate approach the obstacle clearance requirement reduces from 300 m (984 ft) to 150 m (492 ft) in the primary area. Where a FAF is available, the intermediate approach segment begins when the aircraft is on the inbound track of the procedure turn, base turn or final inbound leg of the racetrack procedure. Final Approach Segment This is the segment in which alignment and descent for landing are made. Final approach may be made to a runway for a straight in landing or to an aerodrome for a visual manoeuvre. Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with FAF This segment begins at the FAF and ends at the MAPt. The FAF is sited on the final approach track at a distance that permits selection of final approach configuration, and descent from intermediate approach altitude/height to the MDA/H applicable either for a straight in approach or for a visual circling. The optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively. The FAF is crossed at, or above, the specified altitude/height and descent is then initiated. The descent gradient is published, and where range information is available, descent profile information is provided. Step Down Fix A step-down fix may be incorporated in some non-precision approach procedures, in which case two OCA/H values will be published, a higher value applicable to the primary procedure, and a lower value applicable only if the step-down fix is positively identified during the approach. Normally only one step-down fix is specified, but in the case of a VOR/DME procedure several DME fixes may be depicted, each with its associated minimum crossing attitude. Where a step-down procedure using a suitably located DME is published, the pilot shall not commence descent until established on the specified track. Once established on track, the pilot commences descent maintaining the aeroplane on or above the published DME distance/height requirements. Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with No FAF When an aerodrome is served by a single facility located on or near the aerodrome, and no other facility is suitably situated to form a FAF, a procedure may be designed where the facility is both the IAF and the MAPt. These procedures will indicate a minimum altitude/height for a reversal procedure or racetrack, and an OCA/H for final approach. In the absence of a FAF, descent to MDA/H is made once the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach track. In procedures of this type, the final approach track cannot normally be aligned on the runway centre line. Whether the OCA/H for straight in approach limits is published or not depends on the angular difference between the track and the runway.
  • 154. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-27 Final Approach Segment — Precision Approach – ILS The final approach segment begins at the final approach point (FAP). This is a point in space on the centre line of the localizer where the intermediate approach altitude/height intersects the nominal glide path. Except in the case of stabilised approach, glide path interception normally occurs at heights from 300 m (984 ft) to 900 m (2955 ft) above runway elevation. On a 3º glide path interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) from the threshold. The width of the ILS final approach area is much narrower than those of a non- precision approach. Descent on the glide path must never be initiated until the aircraft is established on the localizer. The ILS obstacle clearance surfaces assume that the pilot does not normally deviate from the centre line more than half a scale deflection after being established on track. Thereafter the aircraft should adhere to the on-course, on-glide path position since more than half course sector deflection or more than half course fly up deflection combined with other allowable system tolerances could place the aircraft in the vicinity of the edge or bottom of the protected airspace where loss of protection from obstacles can occur. The intermediate approach track or radar vector has been designed to place the aircraft on the localizer at an altitude/height that is below the nominal glide path. Check Fix The final approach area contains a fix at approximately 4DME that permits verification of the glide path/altimeter relationship. The outer marker is normally used for this purpose. Prior to crossing the fix, descent may be made on the glide path to the published fix crossing altitude/height. Descent below the fix crossing altitude/height should not be made prior to crossing the fix. Loss of Precision In the event of loss of glide path guidance during the approach, the procedure becomes a non-precision approach. The OCA/H published for the glide path inoperative (ILS no GP) case will apply. Determination of DA or DH — ILS As well as the physical characteristics of the ILS installation, the procedures specialist’s consideration is given to obstacles in the approach areas for the calculation of the OCA/H for a procedure. The calculated OCA/H is the height of the highest approach obstacle, or equivalent missed approach obstacle, plus an aircraft category related allowance. In assessing these obstacles, the operational variables of the aircraft category, approach coupling, category of operation, and missed approach climb performance, are considered. Standard Conditions The OCA or OCH values are listed on the instrument approach chart for those categories of aircraft for which the procedure is designed. The values are based on the following standard conditions: Cat I flown with pressure altimeter Cat II flown with radio altimeter and flight director Aircraft wing span is not more than 60 m and the vertical distance between the flight paths of the wheels and glide path antenna is no more than 6 m Missed approach climb gradient is 2.5%
  • 155. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-28 If at any time during a procedure the pilot wishes to abandon the procedure, or at DH/A for a precision approach and at the missed approach point (MAPt) for a non-precision approach, when the visual criteria as defined by the operator is not obtained, the pilot is to fly a missed approach procedure. In commercial aviation this is commonly referred to as ‘the Go Around’ procedure, implying that the pilot is going around the pattern again. During the missed approach phase, the pilot is faced with the demanding task of changing the aircraft configuration, attitude, and altitude. For this reason the design of the missed approach is kept as simple as possible. A missed approach procedure consists of three phases: Initial Missed Approach; Intermediate Missed Approach, and Final Missed approach. Missed Approach Segments Obstacle Clearance A missed approach procedure is designed to provide protection from obstacles throughout the missed approach manoeuvre. The procedure is applicable to the landing runway but may be modified to cater for the instrument aid being used. The procedure specifies a point where the missed approach begins and a point or an altitude/height where it ends. The missed approach is to be initiated not lower than DA/H in the precision approach or at a specified point (MAPt) in non-precision approach procedures where the aircraft is not lower than the MDA/H. The MAPt in a procedure may be the point of intersection of an electronic glide path with the applicable DA/H, a navigational facility, a fix, or a specified distance from the FAF. MISSED APPROACH 30m MOC 50m MOC can be maintained MAPt MDA(H) Runway 2.5% Climb established Initial Missed Approach Segment Intermediate Missed Approach Segment Final Missed Approach Segment No turns greater than 15° Turns greater than 15° permitted
  • 156. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-29 When a navigational facility or a fix defines the MAPt, the distance from the FAF to the MAPt is normally published, and may be used for timing to the MAPt. In cases where timing is not authorised, the procedure is annotated “timing not authorized for defining the MAPt.” Initiating the Procedure Pilots are expected to fly the missed approach procedure as published. In the event that a missed approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt, the pilot will normally proceed to the MAPt and then follow the missed approach procedure in order to remain within the protected airspace. Climb Gradient Procedures are based on a nominal missed approach climb gradient of 2.5%. A gradient of 2% may be used in the procedure construction if the necessary survey and safeguarding can be provided with the approval of the appropriate authority. Gradients of 3, 4, or 5% may be used for aircraft whose climb performance permits an operational advantage to be thus obtained. If a gradient other than a 2.5% gradient is used, this is indicated on the instrument approach chart. A missed approach procedure which is based on the nominal climb gradient of 2.5% cannot be used by all aeroplanes when operating at or near maximum certificated gross mass and engine out conditions. The operation of these aeroplanes needs special consideration at aerodromes where there are critical obstacles on the missed approach area. These obstacles may result in a special procedure being established with a possible increase in the DA/H or MDA/H. Initial Missed Approach The initial phase begins at the MAPt and ends at the point where the aircraft is established in the climb. In the initial segment, the pilot establishes the climb and changes aircraft configuration. The procedure will call for the climb to be started on the final approach track therefore no turns are specified in this phase. Intermediate Phase The intermediate phase is the phase within which the climb is continued, normally straight ahead. It extends to the first point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is obtained and can be maintained. Turns of no more than 15º may be specified. During this phase, it is assumed that the pilot will make track corrections. Final Phase The final phase begins at the point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is first obtained and can be maintained. It extends to the point where a new approach is started, the aircraft enters a holding pattern, or the aircraft returns to the enroute structure. Turns may be prescribed during this phase. Turning Missed Approach Turns in a missed approach procedure are only prescribed where terrain and other factors make a turn necessary. If a turn from the final approach track is made, a specially constructed turning missed approach area is specified. The turning point is specified in one of two ways: At a designated facility or fix The turn is made upon arrival overhead the facility or fix, or At a designated altitude The turn is made upon reaching the designated altitude unless an additional fix or distance is specified to limit early turns
  • 157. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-30 Visual manoeuvring (circling) is the term used to describe the visual phase of flight after completing an instrument approach, to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway which is not suitably located for a straight in approach. For instance, the ILS to runway 27 may be totally unserviceable but the ILS to runway 09 perfectly good. A pilot could make an instrument approach to 09 and with the landing runway (27) or the aiming point on 27 always in sight, manoeuvre the aircraft to a point where a landing on 27 could be made. In this case, the ILS approach does not result in a landing but a visual circling manoeuvre. As such the ILS portion of the approach is not considered to be precision and therefore the lowest altitude the aircraft is permitted to descend to is MDH/A for VM(C). This is a commonly used procedure. The advantage is that the instrument part of the procedure will result in a lower MDH/A that may be below the cloud base. The Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area (VM(C)A) The visual manoeuvring area for a circling approach is determined by drawing arcs centred on each runway threshold and joining those arcs with tangent lines. The radius of the arcs is related to: Aircraft category Speed for each category Wind speed, 46 km/h (25 kt) throughout the turn, and Bank angle, 20º average or 3º per second, whichever requires less bank (VM(C)A) Not Considered for Obstacle Clearance It is permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle exists in the visual manoeuvring (circling) area outside the final approach and missed approach area. The dimensions of the instrument approach surfaces bound this sector, within the circling area. When this option is exercised, the published procedure prohibits circling within the total sector in which the obstacle exists. Obstacle Clearance When the (VM(C)A) has been established the OCA/H is determined for each category of aircraft. The OCA/H for VM(C) is applicable to the aerodrome, not the runway used for the instrument procedure. ICAO publishes the following table of minima for VM(C). It should be noted that the criteria for minimum visibility are advisory whereas the criteria published in JAR OPS-1.430 are mandatory (also required knowledge for Operational Procedures). Aircraft Category Minimum Obstacle Clearance m (ft) Lowest OCH above aerodrome elevation m (ft) Minimum Visibility km (nm) A 90 (295) 120 (394) 1.9 (1.0) B 90 (295) 150 (492) 2.8 (1.5) C 120 (394) 180 (591) 3.7 (2.0) D 120 (394) 210 (689) 4.6 (2.5) E 150 (492) 240 (787) 6.5 (3.5) OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Approach VISUAL MANOEUVRING (CIRCLING) (VM(C)A IN THE VICINITY OF THE AERODROME
  • 158. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-31 Minimum Descent Altitude/Height An additional margin is added to the OCA/H for operational considerations, and a MDA/H is specified. Descent below MDA/H should not be made until visual reference has been established and can be maintained, the pilot has the landing threshold in sight, and the required obstacle clearance can be maintained and the aircraft is in a position to carry out a landing. Visual Flight Manoeuvre A circling approach is a visual flight manoeuvre. Each circling situation is different because of variables such as runway layout, final approach track, wind velocity, and meteorological conditions. There is no single procedure that caters for conducting a circling approach in every situation. After initial visual contact, the basic assumption is that the runway environment (the runway threshold, approach lighting aids, or other markings identifiable with the runway), should be kept in sight while at MDA/H for circling. Missed Approach While Circling If visual reference is lost while circling to land from an instrument approach, the missed approach for the instrument procedure, must be followed. Other aircraft may be attempting the same manoeuvre therefore the missed approach procedure must take the aircraft away from subsequent instrument aircraft. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn toward the landing runway and overhead the aerodrome. Then, the pilot will establish the aircraft climbing on the missed approach track. Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in more than one direction, different patterns will be required to establish the aircraft on the prescribed missed approach course depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost. The VM(C) OCA for the aerodrome is published on the chart for the instrument part of the approach. The fixed margin is added to OCA for each category of aircraft. Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Area PUBLISHED INFORMATION Radius from end of Runway Highest obstacle in area The radius is based on aircraft category/speed
  • 159. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-32 Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach Procedures Based On VOR/DME RNAV approach procedures based on VOR/DME are assumed to be based on one reference facility composed of a VOR and co-located DME. Aircraft equipped with RNAV systems which have been approved, may use these systems to carry out VOR/DME RNAV approaches providing that before conducting any flight it is ensured that the RNAV equipment is serviceable, the pilot has a current knowledge of how to operate the equipment so as to achieve the optimum level of navigation accuracy and the published VOR/DME facility upon which the procedure is based is serviceable. The main disadvantage of using RNAV is that it relies on a navigational database to support the computer interpretation of the received information. If this database contains errors computed positions will be in error. Use of FMS/RNAV Equipment to Follow Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures When FMS/RNAV equipment is available, it may be used when flying a conventional non- precision approach procedure, provided the procedure is monitored using the basic display normally associated with the procedure, and the tolerances for flight using raw data on the basic display are complied with. Track Reversal and Racetrack Procedures At large aerodromes serving international commercial aviation, radar vectoring to the ILS or self positioning to the ILS is the standard method of commencing an instrument approach. Even in conditions of good visibility and high cloud ceiling, to ensure separation from departing aircraft, IFR is made mandatory by the imposition of Class A airspace and ILS approaches are required. At low intensity and remote aerodromes, with limited availability of ‘off aerodrome’ navigation aids, a procedure known as the ‘single beacon reversing turn procedure’ is a standard type of procedure. The chart below shows the ILS DME procedure for runway 08 at Luton.
  • 160. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-33 PROCEDURE An arriving aircraft would usually enter the holding pattern above the LUT NDB(L), the IAF for the procedure, at an altitude above the lowest holding altitude (LHA) and wait for clearance to begin the procedure. When cleared to the LHA in the hold, the aircraft speed will be adjusted and aircraft configuration adjusted. The ATC clearance would be “(callsign)… cleared ILS runway 08 advising turning inbound at 2000 ft” The aircraft leaves the hold on a track of 258°mag to a point on the reciprocal of the ILS localiser at DME range 5 nm. The pilot would advise ATC “(callsign) turning inbound at 2000 ft”. The controller will then clear the aircraft “(callsign) report established ILS 08”. The aircraft is then flown through a procedure turn that places the aircraft in a position to intercept the localiser beam inbound. Once established on the localiser and reported so, the controller will instruct the pilot to report glidepath descending to the aerodrome controller. The aircraft is flown along the localiser beam until the glidepath is intercepted, and descent is commenced. If at DH the visual criteria is not obtained, the “go around” (missed approach) procedure is flown as published on the chart. Missed Approach Procedure Holding Pattern IAF Procedure Turn IF FAP (there is no defined FAF) Glidepath interception MSA Localiser Ident and Frequency VM(C) OCA OCA (OCH) Glidepath information
  • 161. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-34 Track Reversals There are several different track reversal methods. The diagram below shows: Procedure turns; Base turn; and Racetrack. Note: In all the procedures, tracks are flown. Therefore pilots must make allowance for the wind. Track Reversal Procedures 45°/180° Procedure Turn This is the most common track reversal procedure. At a defined point the aircraft is turned through 45° and then flown straight and level. From the start of the turn, after for 1 min for Cat A and B aircraft or 1 min 15 sec for C, D and E, the aircraft is turned in the opposite direction through 180°. All turns are made at rate 1 (3°/sec) or 25° bank angle whichever is less. This places the aircraft in a position to intercept the required inbound track at 45° (the optimum converging angle). In still air the turn takes in excess of 2 minutes to reverse the track.
  • 162. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-35 80°/260° Procedure Turn This procedure is used where airspace is limited. The aircraft is turned through 80° and the bank angle is immediately reversed to turn through 260° in the opposite direction. The turns are made at rate 1 or 25° bank angle whichever is less. In still air, at the completion of the turn the aircraft will be tracking inbound on the reciprocal of the outbound track. In still air, this procedure takes exactly 2 minutes and is often called a 2 minute procedure. Note: For either procedure, the tracks flown are reciprocal. Note: The outbound leg is usually flown with reference to the ILS localiser (if the procedure is part of an ILS approach). Flying the reciprocal of the localiser course is not flying the back beam, which is not approved in Europe. The pilot must remember that indications are reversed when flying the localiser in the wrong direction! Base Turn Where accurate track guidance is available other than the ILS localiser, for instance VOR information, a base turn can be flown. From on top of the facility the aircraft is established on a defined track which diverges from the reciprocal of the desired inbound track. At a point defined by time, DME distance or interception of information from another aid, the aircraft is established in a turn at rate 1 or 25° bank angle until the inbound track is intercepted. Racetrack It is not always convenient for the holding pattern associated with a single beacon procedure to be oriented so that the inbound holding track can be extended directly into the outbound procedure track as in the case of Luton. The picture below shows part of the procedure for Edinburgh including a racetrack shown by the dotted line. Racetrack Reversing Turn Procedure From the above picture it is clear that there is no way that the pilot can track outbound on 065° directly from the holding pattern. In this case, when cleared to commence the approach the aircraft is flown outbound in the holding pattern and the outbound track is maintained to a defined point (in this case DME range 9 nm) at which a rate 1 turn through 180° is initiated to bring the aircraft on to the desired inbound track. On the approach chart this would be specified as an ‘alternative procedure’. Racetrack Normal procedure without holding
  • 163. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-36 Note: The student must not confuse a racetrack with a holding pattern. The racetrack is only used for track reversal; similarly, a holding pattern is only used for holding. Dead Reckoning Segment Where an operational advantage can be obtained, an ILS procedure may include a dead reckoning segment from a fix (usually the IAF) to the localiser. The DR track will intercept the localiser at 45° and will not be more than 19 km (10 nm) in length. The point of intersection of the localiser is the beginning of the intermediate segment and will allow time for establishing on the localiser before descent is required. Dead Reckoning Segment Inevitably aircraft will not be able to make a straight in approach and will need to temporarily ‘park’ whilst awaiting clearance to commence the approach procedure. The process of ‘parking’ is known as holding. We have already seen that the single beacon reversing turn procedure usually starts at a holding point and it is usual for the missed approach procedure to end at a holding point. Holding is achieved by the pilot flying the aircraft around a holding pattern. The process of flying around the pattern is called ‘shuttling’. As part of the IRT the student will be required to fly holding patterns to a precise degree, and this will be achieved after a lot of practice. In the Chapters concerned with Approach Control, the student will be introduced to the process known as ‘stacking’, but first the holding pattern needs to be described and the procedures for joining and flying the pattern discussed. Deviation Warning Deviations from the procedures for holding may incur the risk of excursions beyond the perimeter of the holding area into airspace used for other purposes. As such pilots must adhere to the published procedures modified where necessary by ATC instructions or local instructions published on STAR and instrument approach charts, and enroute charts. HOLDING PROCEDURES OM ILS Localiser VOR/DME DME range DR Fix DR segment 45° Centre line 10 nm max
  • 164. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-37 Standard Pattern A holding pattern normally involves a right turn at the holding point. Left hand patterns may be specified where airspace considerations warrant. A left hand pattern and the associated joining procedures are a mirror image of a right hand pattern. Holding Pattern and Terminology Procedure The pattern is flown making all turns at rate 1 (3°/sec) or a maximum bank angle of 25°. The pattern is defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are to allow for the wind. The pattern is timed along the outbound leg, normally 1 minute starting at the abeam point, but timing may be started at the holding point adding 1 minute for the turn. If the abeam point cannot be determined, timing may start at the completion of the outbound turn. The outbound leg may be limited by DME range. Holding patterns are flown at specified speeds although the FMC system in modern aircraft calculates the most cost effective holding speed and sets the speed when an auto- coupled holding pattern is flown.
  • 165. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-38 Holding Speeds (Note: Speeds and heights in bold are required knowledge) Holding Speeds Levels 1 Normal Conditions Turbulence Conditions Up to 4250 m (14 000 ft) inclusive 425 km/h (230 kts) 2 315 km/h (170 kt) 4 520 km/h (280 kts) 3 315 km/h (170 kt) 4 Above 4250 m (14 000 ft) to 6100m (20 000 ft) inclusive 445 km/h (240 kt) 5 520 km/h (280 kt) or 0.8 M whichever is less 3 Above 6100 m (20 000 ft) to 10 350 m (34 000 ft) inclusive 490 km/h (265 kt) 5 520 km/h (280 kt) or 0.8 M whichever is less 3 Above 10 350 m (34 000 ft) 0.83 M 0.83 M 1. The levels tabulated represent altitudes or corresponding flight levels depending upon the altimeter setting in use. 2. When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument approach procedure promulgated at a speed higher than 425 km/h, (230 kt), the holding should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever possible. 3. The speed of 520 km/h, (280 kt) (0.8 M) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be used for holding only after prior clearance with ATC, unless the relevant publications indicate that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flight at these high holding speeds. 4. For holdings limited to CAT A and B aircraft only. 5. Wherever possible, 520 km/h (280 kt) should be used for holding procedures associated with airway route structures. Joining the Pattern The pattern is defined by a holding direction (inbound magnetic track to the holding point). When joining a holding pattern, the pilot flies the aircraft to the holding point (holding fix) and dependent upon the magnetic heading at the fix, joins the pattern by one of three possible entry manoeuvres based on the sector from which the approach to the fix is made. The sector is defined by aircraft headings and when an approach to the fix is made within 5° of the sector boundary, the pilot has the choice of the joining manoeuvre for the correct sector or for the adjacent sector if it is more operationally expeditious. The following joining procedures assume a right hand pattern. Sector 1 (Parallel Entry) Having reached the fix, the aircraft is turned left onto an outbound heading, reciprocal to the inbound holding track for the appropriate period of time. The aircraft is then turned left onto the holding side to intercept the inbound track or to return to the fix. On second arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft is turned right to follow the holding pattern.
  • 166. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-39 Sector 2 (Offset Entry) Having reached the fix, the aircraft is turned onto a heading to make good a track making an angle of 30° from the reciprocal of the inbound track on the holding side. The aircraft flies outbound for the appropriate period of time, where timing is specified, or until the appropriate limiting DME distance is attained, where distance is specified. The aircraft is turned right to intercept the inbound holding track, then on second arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft is turned right to follow the holding pattern. Sector 3 Procedures (Direct Entry) Having reached the fix, the aircraft turns right to follow the holding pattern. Time and Distance Outbound The still air flying time for the outbound and entry tracks is not to exceed one minute if at or below 14 000 ft, or one and a half minutes if above 14 000 ft. Where DME is available, the outbound legs may be limited by a DME range.
  • 167. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-40 Establishing in the Hold When holding for an IFR instrument procedure, the Approach Controller will clear the aircraft to the holding pattern at a specific FL or altitude. For instance: “Atlantic 123 hold on the DAV beacon at FL 90”. For sector 1 and 2 joins, after the second time over the holding point the aircraft should be established in the holding pattern. For sector 3 the aircraft may be established in the holding pattern after the first time over the fix. Once established the pilot will report “Atlantic 123 DAV holding FL90”. This level should then be maintained until re-cleared for a lower level or to continue enroute by ATC. Descent in the Hold When ATC wants the aircraft to move to a lower level, the pilot will be instructed: “Atlantic 123 shuttle in the hold to FL80”. The pilot will acknowledge the instruction and immediately commence descent: “Atlantic 123 descending to FL 80”. The descent can be started at any point in the holding pattern. When level at FL80 the pilot will report “Atlantic 123 DAV holding FL80”. Departing the Pattern When cleared to leave the holding pattern, the pilot should maintain the pattern until reaching the fix and then take up the required heading. If instructed to leave the holding pattern at a specific time, the pilot should cut short the holding pattern to depart from the holding fix at the specified time. If the Approach Radar controller issues radar vectoring instructions the commencement point will be stated. “Atlantic 123 radar vectoring for ILS Coventry runway 23. From your present position turn right heading 350”. Obstacle Clearance The holding area is not defined in terms of lateral dimensions. The designer will ensure that there is sufficient airspace above the MOC to encompass the holding pattern and the associated joining procedures. Surrounding the holding area, a buffer area is established extending laterally 5 nm from the holding area. Full MOC is maintained within the holding area and 1 nm into the buffer area. The MOC is reduced in steps for each nm into the buffer area until the MOC is reduced to zero at the extremity of the buffer area.
  • 168. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-41 Holding Area and Buffer Area Reducing Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC)
  • 169. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-42 Simultaneous operations on parallel or near parallel instrument runways in IMC are essential in order to increase capacity at busy aerodromes. An aerodrome already having dual parallel precision approach (ILS) runways can increase capacity if these runways are safely operated simultaneously and independently when IMC exists. There are a variety of modes of operation associated with the use of parallel or near parallel instrument runways. These are: Simultaneous parallel instrument approaches (modes 1 and 2); Simultaneous parallel instrument departures (mode 3); Segregated parallel operations (mode 4), and Semi-mixed parallel operations. Mode 1, Independent Parallel Approaches Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS is not applied. Mode 2, Dependent Parallel Approaches Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS is applied. Mode 3, Simultaneous Instrument Departures This is defined as simultaneous departures for aircraft departing in the same direction from parallel runways. It is implicit that the tracks of the aircraft will diverge after take off and that radar separation will be applied. Note: When the minimum distance between two parallel runway centre lines is lower than the specified value dictated by wake turbulence considerations, the parallel runways are considered as a single runway in regard to separation between departing aircraft. A simultaneous dependent parallel departure mode of operation is therefore not used. Mode 4, Segregated Parallel Approaches/Departures In this mode one runway is used for departures and the other used for arrivals, or vice versa. This is the normal mode of operation at London Heathrow and permits up to 90 movements (take-offs and landings) per hour. Semi-Mixed and Mixed Operations In the case of parallel approaches and departures there may be mixed or semi-mixed operations based on the four operating modes described above. SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS ON PARALLEL OR NEAR PARALLEL INSTRUMENT RUNWAYS
  • 170. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-43 Semi-mixed operations Mode One runway is used exclusively for approaches while: Approaches are being made to the other runway, or Departures are in progress on the other runway One runway is used exclusively for departures while: Approaches are being made to the other runway, or Departures are in progress on the other runway Mixed operations All modes of operation are possible 1 or 2 4 4 3 1,2,3 or 4 Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) Where Mode 1 and Mode 2, simultaneous approaches are in operation, a NOZ is established for each runway. This is airspace of defined dimensions extending to either side of the ILS localizer course. Only the inner half of the NOZ is taken into account for Mode 1. No-Transgression Zone (NTZ) In the context of independent parallel approaches (Mode 1), the NTZ is a corridor of airspace of defined dimensions, located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines where penetration by an aircraft requires controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach into safe airspace.
  • 171. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-44 Runway Lateral Spacing The spacing between the centre lines of the adjacent (parallel) runways is defined as minima dependent upon the operation. All aerodromes are categorised by an aerodrome reference code. In the diagrammatic description below, reference to code relates to the aerodrome reference code. This is explained fully in the chapter dealing with aerodromes. Required runway Spacing for Parallel Operations
  • 172. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-45 Vectoring to the ILS Localizer Course When simultaneous independent parallel approaches are in progress, the following apply: Radar Monitoring All approaches regardless of weather conditions are radar monitored. Control instructions and information necessary to ensure separation between aircraft, and to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ, are issued. The ATC procedure will be to vector arriving aircraft to one or the other of the parallel ILS localizer courses. When cleared for an ILS approach, only a straight in approach is permitted (no track reversals). When vectoring to intercept the ILS localizer course, the final vector is such as to enable the aircraft to intercept the ILS localizer course at an angle not greater than 30º and to provide at least 2 km (1 nm) straight and level flight prior to ILS localizer course intercept. This vector enables the aircraft to be established on the ILS localizer course in level flight for at least 3.7 km (2.0 nm) prior to intercepting the ILS glide path. Separation Each pair of parallel approaches will have a “high side” and a “low side” for vectoring, to provide vertical separation until aircraft are established inbound on their respective parallel ILS localizer course. The low side altitude will normally be such that the aircraft will be established on the ILS localizer course well before ILS glidepath interception. The high side altitude will be 300 m (1000 ft) above the low side. The main objective is that both aircraft be established on the ILS localizer course before the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced. Corrective Action If an aircraft is observed to overshoot the ILS localizer course during turn to final, the aircraft will be instructed to return immediately to the correct track. Pilots are not required to acknowledge these transmissions or subsequent instructions while on final approach unless requested to do so. Once the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced, the radar controller monitoring the approach will issue control instructions if the aircraft deviates substantially from the ILS localizer course. If the aircraft fails to take corrective action and penetrates the NTZ, the aircraft on the adjacent ILS localizer course will be issued appropriate control instructions. Missed Approach/Track Divergence Simultaneous parallel operations require diverging tracks for missed approach procedures and departures. When turns are prescribed to establish divergence, pilots shall commence the turns as soon as practicable. Pilots should always be aware that during parallel runway operations an aircraft that makes a missed approach is actually flying a simultaneous parallel runway departure procedure.
  • 173. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-46 Fig: Mode 1 Independent Parallel Approaches Fig: Mode 1 Relationship between NTZ and NOZ
  • 174. Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Air Law 10-47 Fig: Mode 2 Dependent Parallel Approaches Fig: Mode 3 Simultaneous Parallel Departures
  • 175. Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Air Law10-48 Fig: Mode 4 Segregated Operations
  • 176. Air Law 11-1 INTRODUCTION Annex 15 to the Chicago Convention covers the provision of an Aeronautical Information Service (AIS). The object of AIS is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. Corrupt or erroneous aeronautical information can potentially affect the safety of air navigation. The role and importance of aeronautical information/data changed significantly with the implementation of: Area navigation (RNAV); Required navigation performance (RNP), and Airborne computer-based navigation systems. To satisfy the uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information that is required for operational use, states shall, as far as possible, avoid standards and procedures other than those established for international use. RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTION Each contracting state shall provide an aeronautical information service, or provide a joint service with one or more Contracting State, and shall remain responsible for any information published. Aeronautical information shall clearly indicate that it is published under the authority of that state. Where a 24-hour service is not provided, the service has to be available during the whole period an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility plus a period of at least two hours before and after such a period. The aeronautical information service shall obtain information for it to provide a pre-flight information service to meet the need for in-flight information, and to ensure that information is in a form suitable for the requirements of flight operations personnel including flight crews, flight planning and flight simulator, and the ATS unit responsible for a FIS. THE INTEGRATED AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PACKAGE (IAIP) The IAIP is a package that consists of the following elements: Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP), including an amendment service; Supplements to the AlP; NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB); Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs); Checklists and Summaries.
  • 177. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-2 Note: AlPs are intended primarily to satisfy international requirements for the exchange of aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. When practicable, the form of presentation is designed to facilitate their use in flight. WGS 84 As of 1 January 1984, published geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude shall be expressed in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS 84). PROHIBITED, RESTRICTED, AND DANGER AREAS Prohibited, restricted or danger areas established by a state shall, upon initial establishment, be given an identification designation and full details shall be promulgated. The identification assigned is used to identify the area in all subsequent notifications pertaining to that area. The identification is composed of a group comprising; nationality letters for location indicators assigned to the state or territory, which has established the airspace (EG is used for the UK); a letter: P - Prohibited area; R - Restricted area; D - Danger area; and a unique number within the state or territory concerned. Hence EGD001 is danger area number 001 in the United Kingdom. To avoid confusion, identification numbers are not re-used for a period of at least one year after cancellation of any area to which they refer. This will allow all aeronautical publications and charts to be reprinted at least once after the designation is cancelled.
  • 178. Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Air Law 11-3 NOTAM (NOTICE TO AIRMEN) The AFTN shall, whenever practicable, be employed for NOTAM distribution usually in telex format. A NOTAM is originated and issued whenever the information to be distributed: is of a temporary nature and of short duration; contains operationally significant permanent changes; contains temporary changes of long duration made at short notice, except for extensive text and/or graphics. Note: Information of short duration containing extensive text and/or graphics is published as an AIP Supplement. Distribution A NOTAM is distributed to addressees to whom the information is of direct operational significance, and who would not otherwise have at least seven days prior notification. NOTAM Checklist A checklist of NOTAMs in force is issued over the AFTN at intervals of not more than one month; it refers to the latest AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and at least the internationally distributed AICs. The checklist must have the same distribution as the actual message series to which they refer. NOTAM Summary This is a monthly printed plain language summary which is prepared and forwarded to the recipients of the integrated AIP containing details of the NOTAMs in force, the latest AIP Amendments, a checklist of AIP Supplements, and AIC issued. SNOWTAM Information concerning snow, ice, and standing water on aerodrome pavements is reported by SNOWTAM. The maximum validity of a SNOWTAM is 24 hours. However, a new SNOWTAM must be issued when there is a significant change in conditions. SNOCLO This is a term used in a VOLMET broadcast to indicate that an aerodrome is closed due to snow or snow clearance in progress.
  • 179. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-4 SNOWTAM Form The SNOWTAM Form is broken into 17 sections as shown in the form below.
  • 180. Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Air Law 11-5 Wheel Braking on Wet Runways The retardation effect of an aircraft’s braking system relies on friction with the surface of the runway. If the surface is not dry then the ‘amount of friction’ will be reduced. The reduction in friction can be given a factor known as the co-efficient of braking and is defined by the value of friction of the runway at an instant in time, determined by measurement, divided by the value of friction for the same runway when dry. If the runway is dry, the coefficient of braking is 1; if not dry the co-efficient is less than 1. All paved runways of 1200 m or longer are required to be calibrated for co-efficient of braking to ensure that when wet, good braking action will exist. The presence of water on a runway will be reported by RTF as follows: Dry The surface is dry Damp The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture Wet The surface is soaked, but no significant patches of standing water are visible Water Patches Significant patches of standing water are visible Flooded Extensive standing water is visible Interpretation When a runway is reported as DRY, DAMP, or WET, pilots may assume an acceptable level of braking friction is present. WATER PATCHES or FLOODED means that braking may be affected by hydroplaning and appropriate adjustments should be considered. Water patches will be reported if at least 25% of the runway is affected. When a runway is notified as ‘slippery when wet’ take-offs and landings in wet conditions should only be considered if the distances equal or exceed the distances required for icy runways as defined in the aircraft manual. Snow, Slush, or Ice on a Runway Whenever a runway is affected by snow, slush, or ice and it has not been possible to clear the precipitant fully, the condition of the runway should be assessed, and the friction coefficient measured. The table below, with associated descriptive terms, was developed from friction data collected in compacted snow and ice and should not be taken as absolute values applicable in all conditions. If the surface is affected by snow or ice and the braking action is reported as “good”, pilots should not expect to find conditions as good as on a clean dry runway (where the available friction may well be greater than that needed). The value “good” is a comparative value and is intended to mean that aeroplanes should not experience directional control or braking difficulties especially when landing. Table: Braking Action Measured Coefficient Estimated Braking Action Code 0.40 and above 0.39 to 0.36 0.35 to 0.30 0.29 to 0.26 0.25 and below Good Medium to good Medium Medium to poor Poor 5 4 3 2 1 ASHTAM Information concerning an operationally significant change in volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash cloud is reported by means of an ASHTAM. An ASHTAM provides information on the status of activity of a volcano, when a change in its activity is expected, or is, of operational significance. Information is passed using a volcano level of alert colour code given in the table.
  • 181. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-6 Table: Volcanic Activity Reporting Level of Alert Colour Code Status of Activity of Volcano Red Alert Volcanic eruption in progress. Ash plume/cloud reported above FL250 or Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud expected to rise above FL250 Orange Alert Volcanic eruption in progress but ash plume/cloud not reaching nor expected to reach FL250 or Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud not expected to rise above FL250 Yellow Alert Volcano known to be active from time to time and volcanic activity has recently increased significantly, volcano not currently considered dangerous but caution should be exercised or (After an eruption eg a change in alert to yellow from red or orange) Volcanic activity has decreased significantly, volcano not currently considered dangerous but caution should be exercised Green Alert Volcanic activity considered to have ceased and volcano reverted to its normal state AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION REGULATION AND CONTROL (AIRAC) AIRAC System AIRAC is a regulated system for the distribution of amendments to aeronautical data, specifically the AIP. AIRAC amendments are issued in two parts. Both parts are usually distributed together to subscribing organisations. The system is based on the establishment of a series of common effective dates at intervals of 28 days. The AIS unit distributes AIRAC information at least 42 days in advance of the effective date with the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance of the effective date. The information notified is not changed for at least another 28 days after the effective date, unless the change is of a temporary nature and would not persist for the full period. Whenever major changes are planned and where additional notice is desirable and practicable, a publication date of at least 56 days in advance of the effective date should be used. AIRAC notification by NOTAM When an AIP Amendment or an AlP Supplement is published in accordance with AIRAC procedures a NOTAM shall be originated giving a brief description of the contents, the effective date and the reference number to the amendment or supplement. This NOTAM shall come into force on the same effective date as the amendment or supplement.
  • 182. Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Air Law 11-7 AIRAC Part 1 Contents Part 1 contains information relating to the establishment, withdrawal of, and premeditated significant changes to: Limits (horizontal and vertical), regulations and procedures applicable to: • FIR; • CTA; • CTR; • Advisory areas; • ATS routes; • Permanent danger, prohibited and restricted areas; and • Permanent areas, routes or portions of routes where the possibility of interception exists. Positions, frequencies, call signs, known irregularities and maintenance periods, of radio navigation aids and communication facilities; Holding and approach procedures, arrival and departure procedures, noise abatement procedures and any other permanent ATS procedures; Meteorological facilities, including broadcasts, and procedures; Runways and stopways. AIRAC Part 2 Contents Part 2 of an AIRAC issue contains information relating to the establishment, withdrawal of and premeditated significant changes to: Position, height and lighting of navigational obstacles; Taxiways and aprons; Hours of service of aerodrome; and facilities and services; Temporary danger, prohibited and restricted areas and navigational hazards, military exercises and mass movements of aircraft; and Temporary areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception exists. AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION CIRCULARS (AIC) Need An AIC is originated whenever it is necessary to promulgate aeronautical information that does not qualify under the specifications for inclusion in the AlP, or under the specifications for the origination of a NOTAM. Specification AICs are issued in printed form containing both text and diagrams if required. A state may distribute AICs internationally as well as domestically. AICs have a consecutive serial number based on the calendar year. If more than one series is published, each series is given an identification letter. AICs are differentiated by subject matter by way of colour coding the paper they are printed on. A checklist of AICs currently in force is to be issued at least once a year.
  • 183. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-8 Example of AIC system: The following is the UK system for coding AICs: Pink Matters relating to safety Yellow Operational matters including ATS facilities and requirements White Administrative matters e.g. exam dates and fees Mauve Airspace reservations Green Maps and charts Note: Mauve is purple. Uses An AIC shall be originated whenever it is desirable to promulgate a long term forecast of any major change in legislation, regulations, procedures, or facilities; information of a purely explanatory or advisory nature liable to affect flight safety; information, or notification of an explanatory or advisory nature concerning technical, legislative, or purely administrative matters. PRE-FLIGHT AND POST FLIGHT INFORMATION Pre-Flight Information At an aerodrome used for international air operations, aeronautical information shall be made available to flight operations personnel responsible for pre-flight information, essential for the safety, regularity and efficiency of air navigation, and relative to the route stages originating at the aerodrome. Planning Aeronautical information provided for pre-flight planning purposes shall include relevant elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package, maps and charts, and additional current information relating to the aerodrome of departure. PIBs All NOTAM information is to be available to pilots in the form of pre-flight information bulletins (PIB). Post Flight Information States shall ensure that arrangements are made for all aerodromes to receive information concerning the state and operation of the navigation facilities to be used by flight crew. All such information is made available to the AIS for dissemination. AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP) An AIP consists of three parts relating to the following subjects: Part 1 — General (GEN) A list of significant differences between the national regulations and practices of the State and the related ICAO SARPs and procedures. These are given in a form that would enable a user to differentiate readily between the requirements of the State and the related ICAO provisions are found in this section. Part 2 — Enroute (ENR) This part of the AIP provides information relating to routes, facilities, and procedures.
  • 184. Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Air Law 11-9 Part 3 — Aerodrome Directory (AD) This part of the AIP gives physical details of aerodromes, facilities, and services available. AlP Amendments Permanent changes to the AlP are published as AlP amendments. AlP Supplements Temporary changes of long duration (three months) and information of short duration which contains extensive text and/or graphics are published as AIP supplements. AIP supplement pages are coloured in order to be conspicuous, preferably in yellow (as in the UK). CONTENTS OF AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP) PART 1 — GENERAL (GEN) GEN 1 — National Regulations and Requirements Information relating to: Designated authorities; Entry, transit and departure of aircraft; Entry, transit and departure of cargo; Aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents; Summary of national regulations and international agreements/conventions; and Differences from ICAO SARPs. GEN 2 — Tables and Codes Data relating to: Measuring system, aircraft markings, holidays; Abbreviations used in AIS publications; Chart symbols; Location indicators; List of radio navigation aids; Conversion tables; Sunrise/sunset tables. GEN 3 — Services Information applicable to the provision of: Aeronautical information services; Aeronautical charts; Air traffic services; Meteorological services; SAR.
  • 185. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-10 PART 2 — ENROUTE (ENR) ENR 1 — General Rules and Procedures Specific information regarding: General rules; VFR; IFR; ATS airspace classification; Holding, approach, and departure procedures; Radar services and procedures; Altimeter setting procedures; Regional supplementary procedures; Air traffic flow management; Flight planning; Addressing of flight plan messages; Interception of civil aircraft; Unlawful interference; Air traffic incidents. ENR 2 — Air Traffic Services Airspace Definitions and delineation of: FIR, UIR, TMA; and Other regulated airspace. ENR 3 — ATS Routes Specifications for and routing of: Lower ATS routes; Upper ATS routes; Area navigation routes; Helicopter routes; Other routes; and Enroute holding. ENR 4 — Radio Navigation Aids/Systems Details, location and specifications of: Radio navigation aids – enroute; Special navigation systems; Name code designators for specific points; and Aeronautical ground lights – enroute.
  • 186. Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Air Law 11-11 ENR 5 — Navigation Warnings Details of: Prohibited, restricted and danger areas; Military exercise and training areas; Other activities of a dangerous nature; Air navigation obstacles – enroute; Aerial sporting and recreational activities; and Bird migration and areas with sensitive fauna. ENR 6 — Enroute Charts Specific charts relating to the routes defined in ENR 3 PART 3 — AERODROMES (AD) AD 1 — Aerodromes/Heliports Introduction Specific information relating to: Aerodrome/heliport availability; Rescue and fire fighting services and snow plan; Index to aerodromes and heliports; Groupings of aerodromes/heliports. AD 2 — Aerodromes Specifications of and data relating to: Aerodrome location indicator and name; Aerodrome geographical and administrative data; Operational hours; Handling services and facilities; Passenger facilities; Rescue and fire fighting services; Seasonal availability – clearing; Aprons, taxiways and check locations/positions data; Surface movement guidance and markings; Aerodrome obstacles; Meteorological information provided; Runway physical characteristics; Declared distances; Helicopter landing area; Approach and runway lighting; Other lighting, secondary power supply; ATS airspace; ATS communication facilities; Radio navigation and landing aids; Local traffic regulations; Noise abatement procedures; Flight procedures; Any additional information.
  • 187. Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Air Law11-12 AD 3 — Heliports Relating specifically to heliports. Charts Related to an Aerodrome The requirement is for charts related to an aerodrome to be included in the following order: Aerodrome/heliport chart; Aircraft parking/docking chart; Aerodrome ground movement chart; Aerodrome obstacle chart – for each runway; Precision approach terrain chart; Area chart – departure and transit routes; Standard departure chart; Area chart – arrival and transit routes; Standard arrival chart; Instrument approach chart; Visual approach chart; Bird concentrations in the vicinity of aerodrome.
  • 188. Air Law 12-1 Reference: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services Document 4444 PANS – ATM INTRODUCTION Since the introduction of modern Air Traffic Control service following WWII, procedures and technology have advanced and kept pace with the growth of air traffic and the advances in aircraft design. The modern ATC system is as different today to a 1950s ATCO as would be the flight deck of a Boeing 777 to a Comet pilot. Whilst there is still reliance on the individual skill of the controller, modern digital data systems, digital radar displays, and hi-speed communications all help make the controller’s job less stressful and more professional, thus enhancing safety. The success of an ATC system depends on the adherence to procedures and the application of standards. The training of Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) is no less demanding than that of pilots. ATCOs are required to hold a class 1 medical certificate and are subject to regular skill tests and proficiency checks as are aircrew. As aircrew, you will see only a little of what goes on in the ATCC or the control tower, and your only contact with ATCOs will usually be by RTF. However, the LOs for 010 Air Law require the ATPL student to understand the types of ATC offered to pilots, knowledge of the types of airspace, and the standards for separation applied in them. OBJECTIVE OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS) The defined objectives of the ATS are to: Prevent collisions between aircraft; Prevent collisions between aircraft and obstructions on the manoeuvring area; Expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic; Provide advice and information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of flights; and Notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist such organizations as required.
  • 189. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-2 DIVISIONS OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES The ATS comprises three services identified as follows: The Air Traffic Control Service To provide ATC to aircraft. Flight Information Service To provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flight. ICAO permits the use of radar in the provision of this service. Alerting Service To notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist such organizations as required. The Air Traffic Control Service is further sub-divided into three parts: Area Control Service The provision of ATC service for controlled flights, except those parts of such flights as described below. Approach Control Service The provision of ATC service for those parts of controlled flights associated with arrival and departure. Aerodrome Control Service The provision of ATC service for aerodrome traffic, except for those parts of flights described above. DETERMINATION OF THE NEED FOR AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES The need for the provision of ATS is determined by considering the following: The types of traffic involved The density of air traffic The meteorological conditions Such other factors as may be relevant CLASSES OF AIRSPACE When it has been determined that ATS will be provided in a particular portion of airspace or at a particular aerodrome, the airspace is designated according to the services to be provided. The designation (classes) of airspace is as follows:
  • 190. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-3 Class Rules Service ATC Clearance Separation Traffic Info and avoidance Speed Limit Radio Watch SVFR Use A IFR ATC Required IFR-IFR No Yes Yes Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ IFR ATC B VFR ATC Required IFR-IFR IFR-VFR VFR-IFR VFR-VFR No Yes Yes Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ IFR ATC ATC IFR – IFR IFR – VFR No C VFR ATC FIS Required VFR – IFR VFR-VFR Yes Yes Yes Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ IFR ATC ATC (1) IFR-IFR IFR-VFR D VFR ATC (1) FIS Required None VFR-IFR VFR-VFR Yes Yes Yes Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ IFR ATC FIS Required IFR-IFR IFR-VFR Yes E VFR FIS FIS None None VFR-IFR VFR-VFR Yes No No Airway; CTA IFR ADV ATC None IFR-IFR (as far as practical) Yes F VFR FIS None None Yes No No Advisory Routes IFR Yes G VFR FIS None None Yes No No FIS Routes Open FIR Note 1: In Class D, traffic information and avoidance is provided by a service called Radar Information Service (not to be confused with the UK RIS). This is not ATC and it is not Advisory ATC as in Class F. For this purpose it is classified as ATC. Speed Limit Where imposed, the speed limit is 250 kts IAS. ATC may impose lower speed restrictions to facilitate separation. Other speed restrictions may be applied to aircraft flying a STAR and the start point of such limits will be published on the STAR chart. Flight Information Regions (FIRs) Those portions of the airspace where it is determined that FIS and alerting service will be provided are designated as FIRs. All the airspace within the territorial limits of a state is contained with FIRs. Controlled Airspace (CAS) All airspace defined as requiring ATC or Advisory ATC providision is classified as Controlled Airspace (CAS). Outside of CAS only FIS and the Alerting Service services are provided. Control Areas and Control Zones Those airspace parts determined to receive ATC service for IFR flights and controlled VFR flights, are designated Control Areas (CTAs) or Control Zones (CTRs). The difference between a CTA and a CTR is discussed later. Where designated within a FIR, CTAs and CTRs shall form part of that FIR. ICAO states that Class E airspace cannot be used for CTRs.
  • 191. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-4 Controlled Aerodromes Those aerodromes where it is determined that ATC service will be provided to aerodrome traffic, are designated as controlled aerodromes. Oceanic Control Areas Airspace outside the territorial limits of states and therefore not subject to domestic ATC arrangements, is organised into Oceanic Control Areas (OCA). The ATC procedures applied in OCAs are defined in Doc 7030 SUPPS. The student will study the organisation of the NAT region in 070 Operational Procedures. The NAT area incorporates of the following OCAs: Shanwick OCA (the UK and EIRE) Gander OCA (Canada) New York OCA (USA) Miami OCA (USA) Santa Maria OCA (Portugal) Bodø OCA (Norway) Sønderstrom OCA (Greenland) Iceland Oceanic FIR Within the ICAO classification of airspace, airspace is utilised as follows: Class A Where the interaction of IFR and VFR traffic is not desirable mainly due to traffic density and the use of VFR flight levels, VFR is prohibited. In Europe Class A is used extensively for airways; CTAs and CTRs. In Class A CTRs SVFR is permitted. In N America (especially the USA) Class A is infrequently used. Class B Where it is considered acceptable to mix IFR and VFR traffic all of which is subject to ATC and the density of traffic is not excessive, Class B is applied. In the UK the UIR is all Class B. In N America most CTAs and CTRs are Class B. SVFR is permitted in Class B CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class B airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class C Where there is a need for IFR and VFR traffic to be mixed but it is considered sufficient for VFR traffic to maintain its own separation from other VFR traffic, and whilst VFR traffic is separated from IFR traffic by the use of VFR FLs, Class C is applied. In Europe, most CTAs and many CTRs (especially in Eire) are Class C. There is no Class C airspace in the UK because the UK does not recognise VFR FLs. SVFR is permitted in Class C CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class C airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class D At less busy regional aerodromes and military aerodromes used by civilian traffic CTRs are predominantly Class D. Class D allows the separation of IFR traffic and offers the ability to provide a radar information service to transiting and terminal VFR traffic in addition to the underpinning FIS. Most CTRs in the UK are Class D. SVFR is permitted in Class D CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class D airspace, the airway adopts that classification.
  • 192. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-5 Class E Where traffic is light or the activity of the traffic mainly transiting, CTAs are established with Class E airspace. Class E permits IFR and VFR but neither imposes nor offers any control over VFR traffic. Indeed, VFR traffic may operate as non-radio traffic in Class E airspace. ICAO proscribes the use of Class E for CTRs therefore SVFR is not permitted in Class E airspace. Where an airway passes through Class E airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class F Advisory ATC service is provided in Class F airspace to participating IFR flights only. Other IFR and VFR flights are permitted but they only receive FIS. Advisory ATC is limited to the provision of the service for aircraft enroute therefore Class F is restricted to advisory routes, similar in characteristics to an airway. There is no Class F airspace in the USA. Class G Both IFR and VFR are permitted but no service other than FIS is provided. FIS routes may be defined along which FIS is guaranteed to be available. Class G is known as the Open FIR and comprises all the airspace of an FIR outside of controlled airspace (CAS). REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from the intended position within which flights would be for at least 95% of the total flying time, or, within which 95% of flights will be contained. e.g. RNP 1 implies that an aircraft would be within a distance of 1 nm from the intended position for at least 95% of the total flying time, or 95% of aircraft flying that route will be within 1 nm of their intended position. RNP Standards The RNP standards are 1, 4, 10, 12.6, and 20. There is an interim standard of RNP 5 intended to be applied during the introduction of RNP4. Only one state, Japan, achieved RNP4 and subsequently abandoned it on the grounds of maintenance cost. To date RNP5 is the accepted standard. RNP12.6 is the standard for the North Atlantic and is derived from historic RNAV data based on triple INS navigation. RNP is to be superceded with the introduction of PRNAV through GPS. It is envisaged that BaroVRNAV and GPS approach procedures will produce an equivalent of RNP0.3. UNITS PROVIDING AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES ATS is provided by units established and designated as follows: Flight Information Centre (FIC) A Flight Information Centre is established to provide FIS and an alerting service within FIRs, unless the responsibility of providing such services within a FIR is assigned to an ATCU having adequate facilities for the discharge of such responsibility. An example of an FIC is London Information. Air Traffic Control Unit (ATCU) ATCUs are established to provide ATC service, FIS and alerting service within CTAs, CTRs and at controlled aerodromes. An example of an ATCU is Birmingham Approach and Aerodrome Control.
  • 193. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-6 Area Control Centre (ACC) An ACC provides Area Control within an FIR or within a CTA serving many busy aerodromes. An example of an ACC is the London ACC at Swanwick. FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIRS) FIRs are designated to cover the whole of the air route structure within geographical limits. An FIR includes all airspace within its lateral limits, except any upper airspace designated as an Upper Information Region (UIR). Within the UK the London and Scottish FIRs provide coverage at and below FL245. The London and Scottish UIRs cover FL250 up to FL660. Where the upper boundary of an FIR is limited by an UIR, the lower limit specified for the UIR is also the upper vertical limit of the FIR. Most other states have a similar arrangement for the upper airspace where the activity of the traffic is mainly transiting. SCOTTISH FIR LONDON FIR CONTROL AREAS CTAs (including airways, Terminal Manoeuvring Areas (TMAs), and Terminal Control Areas (TCAs)), are designated so as to encompass enough airspace to contain the flight paths of IFR flights for which it is desired to provide protection, taking into account the capabilities of the navigation aids within the area and the activity of the traffic in the area. CTAs are established at the confluence of airways in the vicinity of major aerodromes. Within a CTA, vertical delineation may be established to permit varying activities to take place. At the top of a CTA the traffic will be transiting and will not affect the activity below. Below the cruising levels of transiting traffic, arriving and departing traffic for aerodromes served by the CTA will be manoeuvring to enter and leave the airway structure. Where this is specifically organised the area within vertical limits is called a TCA. At lower levels, traffic may be separated for arrival and departure at specific aerodromes as in the case of Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton. Where this organised, the area is called a TMA.
  • 194. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-7 CONTROL ZONE AIRWAY AIRWAYTERMINAL CONTROL AREA CTA Vertical Limit The lower limit of a CTA is not less than 200 m (700 ft) above msl or the ground (whichever is higher. Think aerodromes below sea level!). In practice, the lower limit of a CTA should be high enough to allow freedom of movement for VFR flights below the CTA. When the vertical limit of a CTA is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level. A CTA upper limit is established when either: An ATC service will not be provided above that upper limit, or The CTA is situated below an upper CTA with contiguous airspace. Airways Airways are control areas in the form of a corridor linking other CTAs. The base of an airway is defined to include the lowest cruising level above the highest terrain within a defined distance of the airway centreline. In normal terrain the base would be 1000 ft above the highest terrain or in mountainous areas, 2000 ft above. The base of an airway, when defined as a FL, will be a VFR FL. Airways are normally classified as either class A or class B, but where an airway passes through a CTA or CTR of lesser classification, the classification of the airway is reduced accordingly. FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS OR CONTROL AREAS IN THE UPPER AIRSPACE Where a CTA extends into the upper airspace, the airspace within the CTA remains part of the FIR. CONTROL ZONES CTRs are defined to include all the airspace, outside of CTAs, used for IFR flights arriving at and departing from aerodromes. The lateral limit of a CTR should extend at least 9.3 km (5 nm) from the centre of the aerodrome, or aerodromes (in the case of the CTR covering more than one aerodrome), in the direction(s) from which approaches may be made. If a CTR is located within the lateral limits of a CTA, it will extend upwards from the surface to at least the lower limit of the CTA. The upper limit of a CTR may be higher than the lower limit of an overlying CTA. Where there is no overlying CTA, the upper limit of the CTR is defined. When this limit is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level.
  • 195. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-8 Note: Even in states that do not recognise VFR FLs, the lower and upper limits of controlled airspace (Airways, CTAs and CTRs) are defined in terms of the vertical displacement which would coincide with a VFR FL. For instance, the UK does not recognise VFR FLs but the base of airways in the UK is always a FL + 500 ft i.e. FL75. It is generally accepted that the practical maximum upper limit of any defined CAS is FL660. If you refer to the table of FLs you will find this is a VFR FL. Note: It is common practice to define the upper limit of CTRs as altitudes where the upper limit coincides with or is less than the transition altitude for the aerodrome(s) served by the CTR, even if this is above 900 m (3000 ft). In N America, for any CTR or CTA with an upper limit below 18 000 ft, the upper limit is defined as an altitude.
  • 196. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-9 Controlled Airspace in the United Kingdom
  • 197. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-10 SERVICE TO AIRCRAFT IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful interference, shall be given maximum assistance and priority over other aircraft as may be necessitated by the circumstances. When an occurrence of unlawful interference with an aircraft takes place or is suspected, ATS units shall attend promptly to requests by the aircraft. Information pertinent to the safe conduct of the flight shall continue to be transmitted and necessary action shall be taken to expedite the conduct of all phases of the flight, especially the safe landing of the aircraft. To indicate that it is in a state of emergency, an aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder is to operate the equipment as follows: Select mode A, Code 7700; or Select mode A, Code 7600 to indicate radio failure; or Select mode A, Code 7500, to indicate unlawful interference. TIME IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES ATS units use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and express the time in hours and minutes of the 24 hour day beginning at midnight. ATS unit clocks and other time recording devices are checked as necessary to ensure the correct time to within ± 30 seconds of UTC at all times. Aerodrome control towers shall, prior to an aircraft taxiing for take-off, provide the pilot with the correct time, unless arrangements have been made for the pilot to obtain it from other sources. ATS units provide aircraft with the correct time on request; these time checks are given to the nearest ½ minute. ATS ROUTE DESIGNATORS Purpose of Designators Designators are the ‘code names’ given to routes established for aircraft to fly along. For instance, the airway that joins London to Singapore is given the designator A1. The purpose of a system of route designators is to allow both pilot and ATS: To make unambiguous reference to any ATS route without the need to resort to the use of geographical co-ordinates or other means in order to describe it; To relate an ATS route to a specific vertical structure of the airspace, as applicable; To indicate a required level of navigation performance accuracy, when operating along an ATS route or within a specified area; and To indicate that a route is used primarily or exclusively by certain types of aircraft. ATS routes comprise: Airways; Upper air routes; Advisory routes; SIDs and STARs; FIS routes; and Helicopter routes.
  • 198. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-11 Composition of Designators Designators for controlled, advisory and uncontrolled ATS routes, with the exception of standard arrival and departure routes, have the following format: A letter followed by a number; with; One prefix; and One suffix. Number of Characters The number of characters required to compose the designator: Shall not exceed 6 characters, but Should be kept to a maximum of 5 characters. Route Designator Letter Selection of the letter shall be made from: A, B, G, R for routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and are not area navigation routes; L, M, N, P for area navigation routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes; H, J, V, W for routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and are not area navigation routes; and Q, I, Y, Z for area navigation routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS route. Note: RNAV routes are defined by waypoints (VOR radial and DME range etc.); non- RNAV routes are defined by overflying beacons (VOR; NDB etc.) Note: ‘Regional’ refers to the ICAO regions and implies that routes are not restricted to the domestic airspace of a state. ‘Non regional’ implies that the route does not extend beyond the domestic airspace of a state. Route Designator Number The basic designator number following the letter is any number between 1 and 999. Prefix Where applicable, one supplementary letter is added as a prefix to the basic designator to designate the following: K to indicate a low level route established for use primarily by helicopters; U to indicate that a route or portion of that route is established in the upper airspace; and S to indicate a route established exclusively for use by supersonic aircraft during acceleration, deceleration and while in supersonic flight.
  • 199. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-12 Suffix A supplementary letter may be added after the basic designator of the ATS route to indicate the type of service provided or the turn performance required on the route. The following are the applicable suffixes: F indicates that the route is an advisory route (class F airspace). G indicates that the route is an FIS route in class G airspace. Y indicates that for RNP 1 routes at and above FL200, all turns on the route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 22.5 nm. Z indicates that for RNP 1 routes at or below FL 190, all turns on the route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 15 nm.
  • 200. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-13 Belfast CTA/TMA/CTR
  • 201. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-14 AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT (ATIR) Any deviation from the standards of safety in the procedures used by pilots, ATCOs, and equipment used for the safe navigation of aircraft is a serious matter. The reliance on adherence to procedures underpins the philosophy of applying separation standards and both pilots and ATCOs must have faith in the standard applicability of the procedures. If any deviation becomes apparent, whether intentional or accidental, the incident must be investigated and a report raised. What might appear a trivial matter may if repeated too many times, become catastrophic in effect. ICAO has devised a system for reporting and investigating such occurrences. The system is known an Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR). There are three types of ATIR: Proximity of Aircraft; Procedural inadequacy; Equipment malfunction. AIRPROX The ATIR dealing with proximity of aircraft (one aircraft getting too close to another) is called an AIRPROX report. After the report is ‘filed’ a process of investigation starts which amongst other things, will determine the degree of risk involved. This will be classified as: Risk of collision; Safety not assured; No risk of collision; Risk not determined. Filing an ATIR If the ATCO becomes aware of a breach of separation standard then an AIRPROX (Controller) is to be raised. If a pilot observes or becomes aware of an aircraft too close or cleared to or through the same level/altitude or to commence a manoeuvre that would cause proximity concern, then he/she is to raise an AIRPROX (Pilot). ICAO has published a standard reporting form for AIRPROX (Pilot). When a pilot makes an AIRPROX report, an initial report is to be made by RTF to the ATCU providing control at that time. The form has shaded boxes for the information needed to be transmitted for the initial report. When the aircraft has landed, the pilot is to complete the form and file it either directly with the ATCU at the aerodrome of landing or through the Operator or the Operator’s agent.
  • 202. Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Air Law 12-15 COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS (ACAS – AIRBORNE; TCAS – TRAFFIC) ACAS Flight in RVSM airspace requires either ACAS or TCAS. The operation of both systems with regard to the provision of an ATCS is the same. The information provided by ACAS is intended to assist pilots in the safe operation of aircraft. Nothing prevents pilots from exercising their best judgement and full authority in the choice of the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict. The procedures to be applied for the provision of ATS to aircraft equipped with ACAS are identical to those applicable to non-ACAS equipped aircraft. In particular: The prevention of collisions; The establishment of appropriate separation and the information which might be provided in relation to conflicting traffic, and That possible avoiding action shall conform to the normal ATC procedures and shall exclude consideration of aircraft capabilities dependent on ACAS equipment. USE OF ACAS/TCAS INDICATIONS ACAS/TCAS indications are intended to assist the pilots in the active search for, and visual acquisition of conflicting traffic, for the avoidance of potential collisions. Pilots should use the indications generated by ACAS/TCAS remembering that the safety implications of subsequent actions must be recognised. Pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to Traffic Advisories only. Action When an ACAS or TCAS resolution advisory results in the aircraft deviation from the cleared track or altitude, the pilot is to take the necessary avoiding action or allow the TCAS system to operate automatically without pre-approval or re-clearance from ATC. On completion of manoeuvre the pilot is to report the action taken to ATC. When a pilot reports a manoeuvre because of an ACAS resolution advisory, the controller will not attempt to modify the aircraft flight path until the pilot reports that the aircraft is returning to the current ATC instruction or clearance. Traffic information is provided during the manoeuvre. Note: The difference between ACAS and TCAS is that ACAS is totally autonomous whereas TCAS has the ability to coordinate the advisory information offered with the other aircraft involved providing, of course, the other aircraft is TCAS fitted. TCAS can coordinate up to three aircraft at any time.
  • 203. Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Air Law12-16
  • 204. Air Law 13-1 INTRODUCTION Annex 11 to the Chicago Convention is concerned with the SARPs to be used in the delivery of ATC. The SARPs are complex and the underpinning organisation and system for the formulation of procedures and service provided, is too detailed to be included in the Annex. ICAO Document 4444, entitled PANS Air Traffic Management (ATM), has been specially written to provide the definitive reference for the establishment of an ATC system within a state. Clearly, the content of Doc 4444 is of primary interest to ATCOs and system designers, however, the introduction to PANS ATM states that the content of Doc 4444 will be of interest to pilots. Indeed, the attention of pilots is drawn to a statement that the objectives of an ATC service do not include the prevention of collision with terrain. It continues: “The procedures described in the document (Doc 4444), with the exception of Radar Vectoring, do not relieve the pilot of his/her responsibility for ensuring that any clearance issued by ATCUs are safe in this respect.” AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE Application An Air Traffic Control service is provided to: All IFR flights in Class A, B, C, D and E airspace All VFR flights in Class B, C and D airspace To all special VFR flights To all aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes Note: The ATC service provided to VFR traffic in class D airspace is a Radar Information service. Provision of Air Traffic Control Service Air traffic control service is provided by the various ATC units (ATCUs) detailed below. The RTF callsigns of ATCUs consist of the geographic location of the unit, or the name of the airspace (if one has been allocated) in which the service is to be provided, plus a suffix indicating the service offered.
  • 205. Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Air Law13-2 Area Control Service An area control service is provided to aircraft in CAS within CTAs, flying along airways or transiting the upper airspace. It is primarily procedural control but generally uses radar. An area control centre (ACC) has an RTF callsign containing the suffix ‘control’ or ‘centre’ (i.e. London Control or Miami Centre). The service is provided by: An area control centre (ACC); or The unit providing approach control service in a CTR/CTA of limited extent which is designated for the provision of approach control service and where no ACC is established. Approach Control Service Approach control is provided to all IFR flights and controlled VFR flights departing from and arriving at controlled aerodromes within CTRs. The service is procedural but generally uses radar. A radar approach controller may be utilised to provide radar vectoring within a defined radar vectoring area to separate arriving and departing traffic and to provide guidance for arriving traffic during the initial stages of an instrument approach. The RTF callsign of the unit providing approach control is given the suffix ‘approach’ or in the case of radar approach ‘radar’ or ‘director’ (i.e. ‘Birmingham Approach’; ‘Bristol Radar’ or ‘Gatwick Director’). The service is provided by: An aerodrome control tower or area control centre when it is necessary or desirable to combine under the responsibility of one unit the functions of the approach control service with those of the aerodrome control service or the area control service; or An approach control when it is necessary or desirable to establish a separate unit. Note: The provision of approach control at aerodromes outside of CTRs is advisory only. At some busy aerodromes, the aerodrome authority has established approach control, the use of which is not mandatory. Example aerodromes are Oxford and Cambridge. It may not be sensible to ignore the service offered. Aerodrome Control Service The aerodrome control service provides ATS to aircraft on the ground and flying in the vicinity of the aerodrome. The level of service provided depends upon the class of airspace that contains the aerodrome. At all controlled aerodromes, an aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ) is established. The class of airspace of the ATZ is that of the surrounding airspace. If the aerodrome is within a class D CTR, then the ATZ is class D. If there is no CTR then the ATZ is class G. The RTF callsign of the aerodrome controller is the aerodrome name, or the name suffixed with ‘tower’. The service is provided by an aerodrome control tower. Note: The task of providing specified services on the apron may be assigned to an aerodrome control tower or to a separate unit known as the Apron Management Service. Procedural Control Modern ATC systems use radar in almost all ATC situations. With radar including SSR, the ATCO probably knows where the aircraft is better than the pilot does when flying in IMC. However, the basic ATC system uses procedural control where the pilot tells the ATCO where the aircraft is and what altitude it is at. Based on this information and the ATCO’s knowledge of the positions and altitude of other aircraft, the ATCO issues a clearance to the aircraft. Procedural control is based on time for horizontal separation. The specific standards will be detailed under Area Control. Throughout the chapters dealing with Approach Control and Area Control, the underlying provision of service is through procedural control. For this reason, the procedures may seem cumbersome and outmoded in today’s radar environment. Radar control, where separation is based on distance, is discussed in the chapter dealing with Radar.
  • 206. Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Air Law 13-3 OPERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE In order to provide an ATC service, an ATCU shall: Be provided with information on the intended movement of each aircraft and with current information on the actual progress of each aircraft; Determine from the information received, the relative positions of known aircraft to each other; Issue clearances and information for the purpose of preventing collisions between aircraft under its control and of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of traffic; Co-ordinate clearances as necessary with other units: Whenever an aircraft might otherwise conflict with traffic operated under the control of such other units; Before transferring control of an aircraft to such other units. Separation Separation is the act of physically ensuring that collisions between aircraft do not take place. Clearances issued by ATCUs provide separation: For all flights in Class A and B airspace; Between IFR flights in Class C, D, and E airspace; Between IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace; Between IFR flights and special VFR flights; and Between special VFR flights when required by the authority. Separation Methods Separation can be obtained by at least one of the following: Vertical separation Obtained by assigning different altitudes or FLs to geographically adjacent aircraft. Horizontal separation Obtained by providing: Longitudinal separation By maintaining an interval between aircraft operating along the same, converging or reciprocal tracks, expressed in time or distance; or Lateral separation By maintaining aircraft on different routes or in different geographical areas. Composite separation Consisting of a combination of vertical and one of the other forms of separation. The minima for use with each of these is possibly less than, but never less than ½ of, those for use with each of the combined elements when applied individually. Composite separation is applied only on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. Note: Communications failure procedure in the NAT area uses composite separation.
  • 207. Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Air Law13-4 Transfer of Control Between ATS Units At controlled aerodromes transfer of control between the aerodrome controller and the approach controller will occur as follows: Arriving Aircraft The responsibility for the control of an aircraft approaching to land is transferred from the unit providing approach control service to the unit providing aerodrome control service, as soon as the aircraft is in the vicinity of the aerodrome and: It is considered that it will be able to complete its approach and landing with visual reference to the ground; or It has reached uninterrupted VMC; or Has landed. Departing Aircraft The responsibility for control of a departing aircraft is transferred from the unit providing aerodrome control service to the unit providing Approach Control service at the earliest opportunity: In VMC: Before the aircraft leaves the vicinity of the aerodrome; or Before the aircraft enters IMC. In IMC: Immediately before the aircraft enters the runway for take-off; or Immediately after the aircraft is airborne. Air Traffic Control Clearances Before a flight under IFR or a controlled VFR flight enters controlled airspace (CAS) and prior to being provided with any ATC service, an ‘ATC clearance’ is to be given to the aircraft. An ATC clearance comprises information and instructions to the pilot of the aircraft and includes the word ‘clear’. In delivering an ATC clearance, the controller is giving permission for the flight to commence (or continue) within CAS under his/her control with the proviso that the pilot complies with the instructions given. Content of an ATC Clearance An ATC clearance will contain: Aircraft identification as shown in the flight plan Clearance limit Route of flight Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part route and changes of level if required Any necessary instructions or information on other matters such as approach or departure manoeuvres, communications and the time of expiry of the clearance
  • 208. Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Air Law 13-5 Co-Ordination of Clearances An ATC clearance is to be co-ordinated between ATC units to cover the entire route of an aircraft, or a specified portion of a route as follows. An aircraft is normally cleared for the entire route to the aerodrome of first intended landing: When it has been possible, prior to departure, to co-ordinate the clearance between all the units under whose control the aircraft will come, or When there is reasonable assurance that prior co-ordination will be effected between those units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come. Limited Clearance When co-ordination has not been achieved or is not anticipated, the aircraft will only be cleared to a point where co-ordination is reasonably certain. Prior to reaching such a point, or at that point, the aircraft must receive a further clearance, with holding instructions being issued as appropriate. A clearance limit is specified by using the name of the appropriate reporting point, or aerodrome, or CAS boundary. When prior co-ordination has been effected with units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come under or if there is reasonable time prior to the assumption of control, the clearance limit is the destination aerodrome or, if not practicable, an appropriate intermediate point, and co-ordination shall be expedited so that a clearance to the destination may be issued as soon as possible. Note: If the clearance for the levels covers only part of the route, it is important for the ATCU to specify a point to which the part of the clearance regarding levels applies. ATC Clearance Expiry One of the following phrases may be included in the initial clearance when the Air Traffic situation necessitates: “Clearance expires (time)” This indicates that if the aircraft is not airborne by the time stated a fresh clearance is required. “Take-off not before (time)” This is given so that a pilot can calculate the time to start the aircraft’s engines. “Unable to clear (level planned)” Where ATC is unable to clear the flight at the planned level, an alternative is usually offered at this stage. Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part thereof and changes of levels if required. Expiry Time The time of expiry of a clearance indicates the time after which the clearance will be automatically cancelled if the flight has not been started; in which case, a new clearance will have to be requested by the pilot. Entering a CTA When an aircraft intends to depart from an aerodrome within a CTA, to enter another CTA within a period of 30 minutes, co-ordination with the subsequent area control centre is obtained prior to the issue of the departure clearance.
  • 209. Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Air Law13-6 Route of Flight The route of flight is detailed in each clearance when deemed necessary. The phrases used and meanings are: Cleared via flight plan route Is used to describe any route or portion of a route, provided the route or portion of route is identical to that filed in the flight plan and sufficient routing details are given to definitely establish the aircraft on its route. Cleared via (designation) departure or Cleared via (designation) arrival May be used when standard departure or arrival routes have been established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publication. Clearances to Fly Maintaining own Separation in VMC When requested by an aircraft, and provided it is authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, an ACC may clear a controlled flight to operate in VMC during the hours of daylight. The aircraft may fly the route subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC, in which case: The clearance shall be for a specified portion of the flight during climb or descent and subject to further restrictions as and when prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. If there is a possibility that flight under VMC may become impracticable an IFR flight shall be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in the event that flight in VMC cannot be maintained for the term of the clearance. The pilot of an IFR flight, on observing that conditions are deteriorating and considering that operation in VMC will become impossible, shall inform ATC before entering IMC and shall proceed in accordance with the alternative instructions given. Note: The provision of vertical or horizontal separation by an ATCU is not applicable in respect of any specified portion of a flight cleared subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC. It is for the flight so cleared to ensure that, for the duration of the clearance, it is not operated in such proximity to other flights as to create a collision hazard. Note: As a VFR flight must remain in VMC at all times, the issuance of a clearance to a VFR flight to fly subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC has no other meaning other than to signify that, for the duration of the clearance, the provision of separation by ATC is not applicable. Essential Traffic Information Essential traffic is defined as controlled traffic to which separation by ATC is applicable, but which in relation to a particular controlled flight has not been applied. Essential traffic information includes: Direction of flight of aircraft involved; Type of aircraft concerned; Cruising level of aircraft concerned and estimated time over the reporting point nearest to where the level will be crossed. Note: This information will inevitably relate to controlled flights cleared subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC.
  • 210. Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Air Law 13-7 Control of Air Traffic Flow When it becomes apparent to an ATCU that traffic additional to that already accepted cannot be accommodated within a given period of time at a particular location or in a particular area, or can only be accommodated at a given rate, that unit will advise other ATCUs and operators known or believed to be concerned and PICs of aircraft destined to that location or area that additional flights are likely to be subjected to excessive delay, or if applicable, that specified restrictions are to be applied to any additional traffic for a specified period of time for the purpose of avoiding excessive delay to aircraft in flight. Control of Persons and Vehicles at Aerodromes The movement of persons or vehicles, including towed aircraft, on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower to avoid hazard to them or to aircraft landing, taxiing or taking-off. In conditions where low visibility procedures are in operation, persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be restricted to the essential minimum, particularly to protect the ILS/MLS sensitive areas during Category II or III precision instrument operations. Emergency Vehicles P proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress are afforded priority over all other surface movement traffic. Ground Movement Rules Vehicles on the manoeuvring area are required to comply with the following rules: Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing, taking- off or taxiing (1) ; and Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft; and Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles in accordance with local instructions; and Notwithstanding the above, vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower. Note 1: In the UK aircraft taxiing are required to give way to aircraft being towed.
  • 211. Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Air Law13-8 EMERGENCY AND COMMUNICATION FAILURE Priority An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful interference, is given priority over other aircraft. Emergency Descent Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic, ATC will take all possible action to immediately safeguard all aircraft concerned including broadcasts by RTF. Action by the Pilot in Command The pilot of an aircraft making an emergency descent is to make broadcasts indicating the level passing in the descent. It is expected that aircraft receiving a broadcast by ATC will clear the specified areas and stand by on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the ATCU. Air-Ground Communication Failure In the event of ATC losing the ability to communicate because of ground equipment failure, pilots should attempt to communicate using the alternate published RTF frequencies for the ATCU concerned. If this is unsuccessful pilots should monitor the VHF emergency frequency 121.500Mhz. Position Reporting The procedures for position reporting have already been covered in Chapter 7 Rules of the Air; however, additional requirements have been added. Automation Dependent Surveillance (ADS) This is a surveillance technique where aircraft automatically provide, via data link, data derived from on board navigation and position-fixing systems. The data consists of aircraft identification, four dimensional position information, and any additional data as necessary. Air Reports and Special Air Reports (Airep and Airep Special) When operational information and/or routine meteorological information is to be reported by aircraft enroute, the position report is to be given in the form of a routine air-report (airep). Special observations (non routine) are reported as special aireps. Aireps may be sent by ADS if available. An example of an Airep form is shown below. The operational form has columns adjacent to the parameter column for the pilot (or usually the co-pilot) to record the necessary data. The form also serves as a log of the ATC communications throughout the enroute portion of a flight.
  • 212. Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Air Law 13-9 ICAO Standard Airep Form Position Report Section 1 (outlined in red) is a standard position report. Operational Information Section 2 (outlined in blue) includes the ETA and the fuel based endurance remaining. Meteorological Information Section 3 (outlined in green) lists the met data which (if available) should be transmitted when the flight is required to ‘report met’. Note item 15 contains the met phenomena which if encountered, would require the transmission of an airep special.
  • 213. Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Air Law13-10
  • 214. Air Law 14-1 APPLICATION FIS is provided to all aircraft which are likely to be affected by the information and which are provided with air traffic control service, or otherwise known to the relevant ATS units. Precedence Where ATS units provide both FIS and air traffic control service, the provision of air traffic control service has precedence over the provision of FIS whenever the provision of air traffic control service so requires. Use of Radar ICAO SARPs allow the use of radar in the provision of a FIS. Where this is provided it is known as a radar information service. Do not confuse this with the UK radar service offered to traffic inside and outside of controlled airspace under the LARS service which is called Radar Information Service (RIS). WHAT IS PROVIDED BY A FIS FIS includes the provision of the following: SIGMET and AIRMET information; Information concerning pre-eruption volcanic activity, volcanic eruptions, and volcanic ash cloud; Information concerning the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials or toxic chemicals; Information on change in the serviceability of navigation aids; Information on changes in condition of aerodromes and associated facilities, including information on the state of the aerodrome movement areas when they are affected by snow, ice, or significant depth of water; Information on unmanned free balloons; and Any other information likely to affect safety. Additional Information FIS provided to flights includes, in addition to the information already outlined, the provision of information concerning weather conditions reported or forecast at departure, destination and alternate aerodromes, and collision hazards to aircraft flying in airspace Classes C, D, E, F and G. For flight over water areas, in so far as practicable and when requested by a pilot, any available information such as radio call sign, position, true track, speed, etc., of vessels in the area.
  • 215. Chapter 14 Flight Information Services (FIS) Air Law14-2 FIS to VFR Traffic FIS provided to VFR flights includes all the information above plus the provision of available information concerning traffic and weather conditions along the route that are likely to make operation under VFR impracticable. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE BROADCASTS (OFIS) The meteorological information and operational information concerning navigation aids and aerodromes included in the FIS is provided in an operationally integrated form. It is passed to aircraft by the following means: Information Broadcasts When a Regional Air Navigation Agreement determines that a requirement for a broadcast exists then the following formats are followed: HF OFIS broadcast VHF OFIS broadcast Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) ATIS ATIS broadcasts are provided at aerodromes where there is a requirement to reduce the communication load on the ATS VHF air-ground communication channels. ATIS is established as Voice ATIS (V-ATIS) which can be supplemented with Data ATIS (D-ATIS). V-ATIS A discrete VHF frequency is used for ATIS broadcasts. If a discrete frequency is not available, the transmission may be made on the voice channel of the most appropriate terminal navigation aid, preferably a VOR, provided the range and readability are adequate and the identification of the navigation aid is sequenced with the broadcast so that the latter is not obliterated. ATIS broadcasts are not to be transmitted on the voice channel of ILS. When provided V-ATIS comprises: One broadcast serving arriving aircraft, or One broadcast serving departing aircraft, or One broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft, or Two broadcasts serving arriving and departing aircraft respectively at those aerodromes where the length of a broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft would be excessively long D-ATIS D-ATIS is transmitted continuously on the data link system from an ACC. Because it is transmitted continuously and consists of data rather than voice information, it can be updated virtually instantaneously. In any one data transmission information concerning multiple aerodromes can be included together with appropriate administrative information. D-ATIS is displayed on the flight deck through the EFIS system. VOLMET Meteorological information (TAFS and Metars) is broadcast on both HF and VHF where there is a need. The term VOLMET is taken from ‘meteorologie de vol’. A VOLMET broadcast is transmitted by the FIS of a FIR (VHF) or an OCA (HF). It typically covers many aerodromes either within the FIR or adjacent FIRs.
  • 216. Air Law 15-1 Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, Doc 4444 - RAC/501 INTRODUCTION There is no regulatory requirement for an aerodrome that is outside CAS and used only for VFR flying to have an aerodrome controller. However, where an aerodrome is used for commercial operations under IFR the aerodrome must be licensed and under the licensing requirements the provision of an aerodrome controller will be required. The aerodrome controller must be a licensed ATCO. Such an aerodrome is defined by ICAO as a controlled aerodrome. The aerodrome controller usually uses the aerodrome name plus the word ‘tower’ as an RTF callsign e.g. Coventry Tower. Alternatively, the word ‘local’ refers to the aerodrome controller also. The aerodrome controller may be assisted by a ground movements controller whose function would be to advise pilots of collision risks and to pass other aeronautical information. If the ground controller is required to provide ATC to aircraft on the ground, he/she must be a licenced ATCO. An alternative to a licensed ATCO is to use a Flight Information Service Officer (FISO) who is licensed to provide FIS. Where a FISO is appointed his/her RTF callsign will have the suffix “Information”, for example: Redhill Information. At busy aerodromes e.g. Heathrow, there is an arrivals controller and a departures controller, both of whom share the responsibility of the aerodrome controller. AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONE (ATZ) Every aerodrome regardless of ATC status has an ATZ. The ATZ extends from ground level up to 2000 ft AGL. It is circular, with the radius, as defined by ICAO, “of sufficient distance to provide protection for circuit traffic.” In the UK the radius of the ATZ is dependent upon the length of the longest runway and is either 2 nm or 2.5 nm, centred on the longest runway. At a controlled aerodrome, the ATZ is controlled airspace with ATC provided by the aerodrome controller. The ATZ reduces to uncontrolled airspace outside of the notified hours of watch of the aerodrome controller (as per the AD entry in the AIP for the state). Clearances for traffic taking off and remaining in the visual circuit, or landing from the visual circuit are given by the aerodrome controller. Outside of the hours of ATC watch, pilots may use the aerodrome if required (with permission of the land owner to avoid trespass) but may only do so in VMC, during which the rules of the air apply.
  • 217. Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Air Law15-2 FUNCTIONS OF AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Aerodrome control towers issue information and clearances to aircraft under their control in order to achieve a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome with the object of preventing collisions between: Aircraft flying in the aerodrome traffic circuits around an aerodrome; Aircraft operating on the manoeuvring area; Aircraft landing and taking off; Aircraft and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area; Aircraft on the manoeuvring area and obstructions on that area. ALERTING SERVICE PROVIDED BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Aerodrome control towers are also responsible for alerting the safety services and will immediately report any failure or irregularity of operation in any apparatus, light or other device established at an aerodrome for the guidance of aerodrome traffic. Aircraft will be reported to the ACC or FIC which fail to report after having been handed over to an aerodrome control tower, or having once reported, cease radio contact, and, in either case, fail to land 5 minutes after the expected landing time. SUSPENSION OF VFR OPERATIONS BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Any or all VFR operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome may be suspended by notification to the aerodrome control tower by the area control centre within whose CTA the aerodrome is located, the aerodrome controller on duty, or the appropriate ATS authority. Procedures The following procedures are observed by the aerodrome control tower whenever VFR operations are suspended: The holding of all departures other than those which file an IFR flight plan and obtain approval from the area control centre; The recall of all local flights operating under VFR or special VFR; The notification of the area control centre of the action taken; and The notification of all operators, or their designated representatives, of the reason for taking such action if necessary or requested. TRAFFIC AND TAXI CIRCUITS SELECTION OF RUNWAY IN USE The term ‘runway in use’ means the runway that the aerodrome control service deems to be the most suitable for use by the types of aircraft expected to land or take-off at the aerodrome. If the runway in use is not considered suitable, the PIC may request permission to use another runway. Normally, an aircraft will land and take-off into wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic conditions make another runway preferable. In selecting the runway, the aerodrome control service takes into consideration surface wind speed and direction and other relevant factors, such as the aerodrome traffic circuits, the length of runways, and the approach and landing aids available.
  • 218. Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 Air Law 15-3 CRITICAL POSITIONS OF AIRCRAFT IN THE AERODROME TRAFFIC AND TAXI CIRCUITS Aerodrome controllers maintain a continuous watch on all visible flight operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome, including aircraft, vehicles and personnel on the manoeuvring area, and control this traffic in accordance with the procedures and traffic rules. If there are other aerodromes within a CTR, traffic at all aerodromes within such a zone are co-ordinated so that traffic circuits do not conflict. Final Base Leg Downwind Leg
  • 219. Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Air Law15-4 Circuit Positions The following positions of aircraft in the traffic and taxi circuits are the positions where the aircraft normally receive aerodrome control tower clearances, whether these are given by light signals or radio. Aircraft should be watched closely as they approach these positions so that proper clearances may be issued without delay. Where practicable, all clearances are issued without waiting for the aircraft to initiate the call. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Position 1 Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight, runway in use information and taxi clearances given. Position 2 If there is conflicting traffic, the departing aircraft is held at this point. Engines of the aircraft would normally be run-up here. Position 3 Take-off clearance is issued here if not practicable at position 2. Position 4 Clearance to land is issued here. Position 5 Clearance to taxi to hangar line or parking area is issued here. Position 6 Parking information issued here if necessary.
  • 220. Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 Air Law 15-5 INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS PRIOR TO TAXIING FOR TAKE-OFF Aircraft are advised of the following information, in the order listed, with the exception of those elements that the aircraft is known to have already received: The runway to be used; The current surface wind direction and speed, including significant variations; The QNH and, either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or if so requested by the aircraft, the QFE; The air temperature for the runway to be used, in the case of turbine engine aircraft; The current visibility representative of the direction of take-off and initial climb, if less than 10 km, or, when provided, the current RVR value(s) for the runway to be used; The correct time. PRIOR TO TAKE-OFF Aircraft are advised of any significant changes in the surface wind direction and speed, the air temperature, and the visibility or RVR value(s) given, and significant meteorological conditions in the take-off and climb out area, except when it is known that the information has already been received by the aircraft. PRIOR TO JOINING THE CIRCUIT An aircraft is provided with the following elements of information, in the order listed, with the exception of those elements that it is known the aircraft has already received: the runway to be used, the mean surface wind direction and speed and significant variations, and the QNH and, either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or, if so requested by aircraft, the QFE. COLLISION AVOIDANCE When operating under VMC, it is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision with other aircraft. However, due to the restricted space on and around manoeuvring areas, it is often essential that traffic information be issued to aid the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision. Essential local traffic is considered to consist of any aircraft, vehicle, or personnel on or near the manoeuvring area, or traffic operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome, which may constitute a hazard to the aircraft concerned. Information on essential local traffic is issued either directly or through the unit providing approach control service when, in the judgement of the aerodrome controller the information is necessary in the interests of safety, or when requested by aircraft. WAKE TURBULENCE WARNING Aerodrome controllers shall, whenever practicable, advise aircraft of the expected occurrence of hazards caused by wake turbulence. OTHER HAZARDS In issuing clearances or instructions, air traffic controllers should take into account the hazards caused by jet blast and propeller slipstream to taxiing aircraft, to aircraft taking-off or landing, particularly when intersecting runways are being used, and to vehicles and personnel operating on the aerodrome.
  • 221. Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Air Law15-6 INFORMATION ON AERODROME CONDITIONS Essential information on aerodrome conditions is information necessary to the safety of the operation of aircraft that pertains to the movement area or any facilities associated with the movement area. The essential information on aerodrome conditions includes information relating to the following: Construction or maintenance work on, or immediately adjacent to the movement area; Rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway or an apron, whether marked or not; Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway or an apron; Water on a runway, a taxiway or an apron; Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an apron; Other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft and birds on the ground and in the air; Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting system; Any other pertinent information. Note: The movement area of an aerodrome consists of the apron and the manoeuvring area. CONTROL OF AERODROME TRAFFIC ORDER OF PRIORITY FOR ARRIVING AND DEPARTING AIRCRAFT An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land normally has priority over an aircraft intending to depart. Departures are normally cleared in the order in which they are ready for take-off, except that deviations may be made from this order of priority to facilitate the maximum number of departures with the least average delay. CONTROL OF TAXIING AIRCRAFT When taxiing, a pilot’s vision is limited. It is important therefore for aerodrome control units to issue concise instructions and adequate information to the pilot to assist him in determining the correct taxi routes and to avoid collision with other aircraft or objects. TAXIING ON THE RUNWAY For the purpose of expediting air traffic, aircraft may be permitted to taxi on the runway in use, provided no delay or risk to other aircraft will result. Aircraft will not be held closer than at a taxi holding position for the runway in use. Aircraft are not permitted to hold on the approach end of the runway in use whenever another aircraft is landing or, until the landing aircraft has passed the point of intended holding. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE An aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference or which for other reasons needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities shall be cleared to the designated isolated parking position. Where such an isolated parking position has not been designated, or if the designated position is not available, the aircraft shall be cleared to a position within the area or areas selected by prior agreement with the aerodrome authority. The taxi clearance shall specify the taxi route to be followed to the parking position. This route shall be selected with a view to minimizing any security risks to the public, other aircraft and installations at the aerodrome.
  • 222. Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 Air Law 15-7 CONTROL OF OTHER THAN AIRCRAFT TRAFFIC ON THE MANOEUVRING AREA PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES The movement of pedestrians or vehicles on the manoeuvring area are subject to authorization by the aerodrome control tower. Persons, including drivers of all vehicles, are required to obtain authorisation from the aerodrome control tower before entry to the manoeuvring area. Entry to a runway or runway strip or change in the operation authorised is subject to a further specific authorisation by the aerodrome control tower. TWO-WAY RADIO At controlled aerodromes all vehicles employed on the manoeuvring area must be capable of maintaining two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower. Vehicles without radios are to be accompanied by vehicles with radios. CONTROL OF TRAFFIC IN THE TRAFFIC CIRCUIT CIRCUIT SEPARATION Aircraft in the circuit are controlled to provide the separation minima required. Sufficient separation is to be applied between aircraft in the traffic circuit to allow the spacing of arriving and departing aircraft. JOINING THE CIRCUIT A clearance to join the circuit will be given to an aircraft approaching to land when a straight in approach is not possible. With the clearance, the landing direction or runway in use is passed. UNAUTHORISED INCURSION If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorisation, it shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that that is the pilot’s intention. If necessary, aircraft in the circuit will be asked to give way so as to negate any hazard created. Other than in accordance with normal procedure, landing clearance will not be withheld. SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION Special authorisation for use of the manoeuvring area may be given to an aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft, as well as hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical attention. CONTROL OF DEPARTING AIRCRAFT Unless the ATS authority has agreed alternative acceptable procedures, a departing aircraft will not normally be permitted to commence take-off until: The preceding departing aircraft has crossed the end of the runway in use; or The preceding departing aircraft has started a turn away from the runway centreline; or All preceding landing aircraft are clear of the runway in use.
  • 223. Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Air Law15-8 Where the ATS authority has agreed alternative procedures, they will not be permitted: Between a departing aircraft and a preceding landing aircraft; Between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed; When braking action may be adversely affected by runway contaminants; In weather conditions preventing the pilot from making an early assessment of traffic conditions on the runway. TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE Take-off clearance may be issued to an aircraft when there is reasonable assurance that the separation prescribed will exist when the aircraft starts its take-off run. In the interest of expediting traffic, a clearance for immediate take-off may be issued to an aircraft before it enters the runway. On receipt of such a clearance the aircraft shall taxi onto the runway and start the take-off run in one continuous movement. CONTROL OF ARRIVING AIRCRAFT Unless other procedures have been approved and are in force, landing aircraft will not normally be permitted to cross the beginning of the runway on its final approach until: A preceding departing aircraft has crossed the upwind end of the runway, or A preceding departing aircraft has turned away from the runway centreline, or A preceding landing aircraft has moved off the runway. AERODROMES WITHIN A CTR If the aerodrome is within a CTR, the approach controller will pass a conditional take-off clearance to the aerodrome controller for IFR and controlled VFR traffic departing the ATZ. When the ATZ is “IMC”, all departing traffic will receive a take-off clearance from the approach controller via the aerodrome controller before entering the runway. In instrument conditions landing clearance will be requested by the approach controller (or approach radar controller) from the aerodrome controller when the aircraft is at 8 nm from touchdown. In any event, a landing clearance must be given by the aerodrome controller before the arriving aircraft passes 2 nm from touchdown unless an alternative clearance has been given. LAND AFTER PROCEDURE To facilitate the expeditious arrival of aircraft, an aircraft may be cleared to land with another aircraft on the runway providing there is reasonable assurance that the required separation will exist when the landing aircraft crosses the runway threshold. In this case, the phrase “Clear to land after the …… ahead” is used. For this procedure to be used: The landing aircraft must be able to keep the preceding aircraft in sight; It must be during day time; The braking action must not be adversely affected by runway contaminants; The pilot of the landing aircraft must agree to the procedure being used; The operators of the aircraft concerned agree to the procedure being used.
  • 224. Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 Air Law 15-9 WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT AND INCREASED LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION MINIMA WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT Wake turbulence separation minima is based on the grouping of aircraft types into three categories according to the maximum certificated take-off mass (MTOM) as follows: HEAVY (H) MTOM equal to or greater than 136 000 kg MEDIUM (M) MTOM less than 136 000 kg but greater than 7000 kg LIGHT (L) MTOM equal to or less than 7000 kg PROCEDURAL WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION MINIMA The procedural wake turbulence separation minima (non-radar separation minima) applied are: For Arriving Aircraft For timed approaches, the following minima are applied to aircraft landing: 2 minutes longitudinal separation between a MEDIUM landing behind a HEAVY 3 minutes longitudinal separation between a LIGHT landing behind a MEDIUM or HEAVY For Departing Aircraft The minimum is 2 minutes for any lighter category aircraft taking off behind a heavier category. However, the minimum is increased to 3 minutes when the lighter aircraft takes-off from: An intermediate part of the same runway, or An intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m Displaced Landing Threshold Separation minimum of 2 minutes is applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft, or between a LIGHT aircraft and MEDIUM aircraft, when operating on a runway with a displaced landing threshold: When a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY aircraft arrival; or When a departing LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft arrival, or When an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY departure; or When an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft departure and the projected flight paths are expected to cross. Opposite Direction Separation of 2 minutes shall be applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low missed approach, and the lighter aircraft is: Utilizing an opposite direction runway for take-off; or Landing on the same runway in the opposite direction; or On a parallel opposite direction runway separated by less than 760 m.
  • 225. Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Air Law15-10
  • 226. Air Law 16-1 Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, Doc 4444 -RAC/501 INTRODUCTION Approach Control is the interface between the Aerodrome Controller and the Area Controller. Normally Approach control is provided out to a range of 25 nm from a controlled aerodrome situated within a CTR. It is normal to use radar to supplement the procedural service. Approach control is mandatory for all IFR traffic and all controlled VFR flights within a CTR. DEPARTURES Departing Aircraft Approach Control is provided to all IFR departing flights and departing VFR controlled flights. IFR flights normally follow a Standard Instrument Departure (SID) profile to a convenient point at which control is transferred to an area controller for insertion into the adjacent airways system. General Procedures for Departing Aircraft The approach controller will, in consultation with the relevant airspace controller of an adjacent CTA, give ATC clearances for departing controlled flights. Such clearances are to specify: Direction of take-off, and turn after take-off; Track to be made good before proceeding on desired heading; Level to maintain before continuing climb to assigned cruising level; Time, point and/or rate at which level change shall be made; and Any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with safe operation of the aircraft. Note: To minimise RTF transmission and to standardise procedures, the above information is delivered by instructing the pilot to comply with a published SID. Also to ensure an orderly flow of air traffic, ATCUs should attempt to permit aircraft departing on long distance flights to proceed on heading with as few turns or other manoeuvres as possible, and to climb to cruising level without restrictions. Expeditious Flow Departing aircraft may be expedited by suggesting a take-off direction that is not into wind. It is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to decide between making such a take-off, and waiting for normal take-off in a preferred direction.
  • 227. Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Air Law16-2 Delays It is normal ATFM practice to delay take off rather than incur excessive holding at destination. If departures are delayed, delayed flights shall normally be cleared in an order based on their ETD, however, deviations from this may be made to facilitate the maximum number of departures with the least average delay. ATCUs should advise aircraft operators or their designated representatives when anticipated delays due to traffic conditions are likely to be substantial and in any event, when they are expected to exceed 30 minutes. Minimum Separation Between Departing Aircraft The following minimum procedural separations are used: One minute if the departing tracks diverge by at least 45° immediately after take-off. This may be reduced for parallel runway or diverging runway operations. The latter need specific ATS approval. Two minutes where the first aircraft has filed a cruising speed that is 40 knots faster than the second, and both aircraft intend to follow the same track. Five minutes while vertical separation does not exist. Clearances for Departing Aircraft to Climb Maintaining Own Separation in VMC When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the appropriate ATS authority, a departing aircraft may be cleared to climb, subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC until a specified time or to a specified location. Information for Departing Aircraft Information regarding significant changes in the meteorological conditions in the take-off or climb out area, information regarding changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for take-off and climb, and information regarding essential local traffic known to the controller are transmitted to departing aircraft without delay. ARRIVALS Arriving Aircraft Arriving flights are normally ‘handed over’ from the area controller or the CTA controller, to the approach controller at a convenient point usually located in the vicinity of a radio navigation facility. Flights under approach control will normally be handed over to the aerodrome controller when the pilot has reported ‘field in sight’ or has passed a specific point on an instrument approach. General Procedures for Arriving Aircraft When it becomes evident that delays in holding will be encountered by arriving aircraft, the operator or a designated representative is notified and kept informed of any changes in the expected delays, in order that diversionary action can be planned as far in advance as possible. Arriving aircraft may be required to report when leaving or passing a reporting point, when starting a procedure turn or base turn, or to provide other information required by the controller to expedite departing aircraft.
  • 228. Approach Control Service Chapter 16 Air Law 16-3 Descent Below MSA An arriving IFR flight is not to be cleared for an initial approach below the appropriate minimum sector altitude as specified by the State, nor to descend below that altitude unless: The pilot has reported passing an appropriate point defined by a radio aid; or The pilot reports that the aerodrome is and can be maintained in sight; or The aircraft is conducting a visual approach; or The aircraft’s position has been positively determined by the use of radar. Clearance to Descend Subject to Maintaining Own Separation in VMC When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the ATS authority, an arriving aircraft may be cleared to descend, subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC. Visual Approach An approach flown with visual reference by an aircraft flying under IFR is not a VFR approach. An IFR flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided that the pilot can maintain visual reference to the terrain and the reported ceiling is at or above the approved initial approach level for the aircraft so cleared, or the pilot reports at the initial approach level or at any time during the approach that the meteorological conditions are such that a visual approach and landing can be completed. Separation Separation is to be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual approach and other arriving and departing aircraft. Maintenance of Separation For successive visual approaches, radar or non-radar separation is to be maintained until the pilot of a following aircraft reports having the preceding aircraft in sight. The aircraft is to be instructed to follow and maintain separation from the preceding aircraft. Transfers of communications are made at a point or time so that a clearance to land or alternative instructions can be issued to the aircraft in a timely manner. Instrument Approach If it is clearly apparent to the ATC unit, or the pilot reports that he/she is not familiar with an instrument approach procedure, then approach control will pass the following details: The initial approach level The point (in minutes from the appropriate reporting point) at which a procedure turn shall be carried out, and The final approach track Straight-in Approach If the aircraft is to be cleared for a straight-in approach then only the last item of the above list need be specified. Missed Approach Procedure The missed approach procedure will be specified when deemed necessary.
  • 229. Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Air Law16-4 Full Procedure If visual reference to terrain is established before completion of the approach procedure, the entire procedure must be flown unless the pilot requests, and is cleared for, a visual approach. Specific Procedure A particular approach procedure may be specified to expedite traffic. The omission of a specified approach procedure will indicate that any authorised approach may be used at the discretion of the pilot. Speed Control In the clearance to commence the instrument procedure, the pilot will be instructed to fly at a defined speed to facilitate separation. Where radar is used to apply separation, speed adjustment instructions will be given to the pilot to maintain separation. Holding Holding and holding pattern entry has to be accomplished in accordance with procedures established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP). If entry and holding procedures have not been published or if the procedures are not known to the PIC of an aircraft, the appropriate ATCU will describe the procedures to be followed. Aircraft must be held at a designated holding point. The required minimum vertical, lateral or longitudinal separation from other aircraft, according to the system in use at that holding point, will be provided. When aircraft are being held in flight, the appropriate vertical separation minima shall continue to be provided between holding aircraft and enroute aircraft while such aircraft are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area, unless the correct lateral separation exists. Levels at holding points are assigned in a manner that facilitates the clearance of each aircraft to approach in its proper priority. Normally, the first aircraft to arrive over a holding point should be at the lowest level, with following aircraft at successively higher levels. Aircraft particularly sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels, such as supersonic aircraft, are permitted to hold at higher levels than their order in the approach sequence indicates, without losing their order in the sequence. This is allowed whenever the availability of discrete descent paths and/or radar makes it possible to clear the aircraft for descent through the levels occupied by other aircraft. If a PIC of an aircraft advises of an inability to comply with the approach control holding or communication procedures, the alternative procedure(s) requested by the PIC should be approved if known traffic conditions permit. APPROACH SEQUENCE (STACKING) General Approach Procedures Inevitably, there will be delays as the economic factors of commercial operations favour certain times of the day for arrival. Typically the arrival peaks at Heathrow are between 7 am and 10 am, and again between 4 pm and 7 pm. In order to accommodate all the arriving aircraft during a peak flow period, dedicated holding areas are established on radio navigation beacons in the vicinity of the terminal aerodrome. These are known as stacks. The following procedures are applied whenever sequenced approaches are in progress.
  • 230. Approach Control Service Chapter 16 Air Law 16-5 Priority The stack is established in a manner that will permit arrival of the maximum number of aircraft with the least average delay. A special priority may be given to an aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft; or hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured person requiring urgent medical attention. Flow Succeeding aircraft are cleared for approach when the preceding aircraft: Has reported that it is able to complete its approach without encountering IMC; or Is in communication with and sighted by the aerodrome control tower and reasonable assurance exists that a normal landing can be accomplished; or Radar separation has been applied between the aircraft and the preceding aircraft. Remaining Holding If the pilot of an aircraft in a stack has indicated an intention to hold for weather improvement, or for other reasons, such action shall be approved. When other holding aircraft indicate their intention to continue the approach to land, and alternative procedures are not available, the pilot desiring to hold will be cleared to an adjacent fix for holding. Alternatively, the aircraft should be given a clearance to place it at the top of the stack so that other holding aircraft may be permitted to land. The aircraft operator, or a designated representative, shall be advised of the action taken immediately after the clearance is issued, if practicable. Credit Time An aircraft which has been deliberately delayed by ATC enroute to minimise terminal holding, and is still required to enter the stack, will be given credit for the time lost due to delay and placed in the stack at an appropriate position. Timed Approach Procedures When approved by the appropriate ATS authority, the following procedure can be used to expedite the approaches of a number of arriving aircraft: A suitable point on the approach path, which shall be capable of being accurately determined by the pilot, is specified to serve as a check point in timing successive approaches; Aircraft shall be given a time at which to pass the specified point inbound. This time will allow the desired interval between successive landings on the runway to be achieved while respecting the applicable separation minima at all times, including the periods of runway occupancy. Parallel Runway Operations Parallel runways may be used for simultaneous instrument approaches involving: Independent parallel approaches (Mode 1) Dependent parallel approaches (Mode 2) Segregated parallel operations
  • 231. Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Air Law16-6 Missed Approach Requirements for Parallel Runway Operations For Mode 1 and 2 operations, the missed approach track for one runway must diverge by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent runway. With segregated operations the nominal departure track must diverge immediately after take-off by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent runway. Expected Approach Time (EAT) An EAT is to be transmitted to an aircraft by the most expeditious means whenever it is anticipated that the aircraft will be required to hold for 30 minutes or more. The EAT is to be transmitted to the aircraft as soon as practicable and preferably not later than at the commencement of its initial descent from cruising level. In the case of aircraft particularly sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels, an EAT should, whenever possible, be transmitted to the aircraft early enough before its intended descent time to enable the pilot to choose the method of absorbing the delay and to request a change in the flight plan if the choice is to reduce speed enroute. A revised EAT is transmitted to the aircraft without delay whenever it differs from that previously transmitted by 5 minutes or more. If a delay of more than 30 minutes is expected and it is not possible to determine the EAT, the pilot is to be informed “delay not determined”. INFORMATION FOR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT As early as practicable after an aircraft has established communication with the unit providing approach control service, the following elements of information, in the order listed, should be transmitted to the aircraft, unless it is known that the aircraft has already received the information. Runway in use Current meteorological information Current runway surface conditions, in case of precipitants or other temporary hazards Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for approach and landing At the Commencement of Final Approach The following information is transmitted to aircraft: Significant changes in the mean surface wind direction and speed; Note: If the controller possesses wind information in the form of components, the significant changes are: Mean head wind component 19 km/h (10 kt) Mean tail wind component 4 km/h (2 kt) Mean crosswind component 9 km/h (5 kt) The latest information, if any, on wind shear and/or turbulence in the final approach area including the current visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing or, when provided, the current RVR value(s) and the trend, if practicable, supplemented by slant visual range value(s) if provided.
  • 232. Approach Control Service Chapter 16 Air Law 16-7 During Final Approach The following information is transmitted without delay: The sudden occurrence of hazards; Significant variations in the current surface wind, expressed in terms of minimum and maximum values; Significant changes in runway surface conditions; Changes in the operational status of required visual or non-visual aids; Changes in observed RVR value(s), in accordance with the reported scale in use, or changes in the visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing. Separation of Departing from Arriving Aircraft During IFR operations, take off clearance will be granted by the approach controller when separation from arriving aircraft exists. Two situations are considered: Complete Procedure Where an arriving aircraft is making a complete instrument approach, a departing aircraft may take off in any direction until the arriving aircraft has started the procedure turn or base turn leading to final approach, or take off in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of the approach direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway. Straight in Approach When an arriving aircraft is making a straight in approach, a departing aircraft may take off in any direction until 5 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway. A take off may also be cleared in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of the approach direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway, or before the arriving aircraft crosses a designated fix on the approach track. 45° 45° A Straight in Approach B Start of Procedure Turn No take-offs in this area after procedure turn is started or within the last 5 minutes of a straight in approach Take-offs permitted in this area up to 3 minutes before estimated time aircraft A or B is over the threshold of the landing runway, or in the case of aircraft A, until it crosses a designated fix on the approach track
  • 233. Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Air Law16-8
  • 234. Air Law 17-1 Reference: Annex 11 – Air Traffic Control; Document 4444 PANS ATC INTRODUCTION The provision of an ATC service to aircraft flying along airways or transiting through control areas is called area control. Area control is only provided in CAS and only provided to IFR traffic or controlled VFR traffic where the class of airspace permits such traffic. Whilst the complexity of the operation may appear less than that of approach control, the numbers of aircraft involved, especially over continental Europe and North America, make area control a specifically demanding aspect of the ATC service. Generally area control is applied above the levels used for terminal manoeuvring and outside of CTAs, at the normal cruising levels for the activity of the traffic concerned. The unit providing an area control service is an Area Control Centre (ACC). Procedural Control The system underpinning area control is procedural ATC. In order for this to function, pilots are required to make position reports at mandatory reporting points enroute. On enroute charts such points are noted by a black triangle ( ). Unless ordered to cease position reporting, pilots are to make the necessary reports. In any event, a pilot is to make a report when at the FIR boundary. Adjacent FIRs In order to allow international commercial operations to operate, the area controller in one FIR must co-ordinate the movement of aircraft into adjacent FIRs. To do this, pilots may be asked to adjust the route to be flown or to accept lower levels than flight planned. Instructions such as “route via (position)” or “maintain FL190 until (position)” or “request level change enroute” are used for revisions or interim clearances. At the point of transfer of control to a succeeding FIR, the controllers concerned will ‘co-ordinate’ a handover such that there is a positive handover of control. Where radar is used, this will involve radar identification by the assuming controller based on information from the relieving controller and SSR information. Flight Levels As flights progress aircraft are able to cruise at higher flight levels (or altitudes). Area controllers will attempt to accommodate all requests for higher levels within operational constraints. Instructions such as “request higher after (position)” or “advise when able higher” are used when level adjustment is not practical at that time.
  • 235. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-2 Airways When flying along ATS corridor routes (airways), pilots are responsible for their own navigation. Area controllers expect aircraft to navigate along the centre line of airways and route via the defining radio navigation aids. When cleared to climb and descend, such action should be commenced immediately and completed as expeditiously as possible. Instructions such as “from (position) route via (position)” or “from present position proceed directly to (position)” will be used to expedite the flow of traffic along routes or through areas by missing intermediate points on the flight planned route. SEPARATION General Provisions for Separation The LO’s for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of the separation standards as applied in area control. These are complex but follow a definite pattern. It is not unusual for several questions to appear in a paper concerning the separation standards. In general, the provision of vertical separation will take precedent over horizontal separation. The philosophy is that ‘two aircraft at different altitudes cannot hit each other!’ Application of Separation In area control, vertical or horizontal separation is provided between: All flights in Class A and B airspace IFR flights in Class C, D and E airspace IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace Clearance to Climb or Descend Maintaining own Separation in VMC During the hours of daylight, flights can be cleared to climb or descend subject to maintaining their own separation and remaining in VMC. No clearance is given that would reduce the spacing between two aircraft to less than the separation minimum applicable in the circumstances. Implication of Wake Turbulence Greater separations than the specified minima are applied whenever wake turbulence or other exceptional circumstances such as unlawful interference call for extra provisions. VERTICAL SEPARATION Vertical Separation Application Vertical separation is obtained by requiring aircraft to use prescribed altimeter setting procedures to operate at different levels expressed in terms of flight levels or altitudes. Vertical Separation Minimum The vertical separation minimum shall be: Within designated airspace, subject to regional air navigation agreement, a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL410 or a higher level where so prescribed for use under special conditions, and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level, and Within other airspace, a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level.
  • 236. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-3 Minimum Cruising Level Except where authorized by the appropriate authority, cruising levels below a minimum flight altitude established by a State shall not be assigned. Area control centres shall determine the lowest usable flight level or levels for the whole or parts of the CTA for which they are responsible. Assignment of Cruising Levels Except where cruise climb is permitted, an area control centre normally authorises only one cruising level for an aircraft beyond its CTA. Normally this would be the cruising level at which the aircraft will enter the next CTA. Aircraft are advised to request changes enroute to any subsequent cruising level desired once control has been transferred. Whilst under area control, where necessary, an aircraft may be cleared to change cruising level at a specified time, place or rate. Changes of allocated level will normally take effect at a radio navigation aid. Approach Sequence Cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same destination are assigned so that they are correct for the approach sequence at the destination. This may require level adjustment at a considerable distance from destination. Priority in Allocation of Cruising Level An aircraft at a cruising level normally has priority over other aircraft that request that cruising level. When two or more aircraft are at the same cruising level, the lead aircraft shall normally have priority. Allocation of a Previously Occupied Level An aircraft may be assigned a level previously occupied by another aircraft once the latter has reported that it is vacating. However, if severe turbulence is known to exist the clearance is delayed until the aircraft vacating the level has reported at another level separated by the required minimum. Example: Aircraft A is cleared to descend from FL140 to FL100. Aircraft B would be cleared to descend to FL140 when aircraft A reports that it has left FL140 and is descending to FL100. In severe turbulence conditions the area controller would instruct aircraft A to report passing FL130 in the descent before issuing a clearance to aircraft B to descend to the level previously occupied. Vertical Separation During Ascent or Descent Pilots in direct communication with each other may be cleared to maintain a specified vertical separation between their aircraft during ascent or descent. HORIZONTAL SEPARATION Horizontal Separation Definition There are two types of horizontal separation: lateral and longitudinal. Broadly, lateral separation requires aircraft to fly on different tracks separated by the required minima in terms of distance, whereas longitudinal separation involves arranging flights along the same track to be separated by time (or in certain circumstances, by distance).
  • 237. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-4 LATERAL SEPARATION Application Lateral separation is applied so that the distance between aircraft that are to be laterally separated is never less than an established distance (the minima) taking into account navigational inaccuracies plus a specified buffer. This buffer is determined by the appropriate authority and is included in the lateral separation minima. Buffer — A contrivance to lessen the shock of concussion. In this context, the word buffer means distance or time which is added into a situation that allows more space to ensure that the risk of two aircraft colliding is minimised. Means of Achieving Lateral Separation Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by: Requiring operation on different routes, or In different geographical locations as determined by visual observation, or By use of navigation aids or by use of area navigation equipment. Lateral Separation Criteria and Minima The means by which lateral separation may be achieved include the following: Geographical Separation The aircraft reports over a different geographical location determined visually or by reference to a navigation aid. Track Separation Between Aircraft Using the Same Navigation Aid or Method Aircraft fly on specified tracks which are separated by a minimum amount appropriate to the navigation aid or method employed. By doing so, separation would be deemed to exist when one or both aircraft are: VOR: Flying tracks separated by least 15°, and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility. VOR 28 km (15NM) 28 km (15NM) 15°
  • 238. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-5 NDB: Flying tracks separated by least 30°, and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility 28 km (15NM) 28 km (15NM) NDB 30° Dead Reckoning (DR) Flying tracks diverging by at least 45° and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the point of intersection of the tracks, this point being determined either visually or by reference to a navigation aid. 28 km (15NM) 28 km (15NM ) FIX 45° Reduced Distance When aircraft are operating on tracks which are separated by considerably more than these minima, States may reduce the distance at which the lateral separation is achieved. Oceanic Entry Track Separation between aircraft entering oceanic airspace is to be achieved before the aircraft enter the OCA by flying tracks separated by the minima applied in the OCA. Alternatively, until separation is achieved, the aircraft are to fly tracks which continue to diverge by at least 15° until the appropriate lateral separation minimum is established and it is possible to ensure, by means approved by the appropriate ATS authority, that the aircraft have the navigation capability necessary to ensure accurate track guidance.
  • 239. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-6 Track Separation Between Aircraft Using Different Navigation Aids or Methods Track separation between aircraft using different navigation aids and RNAV equipment may be achieved by requiring the aircraft to fly on specified tracks which are determined by taking into account the navigational accuracy of the navigation aid and RNAV equipment used by each aircraft with the proviso that the protection areas established for each track do not overlap. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION Application Longitudinal separation is applied so that the spacing between the estimated positions of the aircraft being separated is never less than the prescribed minimum. The specified spacing reflects the accuracy of the navigation aids being used or the accuracy with which the pilot can determine his/her position. Beacon ‘hopping’ is a fairly simple case but the use of RNAV over remote areas such as oceans or deserts will require much greater distances to be applied. Longitudinal separation between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be maintained by the application of the Mach Number technique in which aircraft are required to fly maintaining a specified mach number in relation to another aircraft also flying at specified mach number. It is the underlying principle that the local speed of sound for two aircraft in relatively close proximity will be the same. Longitudinal separation is established by requiring aircraft: To depart at a specified time; To lose time; To arrive over a geographical location at a specified time; or To hold over a geographic location until a specified time. Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Time In defining the separation standards for longitudinal separation it is assumed that the aircraft are at or will cross through the same level. Aircraft Flying on the Same Track Where aircraft are flying along the same track, the following minima are applied: 15 minutes: 15 MIN 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed. 10 MIN Navigational Aid Navigational Aid
  • 240. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-7 5 minutes: in the following cases, providing that in each case the lead aircraft is maintaining a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more, faster than the aircraft following: Between aircraft that have departed from the same aerodrome; Between enroute aircraft that have reported over the same reporting point; Between departing aircraft and enroute aircraft after the enroute aircraft has reported over a fix that is so located in relation to the departure point as to ensure that 5 minute separation can be established at the point the departing aircraft will join the air route. 5 MIN Aerodrome or Reporting Point 37 KMH (20 KT) or Faster 3 minutes: in the cases listed below provided that in each case the lead aircraft is maintaining a TAS of 74 km/h (40 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following. 3 MIN Aerodrome or Reporting Point 74 KMH (40 KT) or Faster Aircraft Flying on Crossing Tracks 15 minutes: 15 MIN
  • 241. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-8 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed. 10 MIN Navigational Aid Navigational Aid Navigational Aids Aircraft Climbing or Descending Traffic on the Same Track When an aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft on the same track, the following minimum longitudinal separation shall be provided: 15 minutes: at the time the level is crossed; 15 M IN 15 M IN 15 M IN F L 260 F L 250 F L 240 or when descending, F L 2 6 0 F L 2 5 0 F L 2 4 0 1 5 M IN 1 5 M IN 1 5 M IN
  • 242. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-9 10 minutes: at the time the level is crossed, where navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed; 5 minutes: at the time the level is crossed, provided that the level change is commenced within 10 minutes of the time the second aircraft has reported over an exact reporting point (climbing and descending cases applicable). 10 M IN 5 M IN 5 M IN 5 M IN NAV IG AT IO N AID F L 2 6 0 F L 2 5 0 FL 240 10 M IN 10 M IN 10 M IN NAVIGAT ION AID FL 260 FL 250 FL 240 10 MIN 10 MIN 10 MIN NAVIGATION AID FL 260 FL 250 FL 240
  • 243. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-10 Traffic on Crossing Tracks 15 minutes: at the time the levels are crossed (climbing and descending cases applicable); 15 MIN 15 MIN 15 MIN FL 260 FL 250 FL 240 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed (climbing and descending cases applicable). 10 MIN 10 MIN 10 MIN NAVIGATION AID FL 260 FL 250 FL 240 Traffic on Reciprocal Tracks Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation is provided for at least 10 minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass, unless it can be determined that the aircraft have passed. 10 MIN Estimated Time of Passing 10 MIN
  • 244. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-11 Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using DME Separation shall be established by maintaining not less than the specified distance(s) between aircraft positions as reported by reference to DME in conjunction with other appropriate navigation aids. Direct controller-pilot communications shall be maintained while such separation is used. Aircraft on the Same Track 37 km (20 nm) provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and a separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed. 37 KM (20 NM) DME 19 km (10 nm) provided the lead aircraft maintains a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following; each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at intervals as necessary to ensure that the minimum established and will not be infringed. 37 KM (20 KT) or Faster DME 19 KM (10 NM) Aircraft on Crossing Tracks The separation for aircraft on the same track applies provided that each aircraft reports distance from the station located at the crossing point of the tracks; 37 KM (20 KT) or Faster DME 19 KM (10 NM ) or,
  • 245. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-12 DME 37 KM (20 NM ) Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track 19 km (10 nm) at the time the level is crossed provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations. One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist, and separation is established by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft; 19 KM 10 NM 19 KM 10 NM 19 KM 10 NM FL 260 FL 250 FL 240 or when descending, 19 KM 10 NM 19 KM 10 NM 19 KM 10 NM DME FL 260 FL 250 FL 240
  • 246. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-13 Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks Aircraft utilizing on-track DME may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied by other aircraft utilizing on-track DME provided that it is positively established that the aircraft have passed each other and are at least 10 nm apart or any other value as prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority. Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using RNAV Separation is established by maintaining not less than the specified distance between aircraft positions as reported by reference to RNAV equipment. Direct controller-pilot communication should be maintained, while such separation is used. To assist pilots providing the required RNAV distance information, position reports should be referenced to a common way-point ahead of both aircraft. RNAV distance based separation may be applied between RNAV equipped aircraft when operating on designated RNAV routes or on ATS routes defined by VOR. RNAV distance based separation minima shall not be applied after ATC has received pilot advice indicating navigation equipment deterioration or failure. Aircraft on the Same Track A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used provided each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-track" way point, and separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed. Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used at the time the level is crossed, provided each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on- track" way point. One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist, and separation is established by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from the aircraft. 150 KM 80 NM 150 KM 80 NM 150 KM 80 NM WAY-POINT FL 260 FL 250 FL 240 150 KM 80 NM WAY-POINT
  • 247. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-14 or when descending, 150 K M 8 0 NM 1 50 KM 8 0 NM 150 K M 8 0 NM W AY -P O INT F L 2 60 FL 25 0 F L 24 0 Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks Aircraft utilizing RNAV may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied by other aircraft utilizing RNAV provided that it has been positively established by simultaneous RNAV distance readings to or from the same "on-track" way-point that the aircraft have passed each other by at least 150 km (80 nm). 150 km 80 NM WAY-POINT WAY-POINT Longitudinal Separation based on RNAV where RNP is Specified For aircraft cruising, climbing, or descending on the same track in an RNP RNAV environment, the separation standard may be reduced from 80 nm to 50 nm in RNP 10 airspace providing direct pilot/controller communications exist (not through a radio operator); procedural position reports are received that permit distance verification between aircraft every 30 minutes. REDUCED SEPARATION MINIMA Reduction in Separation Minima The separation minima detailed in this chapter may be reduced as determined by the appropriate ATS authority and after prior consultation with the aircraft operators, as appropriate. The reduced minima may be applied when special electronic or other aids (i.e. GPS) enable the pilot of an aircraft to determine accurately the aircraft's position. Minima may also be reduced when, in association with rapid and reliable communication facilities, radar derived information of an aircraft's position is available to the appropriate ATCU. Special Electronic Equipment When special electronic or other aids enable the air traffic controller to predict rapidly and accurately the flight paths of aircraft and adequate facilities exist to frequently verify the actual aircraft positions with the predicted positions, separation may be reduced.
  • 248. Area Control Service Chapter 17 Air Law 17-15 RNAV Operations When RNAV equipped aircraft operate within the coverage of electronic aids that provide the necessary updates to maintain navigation accuracy, separation may also be reduced. Separation When Using the Mach Number Technique The Mach number technique requires turbo jet aircraft to fly at the Mach number approved by ATC. A request is to be made to ATC before any changes to Mach number are made. If it is essential to make immediate changes to Mach number for safety reasons (i.e. turbulence) ATC is to be informed as soon as possible. If it is not possible to maintain assigned Mach number during en route climbs or descents, ATC is to be informed at the time of clearance issue. Separation based on Mach number is deemed to exist when the required time interval between aircraft exists. The minimum longitudinal separation standard when using the Mach number technique is 10 minutes providing the preceding aircraft maintains a Mach speed equal to or greater than that of the following aircraft. This may be reduced if the preceding aircraft has Mach speed greater than the following aircraft: Mach Number difference between preceding and following aircraft: Reduced Longitudinal Separation Standard Mach 0.02 faster 9 minutes Mach 0.03 faster 8 minutes Mach 0.04 faster 7 minutes Mach 0.05 faster 6 minutes Mach 0.06 faster 5 minutes
  • 249. Chapter 17 Area Control Service Air Law17-16
  • 250. Air Law 18-1 Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air, and Air Traffic Services, Document 4444-RAC/501 INTRODUCTION The establishment of the formal route structure for airways in the FIR cannot always meet the requirements of remote aerodromes or areas of a state. For instance, until the boom in the oil exploration and recovery business in the North Sea, the Shetland and Orkney Isles of the UK were remote areas where boats were the main means of transportation to the mainland. There were aerodromes there but no long distance scheduled air services served the islands. Small regional operators used small aeroplanes to provide a limited service. The ATC support for this was very limited confined to no more than aerodrome control and enroute FIS. This effectively limited the services to VFR only. As the level of traffic increased, and in order to offer a more formalised service and a greater degree of safety, the UK CAA established a system of advisory routes for IFR traffic to use, along which all IFR traffic using the route and asking for the service would be provided with ATC. It was envisaged that this service would be, and to a certain extent has remained, purely procedural. With the introduction of the ICAO airspace classification system in the early 1980s, the airspace in which this service was offered was titled Class F airspace, and a sub-division of ATC created called the Air Traffic Advisory Service. Today, ICAO permits the use of radar in the provision of an advisory service, however, this should not be confused with the UK radar service provided under the LARS, RAS (Radar Advisory Service). OBJECTIVE AND BASIC PRINCIPLES The objective of the air traffic advisory service is to make information on collision hazards more effective than it would be in the mere provision of FIS. It may be provided to aircraft conducting IFR flights in advisory airspace or on advisory routes (Class F airspace). Such areas or routes will be specified by the State concerned. Air traffic advisory service should only be implemented where the air traffic services are inadequate for the provision of air traffic control and the limited advice on collision hazards otherwise provided by FIS will not meet the requirement. Where air traffic advisory service is implemented, this should be considered normally as a temporary measure only until such time as it can be replaced by air traffic control service. OPERATION Air traffic advisory service does not afford the same degree of safety and cannot assume the same responsibilities as air traffic control service in respect of the avoidance of collisions, since information regarding the disposition of traffic in the area concerned available to the unit providing air traffic advisory service may be incomplete. To make this quite clear, air traffic advisory service does not deliver clearances but only advisory information, and it uses the words “advise” or “suggest” when a course of action is proposed to an aircraft.
  • 251. Chapter 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service Air Law18-2 The Commanders of aircraft flying to destinations served by class F routes or airspace, must request the service. This is done by filing a FPL and annotating the remarks to make it clear that the Advisory Service is requested. The ATCU responsible for the operation of the service will acknowledge receipt of the FPL, but no clearance will be issued. When RTF contact is established between the aircraft and the ATCU, the pilot will be advised which altitude or FL should be used and advised of any other known traffic (IFR or VFR) flying along or in the vicinity of the route. If conflictions arise, the pilots of aircraft in receipt of the service will be offered suggestions or advice as to the approved method of de-confliction. Under no circumstances will the ATCO apply ATC procedures nor will he/she assume any responsibility for separation. IFR/VFR The service is only available to pilots who have stated their intention to fly under IFR by filing an IFR FPL. The use of the routes or airspace is not restricted to IFR only, but no service is offered or available to VFR pilots other than the usual FIS. Likewise no service is offered to pilots of aircraft flying under IFR who have not requested the service despite having filed a FPL. Note: Pilots flying under IFR because they are flying in IMC must file a FPL before entering class F airspace. If the service is required it must be requested. AIRCRAFT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE IFR flights electing to use the air traffic advisory service when operating within Class F airspace are expected to comply with the same procedures as those applying to controlled flights except that the flight plan and any changes are not subjected to a clearance, since the unit furnishing air traffic advisory service will only provide advice on the presence of essential traffic or suggestions as to a possible course of action. It is for the pilot to decide whether or not to comply with the advice or suggestion received and to inform the unit providing the advisory service without delay, of such a decision. AIRCRAFT NOT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE Aircraft wishing to conduct IFR flights within advisory airspace, but not electing to use the air traffic advisory service, shall submit a flight plan, and notify changes to the unit providing the service. IFR flights planning to cross an advisory route should do so as nearly as possible at an angle of 90° to the direction of the route and at a level, appropriate to its track, selected from the tables of cruising levels for use by IFR flights outside controlled airspace. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES UNITS An ATS unit providing air traffic advisory service shall: Advise the aircraft to depart at the time specified and to cruise at the levels indicated in the flight plan if it does not foresee any conflict with other known traffic. Suggest to aircraft a course of action by which a potential hazard may be avoided, giving priority to an aircraft already in advisory airspace over other aircraft desiring to enter such advisory airspace. Pass to aircraft traffic information comprising the same information as that prescribed for area control service.
  • 252. Air Traffic Advisory Service Chapter 18 Air Law 18-3 Advisory Philosophy The criteria used above should be at least those laid down for aircraft operating in CAS and should take into account the limitations inherent in the provision of air traffic control advisory service, navigation facilities, and air-ground communications prevailing in the region. Designation of Airspace Class F airspace consists of advisory routes and advisory airspace. As the service is limited in scope, there is no facility for co-ordination of traffic flying along advisory routes with FIRs of adjacent states. Class F routes are therefore limited to domestic FIRs only and do not cross the international FIR boundary between states. Class F routes are given the suffix F by ICAO. A typical advisory route designator may be: W911F. Note: In the UK, advisory routes are given the suffix D therefore the 'ICAO' route W911F would in the UK be designated W911D. You find this route on E(Lo)1. It runs from Newcastle via the IoM and stops at the London/Shannon FIR boundary.
  • 253. Chapter 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service Air Law18-4
  • 254. Air Law 19-1 Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air, and Air Traffic Services, Document 4444-RAC/501 INTRODUCTION Radar is now used widely in ATC, and the advances including digital systems and data handling systems have revolutionised ATC. Radar allows the ATCO to supervise the airspace from the ground without reliance on pilot reports and thus enhance safety. Whilst procedural control is retained because if all else fails it is still there, almost 90% of air traffic services use radar in one form or another. Radar is used extensively in area control where airways and upper air routes are virtually exclusively radar controlled, in approach radar for zone and terminal activity, and for monitoring SIDs and STARs. Radar is also used in aerodrome control both for traffic control in the visual circuit and for surface movement guidance. The early GCA systems were replaced by PAR, and now with the demise of MLS, computerised PAR is again being installed primarily at busy military aerodromes. RADAR COVERAGE The use of radar in ATS is by necessity, limited to specified areas of radar cover and shall be subject to limitations as specified by the appropriate ATS authority. Information on the operating methods used is published in AlPs. Types of Radar Primary surveillance radar (PSR) and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) can be used either alone or in combination, provided reliable coverage exists in the area, and the probability of detection, the accuracy, and the integrity of the radar system are satisfactory. PSR systems should be used in circumstances where SSR alone would not meet the ATS needs. SSR systems, especially those with monopulse technique or Mode S capability, may be used alone, including in the provision of separation between aircraft, provided the carriage of SSR transponders is mandatory within the area, and aircraft identification is established and maintained by use of assigned discrete SSR codes. Note: Monopulse technique uses azimuth information derived from aircraft responses using comparison of signals received by two or more antenna beams. This gives greatly improved azimuth resolution and less ‘garbling’ (see Radio Navigation notes) than conventional SSR sensors. Presentation of Radar Information The minimum radar derived information available for display to the controller is to include, radar position indications, radar map information, and when available, information from SSR Mode A, Mode C and Mode S.
  • 255. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-2 Theoretical ATC Radar Coverage of the United Kingdom
  • 256. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-3 IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT Before providing a radar service to an aircraft, radar identification must be established and the pilot informed. Thereafter, radar identification must be maintained until termination of the radar service. If radar identification is subsequently lost, the pilot must be informed accordingly, and when applicable, appropriate instructions issued. Radar identification is to be established by at least one of the following methods: SSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES Where SSR is used, aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures: Recognition of the aircraft identification in a radar label; Recognition of an assigned discrete code, the setting of which has been verified, in a radar label; Direct recognition of the aircraft identification of a Mode S equipped aircraft in a radar label; By transfer of radar identification; Observance of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code; Observation of compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT. Note: Radar Label is the term used for the display of information on a radar display unit (radar screen) relating to a particular aircraft the details of which are known to the ATCU providing the radar service. PSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES Where SSR is not used or not available, radar identification must be established by at least one of the following methods: By correlating a particular radar contact with an aircraft reporting its position over, or as bearing and distance from a point displayed on the radar map, and by confirming that the track of the particular radar position is consistent with the aircraft path or reported heading; By correlating an observed radar contact with an aircraft which is known to have just departed, provided that the identification is established within 2 km (1 nm) from the DER of the runway used; By transfer of radar identification; By ascertaining aircraft heading, if circumstances require, and following a period of track observation; Instructing the pilot to execute changes of heading of 30° or more and correlating the movements of one particular radar contact with the aircraft’s acknowledged execution of the instructions given; or Correlating the movements of a particular radar contact with manoeuvres currently executed by an aircraft having so reported. Use of VDF Use may be made of direction finding bearings to assist in radar identification of an aircraft. This method shall not be used as the sole means of establishing radar identification, unless so prescribed by the ATS authority for particular cases under specified conditions.
  • 257. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-4 POSITION INFORMATION An aircraft to be provided with radar service should be informed of its position: On initial identification; On transfer of radar identification from another radar unit; When the pilot requests this information; When a pilot’s estimate differs significantly from the radar controller’s contact position; When the pilot is instructed to resume own navigation after radar vectoring; Immediately before termination of radar service. Defining Position Position information is passed to aircraft in one of the following forms: As a geographical position; As magnetic track and distance to a significant point, an enroute navigation aid, or an approach aid; As direction and distance from a known position; As distance to touchdown, if the aircraft is on final approach; or As distance and direction from the centre line of an ATS route. Omit Position Reports The pilot may omit position reports at compulsory reporting points when specified by the ATS radar unit concerned, this includes points at which air-reports are required for meteorological purposes. Pilots are to resume position reporting when instructed, or when advised that radar service is terminated, or that radar identification has been lost. RADAR VECTORING Radar vectoring is a procedure that allows a radar controller to position an aircraft by issuing specific headings for the aircraft to fly to maintain the desired track. This allows an aircraft to be positioned at a point where visual criteria is obtained; or that allows an instrument procedure to be commenced; or traffic to be avoided; or terrain and restricted airspace to be avoided. Procedure Radar vectoring is only carried out in a defined Radar Vectoring Area (RVA) within CAS. Details of all RVA are published in the AIP for a state and the RVA for Manchester is reproduced below. When vectoring an aircraft, a radar controller should tell the pilot what the purpose of the vectoring is, and where practicable, vector the aircraft along routes or tracks on which the pilot can monitor the aircraft position with reference to navigation aids. When terminating radar vectoring, the radar controller will instruct the pilot to resume own navigation, giving the pilot the aircraft’s position and appropriate instructions as necessary. During radar vectoring, the pilot should fly the heading given and not correct for the wind. The radar controller will amend the vectoring instructions to take account of observed drift.
  • 258. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-5 Limit of Vectoring Except when transfer of radar control has been effected prior to transfer of communication, aircraft are not to be vectored closer than 4.6 km (2.5 nm), or a distance equivalent to ½ of the radar separation minimum (where radar separation greater than 9.3 km (5 nm) is prescribed), from the edge of the RVA, unless local arrangements have been made to ensure that separation will exist with radar controlled aircraft operating in adjoining areas. Controlled flights will only be vectored into uncontrolled airspace: In the case of emergency; or In order to circumnavigate severe weather (in which case the pilot should be so informed); or At the specific request of the pilot. Obstacle Clearance Whilst providing radar vectoring the ATCO will take responsibility for terrain avoidance (although the pilot should monitor the situation closely). When vectoring an IFR flight, the radar controller shall issue altitude instructions such that the required obstacle clearance will exist until the aircraft reaches the point where the pilot will resume own navigation. Whenever possible, minimum vectoring altitudes should be sufficiently high to minimize activation of GPWS. Operators are to report incidents involving the activation of aircraft GPWS so that locations can be identified, and altitude, routing, and/or aircraft operating procedures can be altered to prevent recurrences. Compass Failure When an aircraft has reported unreliable directional instruments, the radar controller will advise the pilot to make all turns at an agreed rate (normally rate 1; 3° per sec) and to start the turn immediately upon receipt. The controller will time the turn and advise the pilot to stop the turn after the appropriate arc has been turned through. Information Regarding Adverse Weather Information that an aircraft appears likely to penetrate an area of adverse weather should be issued in sufficient time to permit the pilot to decide on an appropriate course of action, including that of requesting advice on how best to circumnavigate the adverse weather, if so desired. In vectoring an aircraft for circumnavigating any area of adverse weather, the radar controller should ascertain that the aircraft can be returned to its intended or assigned flight path within the available radar coverage, and, if this does not appear possible, inform the pilot of the circumstances.
  • 259. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-6 Radar Vectoring Area chart for Manchester
  • 260. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-7 USE OF RADAR IN THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE Functions The information presented on a radar display may be used to perform the following functions in the provision of air traffic control service: To provide radar services to improve airspace utilization, reduce delays, provide for direct routings and more optimum flight profiles, as well as to enhance safety; To provide radar vectoring to departing aircraft; To provide radar vectoring to resolve potential conflicts; To provide radar vectoring to arriving aircraft; To provide radar vectoring to assist pilots in their navigation; To provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences communication failure within the area of radar coverage; To maintain the monitoring of air traffic; When applicable, maintain a watch on the progress of air traffic, in order to provide a non-radar controller with: Improved position information regarding aircraft under control; Supplementary information regarding other traffic; and Information regarding any significant deviations, by aircraft from the terms of their respective ATC clearances, including their cleared routes as well as levels when appropriate. RADAR SEPARATION MINIMA The Radar Separation Standard The minimum distance that an identified radar contact may approach to another identified contact or an unidentified contact is 9.3 km (5 nm). States may apply lower minima where safety is not compromised. The standard is defined because the position accuracy resolution of radar contacts is dependent upon the data rate of the radar system (primarily the aerial rotation period – see Radio Navigation notes), the beam width of the radar, and the range discrimination of the radar. Further errors are introduced by slant range and anomalous propagation. Reduced Radar Separation The radar separation minimum may be reduced when approved by the authority. Not Below 5.6 km (3 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location permit, the separation minima maybe reduced to 3 nm. This is usually applied out to a maximum range of 40 nm from the radar head (the radar transmitter site) when the radar is used for terminal approach control. Not Below 4.6 km (2.5 nm) The minimum may be further reduced between succeeding aircraft which are established on the same final approach track within 18.5 km (10 nm) of the runway end. This reduced minimum may only be applied when: The average runway occupancy time of landing aircraft does not exceed 50 seconds; Braking action is good and runway occupancy times are not adversely affected by runway contaminants such as slush, snow, or ice; A radar system with appropriate azimuth and range resolution and an update rate of 5 seconds or less is used in combination with suitable radar displays; and
  • 261. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-8 The aerodrome controller is able to observe the runway in use and associated exit and entry taxiways (visually, by surface movement radar (SMR), or a surface movement guidance and control system (SMCGS)); The wake turbulence radar separation minima does not apply; Aircraft approach speeds are closely monitored by the controller, and when necessary, adjusted so as to ensure that separation is not reduced below the minimum; Aircraft operators and pilots have been made fully aware that during reduced minimum operations of the requirement for runway occupancy time not exceeding 50 secs; and The procedures used are published in AIP. Radar Wake Turbulence Minima The following wake turbulence separation minima applied by radar are applicable to the approach and departure phases of flight. Note that the separation minima are defined as distance not time (as in the case of procedural wake turbulence separation). Aircraft category Preceding aircraft Succeeding aircraft Wake turbulence radar separation minima HEAVY HEAVY MEDIUM LIGHT 7.4 km (4 nm) 9.3 km (5 nm) 11.1 km (6 nm) MEDIUM LIGHT 9.3 km (5 nm) Conditions The minima set out above apply when: An aircraft is operating directly behind another aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1000 ft) below the preceding aircraft, or Both aircraft are using the same runway, or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m, or An aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1000 ft) below. Speed Control Radar controllers may request aircraft to adjust their speed in order to facilitate radar control. Aircraft may be requested to maintain maximum speed, minimum speed, minimum clean speed, minimum approach speed, or specific speed. Where a specific speed is given it is expressed in multiples of 20 km/h (10 knots) IAS, or multiples of 0.01 Mach. Only minor speed adjustments of not more than 40 km/h (20 knots) should be requested of aircraft established on an intermediate or final approach. No speed control should be applied after 8 km (4 nm) from the threshold on the final approach. Aircraft should be advised once speed control is no longer required.
  • 262. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-9 EMERGENCIES, HAZARDS, AND EQUIPMENT FAILURES Assistance In the event of an aircraft in, or appearing to be in, any form of emergency, every assistance shall be provided by the radar controller. The progress of an identified aircraft in emergency shall be monitored and plotted on the radar display until the aircraft passes out of radar coverage. Position information shall be provided to all ATS units which may be able to give assistance to the aircraft. Radar transfer to adjacent radar sectors shall also be effected when appropriate. SSR Code If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific code, that code will normally be maintained unless, in special circumstances, the pilot has decided or has been advised otherwise. Where ATC has not requested a code to be set, the pilot will set the transponder to mode A code 7700. USE OF RADAR IN THE APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE Radar is used in approach control to perform the following functions: Radar vectoring of arriving traffic to a point at which a pilot interpreted instrument approach can be commenced; a PAR procedure starts, or a visual approach can be made; Radar monitoring of parallel runway operations; To provide surveillance radar approaches (SRA); To provide PAR procedures; To provide separation between arriving and departing aircraft; To provide radar vectoring of departing aircraft where necessary. Approach Radar Procedure Procedures are to be established to ensure that the aerodrome controller is kept informed of the arrival sequence as well as instructions given to aircraft to maintain separation after transfer of control to the aerodrome controller. Before commencing radar vectoring the pilot is to be advised of the type of approach in operation and the runway in use (i.e. “Atlantic 123 radar vectors for ILS runway 27 left”). Before commencing the final approach, the radar controller advises the pilot of the aircraft position at least once during radar vectoring (i.e. “Atlantic 123, 10 miles from touchdown turn left heading 315 report localiser established”). Vectoring to Final Approach An aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or series of headings, calculated to close to the final approach track. The final vector will enable the aircraft to be established in level flight on the final approach track (localiser established) prior to intercepting the glide path on a precision approach. The intercept angle should be 45° or less. For independent parallel approaches the intercept angle should not be greater than 30°. The final vector should also provide at least 1 nm straight and level flight prior to localiser intercept. The vector must also ensure that at least 2 nm straight and level flight occurs before glide path intercept.
  • 263. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-10 Separation A minimum of 3 nm separation is given to aircraft on the same localiser course. Vectoring to the Visual Vectoring for a visual approach may be initiated provided the reported ceiling is above the minimum altitude applicable to radar vectoring and meteorological conditions are such that, with reasonable assurance, a visual approach and landing can be carried out. Clearance for a visual approach will only be issued after the pilot has reported the aerodrome, or the preceding aircraft, is in sight. At that time radar vectoring would be terminated, and the pilot instructed to contact tower. Transfer of Control to the Aerodrome Controller Transfer of communication and control to the aerodrome controller should be carried out at such a point or time to permit clearance to land or alternative instructions to be issued. It is normal ATC practice to transfer control once the pilot has reported established on the localiser (or final approach track for non ILS approaches). Landing Clearance Clearance to land should be passed to an aircraft before it reaches 2 nm from touchdown. If no clearance to land has been received at that range and no other instructions issued, then the published missed approach procedure must be carried out. Final Approach Track Descent Point Final Vector Closing intercept angle 45° or less (or with parallel runway ops 30° or less) Vectoring to Intercept the Final Approach Track
  • 264. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-11 RADAR APPROACHES Before Commencement Before a radar approach is started, the pilot is to be informed of: The runway in use; The applicable OCA/H; The angle of the glide path (or the virtual glide path) and/or the approximate rate of descent to be maintained; The ‘Loss of RTF’ procedure (unless the procedure is published in the AIP and on the approach plates). RTF During a radar approach, the pilot will maintain communication with the radar approach controller. The radar controller will liaise with the aerodrome controller by intercom and relay any essential traffic information to the pilot. On completion of the radar approach, communication may be transferred directly to the ground movement controller when the pilot reports to the radar controller that the aircraft is clear of the active runway. Discontinuation If for any reason the radar approach has to be discontinued, the pilot will be informed immediately. If possible, the approach is to be continued utilising another aid or visually if the pilot reports accordingly. If continuation is not possible, the pilot will be given alternative instructions. Undercarriage At a point on final approach, the pilot of an aircraft making a radar approach is to be asked to confirm that the landing gear is down and locked. Landing Clearance The aerodrome controller is to be advised when an aircraft making a radar approach is 8 nm from touchdown. At this point the aerodrome controller may either issue a landing clearance or state that the clearance will be issued subsequently. If landing clearance has not been issued at 8 nm, the radar controller will advise the aerodrome controller again when the aircraft is at 4 nm from touchdown and request landing clearance on behalf of the pilot. In busy circuit situations, the aerodrome controller may delay the landing clearance providing it is issued before the aircraft reaches 2 nm from touchdown. If the clearance has not been issued by 2 nm, the radar controller will instruct the pilot to carry out the missed approach procedure without further delay. Missed Approach An aircraft making a radar approach should be instructed to execute the missed approach procedure when the aircraft appears to be dangerously positioned on final approach, for reasons of conflicting traffic, if no landing clearance has been received by 2 nm, or on instructions from the aerodrome controller. If at any time during the radar approach radar contact is lost for any significant interval of time, the pilot will be instructed to make a missed approach. Unless required by exceptional circumstances, instructions issued by the radar controller concerning missed approach are to be in accordance with the published procedure.
  • 265. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-12 PAR During a precision approach radar procedure, the pilot is ‘talked’ down the glide path and along the centre line. This is achieved by radar vectoring using very accurate radar information relating to the aircraft position in azimuth and elevation with reference to the centre line and the defined glide path. At the start of the procedure the pilot will be instructed not to acknowledge any further instructions unless requested. Range information is passed and the pilot will be instructed to commence descent at the appropriate point. The radar controller then transmits continuously passing range, heading and adjustments to heading, and adjustments to the rate of descent to maintain the centre line and the glide path. At 4 nm from touchdown, whilst keeping up the ‘talkdown’, the radar controller will ask the aerodrome controller for clearance to land. If given, this is relayed to the pilot together with a request for landing gear confirmation and instruction to acknowledge. The talkdown will continue until the aircraft reaches the decision height or is seen on radar to be making a missed approach. Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA) If PAR is available then a final approach using SRA should not be carried out unless meteorological conditions are such that there is a reasonable certainty that the SRA can be completed successfully. When conducting an SRA the radar controller must comply with the following: At or before the commencement of the final approach the aircraft shall be informed of the point at where the SRA will be terminated (1 nm or 2 nm from touchdown); The aircraft shall be informed when the aircraft is approaching the point at where the descent should begin; Before reaching the computed descent point, the aircraft shall be informed of the OCA/H and instructed to descend and check the appropriate minima; At the descent point the aircraft will be instructed to begin descent as for a 300 ft per mile glide path; Distance to touchdown is normally passed at every 2 km (1 nm) with the pre- computed level the aircraft should be passing; The approach shall be terminated at the earliest of: A distance of 4 km (2nm) from touchdown where range determination allows ranges to be passed every mile, or at 1 nm if ranges are passed every 0.5 nm, or Before the aircraft enters an area of continuous radar clutter, or When the pilot reports that a visual approach can be completed. USE OF RADAR IN AERODROME CONTROL Surveillance Radar Surveillance radar can be used by the aerodrome controller to monitor the aircraft on final approach, monitor the movements of other aircraft in the vicinity of the aerodrome, establishing separation between succeeding departing aircraft, and providing navigation assistance to VFR flights. SVFR flights are not to be vectored unless special circumstances (emergencies) dictate otherwise. When offering navigation assistance to VFR flights the aerodrome controller should be aware of the proximity of IMC. It is of overriding importance that the use of radar by the aerodrome controller does not detract from the visual observation of aerodrome traffic.
  • 266. Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Air Law 19-13 Surface Movement Radar (SMR) The use of SMR enhances the service to aerodrome traffic in low visibility operations, and may be used to augment visual observation of the aerodrome. It may also be used to provide surveillance of areas of the manoeuvring area which cannot be observed visually. Specific uses are: monitoring aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area for compliance with clearances; determining that the runway is clear before aircraft land or take off; providing essential local traffic information on or near the manoeuvring area; determining the location of aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area; providing directional assistance to aircraft taxiing when requested by the pilot; providing assistance and advice to emergency response vehicles. Radar in the Flight Information Service The use of radar in the provision of FIS does not relieve the pilot of any responsibility for collision avoidance, or the final decision regarding alteration of the flight plan. The information displayed on the radar display may be used to provide identified aircraft with information concerning conflicting aircraft and advice regarding avoiding action; information about the position of significant weather and advice on how best to circumnavigate the weather, and information to assist the navigation of the aircraft. In the UK this service is known as RIS and is provided by radar units as part of the LARS. Radar in the Air Traffic Advisory Service When radar is used in the provision of the air traffic advisory service, the general procedures for the use of radar in ATC are to be applied subject to the limitations of the advisory service and the airspace in which it is conducted.
  • 267. Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Air Law19-14
  • 268. Air Law 20-1 Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Document 8168- OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures INTRODUCTION The use of Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) has radically affected the provision of ATC especially in the enroute (Area) and terminal (Approach) phases of flight. Modern ATC systems use SSR not just to identify aircraft but to give information regarding aircraft callsign, altitude or level, and destination. The system can also be used to identify a particular airframe and is a fundamental part of the ACAS/TCAS systems. SSR has its origins in WWII with the invention of a system known as Identification Friend or Foe (IFF). The equipment fitted to aircraft that performed the task was given the code name ‘parrot’ and this is evident in some of the phraseology we still use. System The technology and the equipment used are discussed in detail in Radio Navigation, but simplistically, a ground station transmits a signal that is received by the aircraft equipment and re- transmitted back to the ground station. The aircraft equipment is called a ‘transponder’: a transmitter that responds. The signal from the aircraft is coded with the identification code allocated to the aircraft by the controller, which when received, permits access to the details of the aircraft’s flight plan held in the ATC data system. The transmitted signal operates in different modes, with mode A used for ident codes and mode C used for automatic altitude reporting. Special Codes Under certain circumstances, pilots are required to set special codes on the SSR system to indicate aircraft situation to the controller. These are: Mode A code 7700 - Emergency Mode A code 7600 - Radio failure Mode A code 7500 - Unlawful interference Mode A code 2000 - Entering an area where radar services are available and will be requesting such a service Mode A code 7000 - Operating in an area where radar service is available but not in receipt of a radar service Mode A code 0000 - Unserviceable transponder Mode S Pilots of aircraft equipped with Mode S having an aircraft identification feature shall set the aircraft identification in the transponder. This setting shall correspond to the aircraft identification specified in item 7 of the ICAO flight plan, or, if no flight plan has been filed, the aircraft registration.
  • 269. Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar Air Law20-2 OPERATION OF TRANSPONDERS In commercial aviation an aircraft is not permitted to commence a flight with an unserviceable transponder. Unless advised by the ATC authority, the transponder is to be operated at all times during flight, regardless of whether the aircraft is inside or outside airspace where SSR is used for ATS purposes. If a transponder fails in flight and cannot be repaired at an intermediate stop enroute, approval may be given for the flight to continue to planned destination with the unserviceable transponder. In such circumstance, item 10 of the FPL (information concerning the carriage of SSR) is to be annotated “N” for nil. In the absence of any ATC directions (code instructions) or regional air navigation agreements (specific code requirements), the transponder should be set to mode A code 2000. Setting a Code The approved procedure for setting a code is designed to prevent inadvertent squawking of a special code. Before changing a code character, set the transponder control to standby. Change the code and then reselect ON. Alternatively, where the aircraft system includes twin SSR controllers, select the new code on the control unit not being used and then operate the changeover switch to activate the controller that has the desired code set. Confirm Squawk When requested by ATC to “Confirm Squawk” the pilot shall: Verify the Mode A code setting on the transponder Reselect the assigned code if necessary, and Confirm to ATC the setting displayed on the controls of the transponder Ident Feature The system includes a facility which graphically draws the attention of the radar controller to the symbol relating to the aircraft on the radar display. It is usual for the symbol to ‘flash’ when the pilot operates the “ident feature”. Pilots are not to squawk IDENT unless requested by ATC. Use of Mode C Whenever Mode C is in use, level (or altitude) is to be reported to the nearest full 30 m or 100 ft as indicated on the pilot’s altimeter, in communication with ATC. The tolerance value used by ATC to determine that Mode C derived level information displayed to the controller is accurate, is the reported altitude/level ± 300 ft (JAR OPS requires a tolerance of ± 200 ft). Level Occupancy An aircraft is considered to be maintaining its assigned level as long as the Mode C indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level. Climbing or Descending An aircraft is deemed to have crossed a level when the Mode C indicates it has passed this level by more than 300 ft in the required direction. Passing a Level An aircraft is deemed to be passing through a level when the Mode C indicates it is within 300 ft of the stated level ascending or descending in the required direction.
  • 270. Secondary Surveillance Radar Chapter 20 Air Law 20-3 Departing a Level An aircraft is considered to have left its previously assigned level when the Mode C indicates that it is more than 300 ft from the previously assigned level. Reaching a Level An aircraft is considered to have reached its newly assigned level when the Mode C indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level EMERGENCY PROCEDURES If the pilot thinks necessary, when in an emergency the mode A code 7700 should be squawked. This will activate alarm signs and sounds in the radar control room and alert all concerned to the identity of the aircraft suffering the emergency. If the pilot is already in communication with the radar controller and the emergency is declared on the radar controller’s frequency after the aircraft has been radar identified, the 7700 squawk may be superfluous. Note: Military automatic emergency squawk is mode A code 7777. COMMUNICATION FAILURE PROCEDURES The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications should set the transponder to mode A code 7600. Note: A controller observing a response on the communications failure code will ascertain the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to “Squawk IDENT” to change code. Where it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning, further control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmissions to acknowledge receipt of clearances issued. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT Should an aircraft in flight be subjected to unlawful interference, the PIC shall endeavour to set the transponder to mode A code 7500 unless circumstances warrant the use of mode A code 7700. A pilot having selected mode A code 7500 and subsequently requested to confirm this code by ATC shall, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all. Note: Specific indoctrination concerning the handling of acts of unlawful interference will be conducted by individual operators. PHRASEOLOGY When acknowledging mode/code setting instructions, pilots shall read back the mode and code to be set. ATC System In accordance with the Regional Air Navigation agreement (RAN), ATCUs utilising SSR are allocated a block of codes for the unit to use. There are 4096 individual codes encompassing all the possible combinations of the digits 0 – 7 in 4 digit sets. So a code containing the digits 8 or 9 is invalid. A particular ATCU is usually identified by the first two digits of a code. The third digit indicates the control console and the last digit the allocated track number for that console. For example the code 4321 would indicate a radar approach unit at a specific location, console number 2, track 1.
  • 271. Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar Air Law20-4 Gate-to-Gate Operations Within the ‘gate to gate’ concept of European ATC being pioneered by Eurocontrol, each flight will be allocated a specific SSR code during the pre-tactical phase of the ATFM procedure, and that code will remain with the aircraft until the aircraft lands at the final destination.
  • 272. Air Law 21-1 References: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services ALERTING SERVICE It is essential that an aircraft experiencing an emergency or any other form of difficulty is able to communicate the fact and get assistance. Underpinning the ATS is a system of communication, liaison, co-operation and information interchange that is utilised to assist aircraft. This system is called the Alerting Service and is the third part of the ATS system. Application The Alerting Service is provided for all aircraft provided with air traffic control service; in so far as is practicable, all aircraft having filed a flight plan or otherwise known to the ATS, and any aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference. Collection and Dissemination of Information Flight information centres or area control centres shall serve as the central point for collecting all information relevant to a state of emergency of an aircraft operating within the FIR or CTA concerned and for forwarding such information to the appropriate Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC). Notification In the event of a state of emergency arising to an aircraft while it is under the control of an aerodrome control tower or approach control office, such unit shall notify immediately the flight information centre or area control centre responsible which shall in turn notify the RCC. Notification of the area control centre, flight information centre or RCC shall not be required when the nature of the emergency is one that can be dealt with by the service concerned. Local Response Whenever the urgency of the situation so requires, the aerodrome control tower or approach control office responsible shall first alert and take other necessary steps to set in motion all appropriate local rescue and emergency organizations which can give the immediate assistance required. Notification of Rescue Co-Ordination Centres Without prejudice to any other circumstances that may render such notification advisable, ATS units shall notify RCCs immediately an aircraft is considered to be in a state of emergency in accordance with the following phases:
  • 273. Chapter 21 The Alerting Service Air Law21-2 PHASES OF THE ALERTING PROCEDURE There are three states of alert, escalating in level of concern as to the safety of an aircraft. These are: Uncertainty Phase (INCERFA) Except when no doubt exists as to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants, the uncertainty phase would be declared to exist when: No communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of thirty minutes after the time a communication should have been received, or from the time an unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with the aircraft was first made, whichever is earlier, or when An aircraft fails to arrive within thirty minutes of the ETA last notified to, or estimated by, ATS units. Alert Phase (ALERFA) Except when evidence exists that would allay apprehension as to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants, the alert phase would be declared: Following the uncertainty phase, subsequent attempts to establish communication with the aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news of the aircraft, or when An aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to land within 5 minutes of the established time of landing and communication has not been re-established with the aircraft, or when Information has been received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired but not to the extent that a forced landing is likely, or when An aircraft is known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference. Distress Phase (DETRESFA) Except when there is reasonable certainty that the aircraft and its occupants are not threatened by grave and imminent danger and do not require immediate assistance the distress phase would be declared: Following the alert phase, further unsuccessful attempts to establish communication with the aircraft and more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to the probability that the aircraft is in distress, or when The fuel on board is considered to be exhausted, or to be insufficient to enable the aircraft to reach safety, or when Information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely, or when Information is received or it is reasonably certain that the aircraft is about to make or has made a forced landing.
  • 274. The Alerting Service Chapter 21 Air Law 21-3 FORMAT OF NOTIFICATION OF DECLARATION The notification shall contain such of the following information as is available in the order listed: INCERFA, ALERFA or DETRESFA as appropriate to the phase of emergency; Agency and person calling; Nature of the emergency; Significant information from the flight plan; Unit which made last contact, time and frequency used; Last position report and how determined; Colour and distinctive marks of aircraft; Any action taken by reporting office; or Other pertinent remarks. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR THE RCC In addition to the above the RCC is given the following information: Any useful additional information, especially on the development of the state of emergency through subsequent phases, or Information that the emergency situation no longer exists. INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF AN AIRCRAFT IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY When it has been established by an ATS unit that an aircraft is in a state of emergency, other aircraft known to be in the vicinity of the aircraft involved shall be informed of the nature of the emergency as soon as practicable. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE When an ATS unit knows or believes that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference, no reference shall be made in ATS air-ground communications to the nature of the emergency unless it has been referred to in communications from the aircraft involved and it is certain that such reference will not aggravate the situation.
  • 275. Chapter 21 The Alerting Service Air Law21-4
  • 276. Air Law 22-1 INTRODUCTION Article 25 of the Chicago Convention obliges all contracting states to provide search and rescue (SAR) assistance to aircraft in a state of emergency in the territory of a state and adjacent areas of responsibility. Annex 12 contains the SARPs for SAR and ICAO also publishes Doc 7333 which provides guidance to setting up a SAR service. The level of service provided depends much upon the ability of the state (financial and expertise) but it is an obligation that is taken very seriously and states will co-operate even where there is animosity between the co-operating states. Some smaller states with limited GNP have entered into arrangements with larger neighbours or treaty states where the SAR service is provided by the other state. Typically, the RAF provides the SAR service for Cyprus whereas the USN provides SAR cover for the surrounding sea areas of Iceland. The United Kingdom and Eire share the responsibility for the provision of SAR in the 3 FIRs and also for the Shanwick OCA. In other ocean areas, or areas of undetermined sovereignty, where SAR services have to be established, such services are organised on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. A Contracting State having accepted the responsibility to provide a SAR service in such areas is to arrange for the service to be established and provided in accordance with Annex 12. Note: The phrase “regional air navigation agreements” refers to the agreements approved by the Council of ICAO normally on the advice of Regional Air Navigation Meetings. ORGANISATION Establishment and Provision of Search and Rescue Service SAR services are to be available on a 24 hour basis. In providing assistance to aircraft in distress and to survivors of aircraft accidents, contracting states are required to do so regardless of the nationality of such aircraft or survivors. Establishment of Search and Rescue Regions Contracting states shall publish the SAR areas (regions) within which they will provide SAR services. Such regions shall not overlap. Boundaries of SAR regions should, in so far as practicable, be coincident with the boundaries of corresponding FIR. Establishment and Designation of Search and Rescue Service Units Contracting States shall establish a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in each SAR region. Contracting States should establish rescue sub-centres whenever this would improve the efficiency of SAR services. In areas where public telecommunications would not permit persons observing an aircraft in emergency to notify the RCC concerned directly and promptly, states should designate suitable units of public or private services as alerting posts.
  • 277. Chapter 22 Search and Rescue Air Law22-2 Communications for Search and Rescue Services Units Each RCC is required to have a sophisticated communications system with ATSUs, other RCCs, other services on whose skills and assistance the RCC can call, and associated service providers (i.e the meteorological service, police, military units, etc.). Equipment of Rescue Units Rescue units shall be provided with facilities and equipment for locating promptly, and for providing adequate assistance at, the scene of an accident including, where possible SARSAT and COSPAS. Co-Operation Between States Contracting states shall co-ordinate their SAR organizations with those of neighbouring contracting states, and in so far as is practicable, develop common SAR procedures to facilitate co-ordination of SAR operations. Subject to conditions, a state should permit immediate entry into its territory of rescue units of other states for the purpose of searching for the site of aircraft accidents and rescuing survivors of such accidents. The authorities of a state which wishes its rescue units to enter the territory of another state for SAR purposes shall transmit a request to the RCC of the state concerned or to such other authority as has been designated by that state. Each state should authorise its RCC to provide, when requested assistance to other RCCs, including assistance in the form of aircraft, vessels, personnel or equipment. Co-Operation with Other Services States will arrange for all aircraft, vessels and local services and facilities which do not form part of the SAR organisation to co-operate fully with the latter in SAR and to extend any possible assistance to the survivors of aircraft accidents. OPERATING PROCEDURES Information Concerning Emergencies Any authority or any element of the SAR organization having reason to believe that an aircraft is in an emergency shall give all available information to the RCC concerned immediately. RCCs shall, immediately upon receipt of information concerning aircraft in emergency, evaluate such information and determine the extent of operation required. When information concerning aircraft in emergency is received from other sources than ATS units, the RCC shall determine to which emergency phase the situation corresponds and shall apply the procedures applicable to that phase. Uncertainty Phase During the uncertainty phase, the RCC shall co-operate to the utmost with ATS units and other appropriate agencies and services in order that incoming reports may be speedily evaluated. Alert Phase Upon the occurrence of an alert phase the RCC shall immediately alert appropriate SAR services units and rescue units and initiate any necessary action.
  • 278. Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Air Law 22-3 Distress Phase When an aircraft is believed to be in distress, or when a distress phase exists, the RCC shall: Initiate action by appropriate SAR services units and rescue units in accordance with the detailed plan of operation; Ascertain the position of the aircraft, estimate the degree of uncertainty of this position, and, on the basis of this information and the circumstances, determine the extent of the area to be searched; Notify the operator, where possible, and keep him informed of developments; Notify adjacent RCCs, the help of which seems likely to be required, or which may be concerned in the operation; Notify the associated ATS unit, when the information on the emergency has been received from another source; Request at an early stage such aircraft, vessels, coastal stations, or other services not specifically included in SAR services or rescue units as are in a position to do so to: Maintain a listening watch for transmission from the aircraft in distress or from an emergency locator transmitter; Note: The frequencies used by emergency locator beacons are 121.500 MHz and 406 MHz. Assist the aircraft in distress as far as practicable; Inform the RCC of any developments; From the information available, draw up a plan for the conduct of the search and/or rescue operation required and communicate such plan for the guidance of the authorities immediately directing the conduct of such an operation; Amend as necessary, in the light of circumstances, the guidance already given above; Notify the State of Registry of the aircraft; Notify the appropriate accident investigation authorities. Procedures for Pilots-in-Command at the Scene of an Accident When a PIC observes that an aircraft or a surface vessel is in distress, he/she shall, unless unable or it is unreasonable or unnecessary, keep the craft in distress in sight until such time as such presence is no longer necessary. If position is not known with certainty, the pilot should take such action as will facilitate the determination of it. The pilot should also report to the RCC or ATS unit as much of the following information as possible: Type of craft in distress, its identification and condition; Its position expressed in Geographical co-ordinates; or a distance and true bearing from a distinctive landmark; or from a radio navigation aid; Time of observation expressed in hours and minutes UTC; Number of persons observed and whether persons have been seen to abandon the craft in distress; Number of persons observed to be afloat; Apparent physical condition of survivors.
  • 279. Chapter 22 Search and Rescue Air Law22-4 First Aircraft on the Scene If the first aircraft to reach the scene of an accident is not a SAR aircraft, the pilot of that aircraft shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft subsequently arriving until the first dedicated SAR aircraft reaches the scene. The pilot of any aircraft involved in SAR should calculate the endurance of the aircraft considering diversion to a nearby aerodrome to extend endurance if necessary. If, in the meantime, such aircraft is unable to establish communication with the appropriate RCC or ATS unit, it shall, by mutual agreement, hand over to an aircraft capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the first SAR aircraft. If it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface craft to the scene of distress, the aircraft shall do so by transmitting its precise instructions by any means at its disposal. If no radio communications can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate signal from those defined at the end of this section. When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey information to survivors or surface rescue units, and two-way communication is not available, it shall, if practicable, drop communication equipment that would enable direct contact to be established, or convey the information by dropping a message. When a ground signal has been displayed, the aircraft shall indicate whether the signal has been understood or not by use of the appropriate signal given at the end of this section. Procedures for Pilots-In-Command Intercepting a Distress Transmission Whenever a distress signal and/or message or equivalent transmission is intercepted on radiotelegraphy or radiotelephony by a PIC of an aircraft, he shall record the position of the craft in distress if given. If possible, he should take a bearing on the transmission and inform the appropriate RCC or ATS unit of the distress transmission, giving all available information. At his discretion, while awaiting instructions, proceed to the position given in the transmission. SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS The signals shown below shall, when used, have the meaning indicated. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used. Upon observing any of the signals given below, aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given. Signals with Surface Craft The following manoeuvres performed in sequence by an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface craft in distress: Circling the surface craft at least once; Crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude and rocking the wings, or opening and closing the throttle, or changing the propeller pitch; Heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed. Repetition of the above manoeuvres has the same meaning. Cancelling Request for Assistance When the assistance of a surface craft is no longer required the pilot should manoeuvre the aircraft so as to cross the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low altitude and rock the wings, or open and close the throttle, or change the propeller pitch.
  • 280. Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Air Law 22-5 Marking of Droppable Equipment The following supplies can be dropped from aircraft which have the capability to air-drop. Where such equipment is dropped, a streamer (flag/pennant) is to be attached, the colour of which will indicate to the survivors what is in the package. Where supplies are mixed a combination of the colour codes should be used. Table: Colour of streamers attached to supplies Streamer Colour Supply Red Medical supplies and first aid equipment Blue Food and water Yellow Blankets and protective clothing Black Miscellaneous equipment such as stoves, axes, compasses etc Ground-Air Visual Signal Code In order to communicate basic messages and instructions from ground parties to aircraft, an internationally agreed system of signals has been established. There are two sets of signals: Ground/Air Signals from Survivors The following signals may be set out in some form (marked in snow; oil on sand; burned grass in open areas etc.) Symbols shall be at least 2.5 metres long and shall be made as conspicuous as possible. Table: Ground/Air Signals from Survivors No. Message Symbol 1 Require assistance V 2 Require medical assistance X 3 No or negative N 4 Yes or affirm Y 5 Proceed in this direction
  • 281. Chapter 22 Search and Rescue Air Law22-6 GROUND/AIR SIGNALS USED BY RESCUE UNITS Where search parties do not have two-way radio contact with the RCC or where they are co- operating with aircraft without two-way RTF, the following signals can be used. Table: Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units No. Message Symbol 1 Operation completed LLL 2 Have found all survivors LL 3 Have only found some survivors 4 Not able to continue, returning to base XX 5 Have divided into 2 groups proceeding as indicated 6 Information received that survivors/aircraft is in this direction 7 Nothing found, will continue to search NN AIR-TO-GROUND SIGNALS To indicate that the ground signals have been understood, an aircraft will, during the hours of daylight rock the aircraft’s wings, or during the hours of darkness, flash on and off twice the aircraft’s landing lights or, if not so equipped, switch on and off twice its navigation lights. Lack of the above signals indicates that the ground signal is not understood. SAR Communications Perhaps the most important role a civilian aircraft can perform in the SAR scenario is to act as a communications link. By remaining at high altitude the aircraft can relay messages from SAR units on the surface or at low level to ATCUs or directly to the RCC using VHF or HF. The aircraft at high level can also relay messages between SAR units on the surface which are not in direct line of sight communication with each other. The following radio frequencies are used for SAR:
  • 282. Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Air Law 22-7 Frequency Application Modulation Silence Period Note 500 KHz MF International distress safety and calling CW (Morse) H+15; H+45 Aircraft can receive using ADF 2182 KHz HF International distress safety and calling AM (voice) H+00; H+30 Silence periods last 5 minutes 4125 KHz Air to Ship SAR AM (voice) None 3023 KHz 5680 KHz SAR scene of search HF AM (voice) None Used for comms with RCC 8364 KHz Lifeboat HF AM (voice) None Use as directed 121.500 MHz International Aeronautical Distress VHF AM (voice) None Military ships can monitor 156.8 MHz VHF Maritime Distress (Channel 16) FM (voice) None Ship/shore VHF 123.100 MHz Aeronautical SAR scene of search VHF AM (voice) None Military ships can monitor 243.000 MHz International Aeronautical Distress UHF AM (voice) None Military ships and aircraft guard 406.000 MHz Emergency Locator Beacon AM Sweeping tone repeated – may have voice None Simultaneous transmissions on 121.500 MHz Table: SAR Frequencies
  • 283. Chapter 22 Search and Rescue Air Law22-8
  • 284. Air Law 23-1 Reference: Annex 14 - Aerodromes ANNEX 14 This is the Annex to the Chicago Convention that specifies the SARPs for the construction of and services required for aerodromes. Annex 14 is only concerned with aerodromes that are open to the public, in other words, aerodromes which conduct commercial operations. This does not limit the application of the SARPs to state owned or authority operated aerodromes, but implies that an aerodrome licensed for commercial operations must comply with the SARPs in order for the licence to be granted. This Annex contains SARPs that detail the physical characteristics and obstacle limitation surfaces to be provided for at aerodromes, and certain facilities and technical services normally provided at an aerodrome. It is not intended that these specifications limit or regulate the operation of an aircraft. At certain types of aerodrome used occasionally for commercial air transport, differences under article 38 can be notified (i.e. military aerodromes). TYPES OF AERODROME ICAO does not categorise aerodromes as does, for instance, the CAA of the UK. ICAO does however, specify different SARPs to aerodromes used only for VFR operations compared to those for aerodromes used for instrument procedures. PARTS OF AN AERODROME All licensed aerodromes have an apron, a manoeuvring area, and a movement area (see definitions Chapter 1). Where necessary, or commercial interests prevail, an aerodrome may have a technical area. Where established, a technical area, except for the entrance to and exit from, are not under ATC control. On some very busy international aerodromes the control of surface traffic and operations on the apron is delegated to an apron management service operated by the aerodrome operator. AERODROME REFERENCE CODE (ARC) For the benefit of aerodrome designers and constructors, ICAO specifies an Aerodrome Reference Code. Operators are required to ascertain that any aerodromes they intend to use for commercial operations are fit for that purpose. Where an operator has established schedules using aerodromes and the necessary aerodrome operating minima, it is not necessary for the pilot to confirm that the aerodrome is suitable for operations. Knowledge of the ARC is only required for examination purposes. The ARC consists of a code number and letter based on the requirements of the largest aeroplane for which the aerodrome is intended to be used. Code Element 1 The code number for element 1 is determined by selecting the code number corresponding to the highest value for the aeroplane reference field lengths of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended. Aeroplane reference field length is the
  • 285. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-2 minimum take-off distance required at maximum certificated take-off mass under still air and ISA conditions. Code Element 2 The code letter for element 2 is determined by selecting the code letter which corresponds to the greatest wing span, or the greatest outer main gear wheel span, whichever gives the more demanding code letter of the aeroplanes for which the use of the aerodrome is intended. Note: Outer main gear wheel span is the distance between the outermost wheels of the main undercarriage. The runways and taxiways have to be at least as wide as this. Aerodrome Reference Code Code Element 1 Code Element 2 Code Number Aeroplane Reference Field Length Code Letter Wing Span Outer Main Gear Wheel Span 1 Less than 800 m A Up to but not including 15 m Up to but not including 4.5 m 2 800 m up to but not including 1200 m B 15 m up to but not including 24 m 4.5 m up to but not including 6 m 3 1200 m up to but not including 1800 m C 24 m up to but not including 36 m 6 m up to but not including 9 m 4 1800 m and over D 36 m up to but not including 52 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m E 52 m up to but not including 65 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m F (2) 65 m up to but not including 80 m (1) 14 m up to but not including 16 m Notes: 1. Planning considerations for aeroplanes with wing span greater than 80 m are contained in the ICAO aerodrome design manual. 2. The Air Law CQB was written before the introduction of code F. Table: Aerodrome Reference Code Note: For convenience the code letters and numbers are not used in the text of these notes. The data within the table is given instead. However, the table is examined in the JAR Air Law examination. AERONAUTICAL DATA GEOGRAPHICAL CO-ORDINATES Geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude are determined and reported in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS-84). AERODROME REFERENCE POINT (ARP) An ARP is established for each aerodrome. The ARP is typically located near the initial or planned centre of the aerodrome. The position is measured and reported to the aeronautical information services in degrees, minutes, and seconds. The ARP is usually the centre of the longest runway.
  • 286. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-3 AERODROME AND RUNWAY ELEVATIONS The aerodrome elevation is measured to the accuracy of 0.5 m or one foot. For aerodromes used by international civil aviation involving precision or non-precision approaches, the accuracy is measured to 0.25 m or one foot. PRE-FLIGHT ALTIMETER CHECK LOCATION One or more pre-flight altimeter check locations are established for an aerodrome. A pre-flight check location is typically located on an apron so that an altimeter check is made prior to obtaining taxi clearance thus eliminating the need for stopping after leaving the apron. Normally an entire apron can serve as a satisfactory altimeter check location. The elevation of a pre-flight altimeter check location is given as the average elevation, rounded to the nearest metre or foot, of the area on which it is located. The elevation of any portion of a pre-flight altimeter check location is to be within 3 m (10 ft) of the average for that location. CONDITION OF THE MOVEMENT AREA AND RELATED FACILITIES Information on the condition of the movement area and the operational status of related facilities is to be provided to the appropriate AIS units, and similar information of operational significance to the ATS units. This enables those units to provide the necessary information required by arriving and departing aircraft. The information must be kept up to date and changes in conditions reported without delay. The condition of the movement area and operational status of related facilities is to be monitored and reports made concerning: Construction or maintenance work Rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway, or an apron Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway, or an apron Water on a runway, a taxiway, or an apron Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an apron Anti-icing or de-icing liquid chemicals on a runway or taxiway Other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome visual aids Failure of the normal or secondary power supply DECLARED DISTANCES The following distances shall be calculated to the nearest metre or foot for a runway intended for use by international commercial air transport: Take-off Run Available (TORA) Take-off Distance Available (TODA) Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) Landing Distance Available (LDA)
  • 287. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-4 TORA TODA ASDA LDA Clearway TORA ASDA LDA TODA Stopway TORA TODA LDA ASDA TORA TODA ASDA LDA Clearway Stopway LDA TORA TODA ASDA
  • 288. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-5 RUNWAYS USABILITY For an aerodrome to be used for co mercial transport, the schedules agreed must be able to be operated. This means that the runways are not only long enough and strong enough for the aeroplanes to use, but also sited to take into account prevailing meteorological conditions, air traffic requirements, and obstacle clearance. Wind is probably the most important meteorological consideration and runway direction must be biased towards the prevailing wind. It is a requirement of ICAO that an aerodrome must be useable for not less than 95% of the notified hours of operation. CROSS WIND COMPONENTS Operations are to be suspended when the crosswind component exceeds: 20 kts for aeroplanes requiring reference field length 1500 m or more. 13 kts for field length less than 1500 m but not less than 1200 m. 10 kts for field length less than 1200 m. TYPES OF RUNWAY Runways are described by the types of operations that can be conducted on the runway: Non Instrument (Visual) Runway The take-off and landing criteria are determined visually with reference to ground visibility, RVR cloud ceiling, and day/night conditions. Instrument Runway A runway to which instrument arrival and departure procedures are applied. There are two types of instrument runways: Precision runways, and Non-precision runways. Take-off Runway A runway used only for take-off operations usually due to excessive obstacles precluding a useful approach. LOCATION OF THRESHOLD The beginning of the landing runway is defined as the threshold of the landing runway. It normally starts at the beginning of a paved runway or the beginning of the marked area for a grass runway. The marked threshold may be displaced from the start of the paved area where there is a requirement for the landing aircraft to avoid the first part of the paved area, or there is a need for the aircraft to cross the beginning of the paved area at a height greater than would be achieved for the normal positioning of the threshold marking.
  • 289. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-6 LENGTH OF RUNWAYS The actual length of a runway should be sufficient to permit normal operations to be carried out by the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended. It should take into account local conditions (elevation, temperature, slope, humidity, surface type), but not abnormal aircraft operating conditions. RUNWAY WIDTH The width of a runway should be: Table: Runway Width Code LetterCode Number A B C D E F 1 18 m 18 m 23 m 2 23 m 23 m 30 m 3 30 m 30 m 30 m 45 m 4 45 m 45 m 45 m 60 m For a precision approach runway the width should not be less than 30 m when the Aerodrome Code Number is 1 or 2. RUNWAY STRIP A Runway Strip is defined as an area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway, and to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations.
  • 290. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-7 Length of Runway Strip A strip should extend from before the threshold, to beyond the end of the runway or stopway for a distance of at least 60 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 800 m; 60 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the runway is an instrument runway, and 30 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the runway is a non-instrument runway. Width of Runway Strips A strip including a precision approach runway shall, wherever practicable, have a lateral width of at least 150 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m, and 75 m for aeroplane reference field length less than 1200 m. RUNWAY END SAFETY AREA (RESA) The RESA is an area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip, primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome. A RESA should be provided at each end of a runway strip where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m or where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 1200 m and the runway is an instrument runway. A RESA should extend from the end of a runway strip for as great a distance as practicable, but at least 90 m. The width of a RESA should be at least twice that of the associated runway. CLEARWAY A clearway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. The length of a clearway should not exceed half the length of the TORA. Clearway width should be at least 75 m on each side of the extended centre line of the runway. STOPWAYS A stopway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground at the end of the TORA prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off. A stopway shall have the same width as the runway with which it is associated. RADIO ALTIMETER OPERATING AREA For CATII and CATIII instrument operations, the use of a radio altimeter is required for the vertical input into the autopilot. The radio altimeter reads the vertical position of the aircraft directly above the ground. If the ground is undulating, false height information is input. This is a particular problem during descent below 100 ft for CAT III operations. In order to overcome this, a radio altimeter operating area is defined where undulations are smoothed out. A radio altimeter operating area should be established in the pre-threshold area of a precision approach runway. It should extend before the threshold for a distance of at least 300 m, and extend 60 m laterally, on each side of the extended centre line of the runway. TAXIWAYS In planning the layout of taxiways, the designer must consider the need for taxiways to move aircraft to and from the runways to the apron(s) in the most expeditious and uncomplicated manner. Consideration has to be given to the manoeuvrability of aircraft on the ground, poor visibility from the flight deck, and the density of traffic. The physical construction of taxiways must take into account the ability of an aircraft to turn through the angle required with the wheels turning, wing span and jet efflux. Taxiways must be of equal load bearing to the runway, and marked or otherwise delineated so as not to be confused with runways. Runway entrances and exits need to be planned to permit rapid egress to and from the runway and to meet the obstacle
  • 291. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-8 clearance requirements for precision operations. In some cases, the runway may be used for taxiing. Where this is the case, additional areas at the end of the runway may be necessary to provide turning space or a turning loop. TAXIWAY DIMENSIONS The most important consideration in taxiway design is width. The designer must make sure that the aircraft has enough room on the taxiway. The design of a taxiway should be such that, when the flight deck of the aeroplane remains over the taxiway centre line markings, the clearance distance between the outer main gear wheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway should be not less than: Table: Wheel to Taxiway Edge Clearance Code Letter Clearance A 1.5 m B 2.25 m C 3 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 18 m, otherwise 4.5 m D 4.5 m E 4.5 m F 4.5 m WIDTH OF TAXIWAY The width of the straight portion of a taxiway should not be less than: Table: Taxiway Width Code Letter Taxiway Width A 7.5 m B 10.5 m C 15 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 18 m, otherwise 18 m D 18 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with an outer main gear wheel span of less than 9 m, otherwise 23 m E 23 m F 25 m
  • 292. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-9 TAXIWAY CURVES Changes in direction along taxiways should be as few as possible and the radius of the curve must be compatible with the manoeuvrability of the aircraft using the taxiway at normal taxi speeds. Where necessary, widening fillets are used to increase the width of a taxiway. This provides additional space to cope with ‘main gear wander’. The pilot should attempt to keep the nosewheel on the centre line. Pilots should also be aware of ‘swept wing growth’ during turns. Taxiway Curve HOLDING BAYS, TAXI HOLDING POSITIONS At busy international aerodromes queues of departing aircraft build up at peak traffic times. If not controlled, these lines may exceed the capacity of taxiways to cope with the waiting traffic. If held at the parking stand, the situation is compounded by denying arriving aircraft the use of the stand. Taxi holding positions should be established at an intersection of a taxiway with a runway, and at an intersection of a runway with another runway when the former runway is part of a standard taxi route. A road holding position shall be established at an intersection of a road with a runway to allow vehicular traffic to remain clear of the runway during aircraft operations. The minimum distance for a runway holding point to be from the centreline of the runway is as follows: Taxiway widening to achieve minimum wheel to edge clearance Pilot is required to keep the nose wheel on the centre line
  • 293. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-10 Table: Position of Holding Points Code Number Type of Runway 1 2 3 4 Non Instrument 30 m 40 m 75 m 75 m Non Precision Approach 40 m 40 m 75 m 75 m Precision Cat I 60 m(2) 60 m(2) 90 m(1,2) 90 m(1,2,3) Precision Cat II/III - - 90 m(1,2) 90 m(1,2,3) Take-off 30 m 40 m 75 m 75 m Notes: 1. may be increased if holding elevation lower than runway 2. may be increased to avoid interference with radio nav aids 3. for code F this should be 107.5 m APRONS REQUIREMENT Aprons are defined as the places on an aerodrome where passengers, mail and cargo are loaded and unloaded, as well as minor servicing of aircraft, such that aerodrome traffic is not disrupted. The total apron areas should be sufficient to allow the expeditious handling of traffic at maximum anticipated density. Aprons are constructed to handle slow moving traffic and to withstand higher stresses than runways. ISOLATED PARKING AREA A special parking area is to be designated for the parking of aircraft that have been subjected to unlawful interference. This is to be not less than 100 m from any other parking area, building, public area, or over underground utilities (gas, aviation fuel, electrical, or communications cables). VISUAL AIDS FOR NAVIGATION INDICATORS AND SIGNALLING DEVICES The rules of the air (Annex 2) require information to be displayed so that pilots of non radio traffic may use the aerodrome. All aerodromes used by commercial traffic under IFR are required to have an ATC tower and 2-way RTF. For non radio traffic the information is displayed in the signals square. An aerodrome that does not accept non radio traffic does not need to have a signals square. All ATC towers are required to be equipped with a signalling lamp.
  • 294. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-11 WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS (WIND SOCK) An aerodrome is to be equipped with at least one wind direction indicator. It should be located so as to be visible from aircraft in flight and on the movement area, and positioned so as to be free from the effects of air disturbance from nearby objects. The wind direction indicator should be in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric. It should be constructed so that it gives a clear direction of the surface wind and a general indication of wind speed. The colour should be selected so as to make the wind direction indicator clearly visible and understandable from a height of at least 300 m. Where practicable, a single colour, preferably white or orange should be used. Provision should be made for illuminating at least one wind indicator at an aerodrome intended for use at night. Where two or more wind indicators are positioned on an aerodrome, the ‘master’ indicator is marked with a white circle around the base of the pole. LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR Where provided, a landing direction indicator shall be located in a conspicuous place on the aerodrome. The landing direction indicator should be in the form of a “T”. The colour of the landing “T” is either white or orange. Where required for use at night, the landing “T” is illuminated or outlined by white lights. SIGNALLING LAMP A signalling lamp is to be provided at a controlled aerodrome in the aerodrome control tower and should be capable of producing red, green and white signals. The lamp should also be capable of: being aimed at any target as required. giving a signal in any one colour followed by a signal in either of the two other colours, and transmitting a message in Morse code up to a speed of at least 4 words per minute. SIGNAL PANELS AND SIGNAL AREAS Where required, the signal area should be located so as to be visible from all angles of azimuth above an angle of 10º above the horizontal when viewed from a height of 300 m. The signal area shall be an even horizontal surface at least 9 m square. It should be surrounded by a white border not less than 0.3 m wide. MARKINGS Markings are symbols, designs or characters painted on the surface of a runway, taxiway or apron. The colour of a marking usually indicates where the marking is, for instance all runway markings are white whereas all taxiway markings are yellow. RUNWAY MARKINGS Runway Designation Marking A runway designation marking shall be provided at the thresholds of a paved runway. The runway designation marking shall be located at the threshold as shown in the diagram below.
  • 295. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-12 Examples of Runway Designator Positions Characteristics A runway designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number and on parallel runways shall be supplemented with a letter (L for the left hand runway and R for the right hand runway). The two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest the one-tenth of the magnetic north when viewed from the direction of approach. Where there are three parallel runways the centre runway is supplemented with C. If there are four parallel runways, one pair of adjacent runways are designated, for instance 27L and 27R and the next pair are 28L and 28R. When the above rule would give a single digit number it will be proceeded by a zero. RUNWAY CENTRE LINE MARKINGS A runway centre line marking is required for a paved (concrete) runway. The markings are located along the centre line between the runway designation markings. Characteristics Centre line markings shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps. The length of a stripe plus a gap shall not be less than 50 m or more than 75 m. The length of each stripe shall be at least equal to the length of the gap or 30 m, whichever is greater. THRESHOLD MARKINGS A threshold marking shall be provided at the threshold of a paved instrument runway, and a paved non-instrument runway that is intended for use by international commercial air transport. A threshold marking should be provided at the thresholds of an unpaved runway. The stripes of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the runway edge. Characteristics A runway threshold marking shall consist of a pattern of longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the centre line. They may be placed either side of the runway designator. The number of stripes is a function of the runway width. 27 27 27 27L Runway Designator showing magnetic azimuth (QDM) of the runway direction
  • 296. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-13 Runway Width Number of Stripes 18 m 23 m 30 m 45 m 60 m 4 6 8 12 16 DISPLACED THRESHOLD MARKING Where a threshold is displaced from the end of a runway or where the end of a runway is not square with the runway centre line, a transverse stripe should be added. 2727 27 Permanently displaced (pre threshold area fit for aircraft movement) Temporarily displaced for 6 months or less (runway designator is not moved) X X 27 Pre threshold area not fit for aircraft movement Pre threshold area fit for use by aircraft as a stopway only
  • 297. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-14 AIMING POINT MARKING An aiming point marking shall be provided at the approach end of a paved instrument runway greater than 800 m in length. It is recommended that they are placed at each approach end of a paved non-instrument runway greater than 1200 m in length and a paved instrument runway where the runway length is less than 800 m when additional conspicuity of the aiming point is desirable. Location The aiming point marking shall commence no closer to the threshold than the distance indicated in the table below, except that on a runway equipped with a visual approach slope indicator system, the beginning of the marking shall be coincident with the visual approach slope origin. Where a touchdown zone marking is provided, the lateral spacing shall be the same as that of the aiming point marking. Table: Location of Aiming Point Marking Landing Distance Available Location and dimensions Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1200 m 1200 m up to but not including 2400 m 2400 m and above Distance from threshold to beginning of marking 150 m 250 m 300 m 400 m TOUCHDOWN ZONE MARKING A touchdown zone marking is to be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved precision approach runway of greater than 800 m length, and recommended for the touchdown zone of a paved non-precision approach or non-instrument runway where the runway is greater than 1200 m length. The markings required are of either Pattern A (no distance coding) or Pattern B (distance coded). Location A touchdown zone marking shall consist of pairs of rectangular markings as shown in the diagram below. These markings shall be symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line with the number of such pairs related to the landing distance available. Where the marking is to be displayed at both the approach directions of a runway, the distance between the thresholds as follows:
  • 298. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-15 Landing distance available or the distance between thresholds Pair(s) of markings Less than 900 m 900 m up to but not including 1200 m 1200 m up to but not including 1500 m 1500 m up to but not including 2400 m 2400 m or more 1 2 3 4 5 Spacing of Markings The pairs of markings shall be provided at longitudinal spacing of 150 m beginning from the threshold, except that pairs of touchdown zone markings coincident with or located within 50 m of an aiming point marking shall be deleted from the pattern. 300 m 900 m Aiming point marking 150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m Touchdown Zone Markings (Pattern A) on a runway less than 2400 m (aiming point 300 m from threshold) 150 m 400 m 150 m150 m 150 m150 m 900 m Touchdown Zone Markings (distance coded - Pattern B) on a runway 2400 m or more (aiming point 400 m from threshold) Aiming point marking Runway side stripes
  • 299. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-16 RUNWAY SIDE STRIPE A white runway side stripe marking shall be provided between the runway edges and the shoulders of the surrounding terrain where there is a lack of contrast between the runway and the surrounding terrain. A runway side stripe marking should be provided on a precision approach runway irrespective of the contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders of the surrounding terrain. TAXIWAY MARKINGS Colour Taxiway markings and (in general) aircraft parking stand markings are yellow. Apron safety lines are to be painted in a conspicuous contrasting colour to the concrete and the colour used for stand markings. TAXIWAY CENTRE LINE MARKING Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided where the runway length is 1200 m or greater. These markings provide guidance from the runway centre line to the point on the apron where aircraft stand markings commence. Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided on a paved runway when the runway is part of a standard taxi route and there is no runway centre line marking or where the taxiway centre line is not co-incident with the runway centre line. At the intersection of a taxiway with a runway where the taxiway serves as an exit from the runway, the taxiway centre line marking should be curved into the runway centre line marking. RUNWAY HOLDING POSITION MARKING A runway holding position marking is placed at runway holding position. The holding point itself is indicated by the mandatory sign(s) at the side of the taxiway. There are two types of runway holding marking: pattern A and pattern B. The holding point closest to the runway is always pattern A. A second holding point further from the runway is marked with pattern B. Other holding points further from the runway are additional pattern B type. A holding position for a runway not served by the taxiway is pattern B.
  • 300. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-17 TAXIWAY INTERSECTION MARKING A taxiway intersection marking should be displayed at an intersection of two paved taxiways where a specific holding position is needed. A taxiway intersection marking consists of a single broken line. Runway Runway Holding Point Marking Pattern “A” Runway Runway Holding Point Marking Pattern “B”
  • 301. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-18 VOR AERODROME CHECK-POINT MARKING When a VOR aerodrome check-point is established, it shall be indicated by a check-point marking and sign. The check-point sign shall be located as near as possible to the check-point so that the sign is clearly visible from the cockpit of an aircraft properly positioned on the VOR aerodrome check-point marking. The marking shall be centred on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct signal. The marking may have an arrow indicating the direction the aircraft should be pointed to receive the best signal. A VOR aerodrome check-point marking should preferably be white in colour but should differ from the colour used for taxiway markings. VOR 116.3 147° VOR 116.3 147° 4.3nm Sign at VOR Check Location Sign at VOR Check Location with co-located DME Intermediate Holding Position This taxiway has priority
  • 302. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-19 AIRCRAFT STAND MARKINGS Aircraft stand markings should be provided for designated parking positions on a paved apron. The markings should be positioned so as to give safe clearance when the nose wheel follows the line. Stand markings should include stand identification, lead in line, turn bar, turning line, and alignment bar, stop line and lead out line. Stand identification (letter and/or number) should be included in the lead in line a short distance after the beginning of the lead in line. The height of the identification should be adequate to be readable from the cockpit of aircraft using the stand. APRON SAFETY LINES Apron safety lines shall be located so as to define the areas intended for use by ground vehicles and other aircraft servicing equipment. This is to ensure safe separation from aircraft. Apron safety lines should include wing tip clearance and service road boundary lines. INFORMATION MARKINGS Where an information sign would normally be installed and it is physically impossible to install a sign, an information marking shall be displayed on the paved surface. An information marking consists of an inscription in yellow, when it supplements or replaces a location sign, and an inscription in black, when it replaces or supplements a direction or destination sign. Where there is insufficient contrast between the marking and the pavement surface, the marking will include a black background where the inscriptions are in yellow and a yellow background where the inscriptions are in black. SIGNS Signs are provided on aerodromes to convey mandatory instructions, information on a specific location, or information on surface movement guidance. CHARACTERISTICS Signs shall be frangible (not rigidly constructed so as to damage aircraft if hit), and when near a runway or taxiway, they must be sufficiently low to allow clearance for engines and propellers. Signs are to be illuminated for use in RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m, or at night in association with instrument runways, or at night in association with non-instrument runways where the runway length is 1200 m or greater. MANDATORY INSTRUCTION SIGNS Mandatory signs have a red background with white characters. Mandatory instruction signs may identify a location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower. Mandatory signs include runway designation signs, category I, II, or III runway holding position signs, taxi-holding position signs, road holding position signs and NO ENTRY signs. A runway designation sign at a taxiway/runway intersection shall be located on the left side of a taxiway or if practicable both sides, facing the direction of approach to the runway. A NO ENTRY sign shall be located at the beginning of the area to which entrance is prohibited on the left side or if practicable both sides, of the taxiway. A category I, II or III holding position sign shall be located on either side of the holding position marking facing the direction of the approach to the critical area. RUNWAY TAXI HOLDING SIGNS A taxi-holding position sign must be located on the left side of the taxiway (facing the direction from which aircraft approach the runway), but ideally, on both sides.
  • 303. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-20 Visual Runway Holding Point for Runway 27 2727 27 CAT II D27 CAT IID Instrument Runway Holding Point for CATII operations for Runway 27 on taxiway “D” 27 CAT II/III27 CAT II/IIIA2 A2 A1 27 27 A1 Multiple Holding points on taxiwayPosition A1 Position A2
  • 304. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-21 1. Visual Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign - denotes the Visual Taxi-Holding Position and also the ILS CAT I holding position where these positions are co-located. 2. CAT I Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign - denotes the ILS CAT I Taxi-Holding Position only where a Visual holding position is established closer to the runway. 3. CAT II Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign - denotes the ILS CAT II Taxi-Holding Position. A Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow. 4. CAT III Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign - denotes the ILS CAT III Taxi-Holding Position. A CAT II holding position and a Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow. 5. Combined Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign - denotes the Taxi-Holding Position where the ILS holding positions are co-incident. A Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow. 6. Intermediate Holding Position Sign – marks a holding position established to protect a priority route. 7. NO ENTRY Sign – marks a position beyond which aircraft are not to be taxied. 8. Taxiway Holding Position Sign – marks a holding position on a taxiway that passes under the approach to a runway. Table: Mandatory Signs INFORMATION SIGNS Information signs are provided where there is an operational need to identify a specific location, or routing (direction or destination) information. Information signs include direction signs, location signs, destination signs, runway exit signs, and runway vacated signs. Information signs are contrasting yellow and black. Location signs have yellow characters on a black background, whereas direction signs have black characters on a yellow background. The signs may be illuminated at aerodromes used by night or in low visibility. Information signs may be combined to form a location and direction sign, and be combined with mandatory signs as in the case of the holding point signs above. Where a location sign is combined with a runway vacated sign, the yellow border is omitted. 27 09 - 27 27 CAT I 09 - 27 CAT 27 CAT II 09 - 27 CAT II 27 CAT III 09 - 27 CAT III 27 CAT II/III 27 CAT I/II/III 09 - 27 CAT I/II/III B2 27 - APPCH
  • 305. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-22 A B1 27 Taxiway Location Signs Runway Location Sign A 27 Direction Sign Runway Destination Sign 27- 09 27 31 Runway Destination Sign for reciprocal runway (the same length of concrete) Runway Destination Sign for different runways MIL APRON Inbound Destination Signs (Military traffic this way) (Apron this way) A Taxiway Ending Sign A Runway Vacated Sign (left side of taxiway) End of Taxiway Sign
  • 306. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-23 RUNWAY ‘DISTANCE TO GO’ SIGNS Signs may be erected at the side of the runway to indicate the distance remaining to the end of the runway. These are usually in whole 1000s of feet and the sign has white numbers on a black background. In the example below, the sign indicates that there is 5000 ft of runway remaining. APRON SIGNS Signs on aprons conveying information to pilots (stand numbers etc.) consist of white characters on a blue background. The sign below indicates that this is stand number B3. MARKERS A marker is an object that is positioned to indicate an obstacle or to mark a boundary. Markers are used where there are no lights or where lighting is inadequate. Markers must be frangible or capable of being trampled. Those located near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for propellers and engines. UNPAVED RUNWAY EDGE MARKERS Markers should be provided when the extent of an unpaved runway is not clearly indicated. Where runway lights are provided the markers should be incorporated in the light fixtures. Where there are no lights, markers of flat rectangular or conical shape should be placed so as to identify the runway clearly. STOPWAY EDGE MARKERS The stopway edge markers shall be sufficiently different from any runway edge markers used to ensure that the two types of markers cannot be confused. TAXIWAY EDGE MARKERS A taxiway edge marker shall be reflective blue and be frangible. Their height shall be sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and engines. B3 5
  • 307. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-24 TAXIWAY CENTRE LINE MARKERS Where taxiway centreline lighting is not provided, taxiway centre line markers are used which act like ‘cats eyes’ in the road. They are reflective green. The markers are designed and fitted to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to the markers. BOUNDARY MARKERS Boundary markers are used to mark the extremity of the landing area on a grass aerodrome. The markers should be coloured to contrast with the background against which they will be seen. A single colour - orange or red; or two contrasting colours - orange and white, or red and white, should be used. AERODROME LIGHTING An aerodrome at night is a profusion of lights. Apart from the main stadium lighting around the apron and passenger areas, the runways are lit as are the taxiways; buildings and vehicles have lights on them as do aircraft. All the coloured lights have a purpose and the arrangements of lights also have meanings. The design aspects of lighting systems are beyond the LOs for this course and the syllabus is quite explicit in stating that spacing of lights apart from the essential elements of approach systems are not examinable. Where included in the description of lighting systems, dimensions are stated to assist the student to appreciate the appearance of the systems. 60 cm Min 60 cm Min 1 m 60 cm Not less than 3 m Type A Type B Type C
  • 308. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-25 LIGHTS WHICH MAY ENDANGER THE SAFETY OF AIRCRAFT A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome, which might endanger the safety of aircraft or cause confusion to pilots, is to be extinguished, screened, or otherwise modified so as to eliminate the source of danger. ELEVATED LIGHTS Elevated runway, stopway, and taxiway lights and their supporting structures are to be frangible. When an approach light fixture or supporting structure is not sufficiently conspicuous, it shall be suitably marked. Elevated lights on the movement area shall be sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft. INTENSITY The intensity (brilliance) of the following lights is to be variable: Approach lighting systems Runway edge lights Runway threshold lights Runway end lights Runway centre line lights Runway touchdown zone lights EMERGENCY LIGHTING It is normal for an aerodrome to have a back up power supply in the event of main supply failure (power outage). At an aerodrome without a secondary power supply, sufficient emergency lights should be available. AERONAUTICAL BEACONS An aerodrome beacon or an identification beacon may be provided at an aerodrome intended for night operations. Aerodrome Beacon An aerodrome beacon is usually situated on top of the control tower or at an elevated position elsewhere on the aerodrome. It will be either a flashing green (yellow at a water aerodrome) and white light, or flashing white only. Identification Beacon An identification beacon may be provided at an aerodrome that is intended for use at night where the aerodrome cannot be easily identified from the air by other means. At a land aerodrome the identification beacon shall show flashing green characters (red at a military aerodrome), flashing published Morse code identification letters. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS Approach lighting systems are provided to enhance the ability of a pilot to visually acquire the runway at night or in low visibility. For an instrument runway the approach lighting is an essential part of the instrument system and can vary in complexity from a simple system consisting of a centre line and a cross bar, to the more modern 5 bar and centreline Calvert systems (named after the designer) and the highly complex CATII/III systems associated with precision instrument approaches.
  • 309. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-26 BARRETTES ICAO specifies standards for approach lighting based on the use of barrettes (or small bars). A barrette consists of a line of 4 or 5 closely spaced lights forming a small bar. SIMPLE APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM The system consists of a single light source centre line extending from the threshold of the runway along the approach path for 420 m. A single crossbar min 18 m wide and max 30 m wide is placed at a point 300 m from the threshold. The lights are fixed (not flashing) variable intensity white, showing towards an approaching aircraft. The centreline may be made up of barrettes not more than 3 m wide. Where physically practicable, a simple approach lighting system as shown below should be provided. The system may be used for a non precision instrument runway. Simple Approach Lighting System Simple Approach Lighting System Runway End Lights Threshold Lights Runway Edge Lights APAPI Centreline Crossbar
  • 310. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-27 PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY CATEGORY I The figure below shows a CAT I Calvert Approach Lighting system. It is similar to a NATO Cat I system differing only in the fact that the centre line is distance coded. This makes the system a Calvert system. It is otherwise known as 5 bar and centreline. The centreline must be exactly 900 m long. The system minima for CAT I is 200 ft which equates, on a 300 ft/nm glide path (5%), to a distance of ½ nm from the threshold (assuming the aircraft crosses the threshold at 50 ft). If the pilot is on glidepath and centreline, at system minima (the lowest possible DH) the aircraft will be over the approach lighting and the visual criteria to land should be obtained. The spacing between the crossbars is 150 m. The length of the crossbars reduces as the distance to the threshold decreases, but the pilot should see a constant width if the aircraft is on the glidepath. This gives the visual illusion of leading in to the aiming point. If the centreline is not 900 m long, CAT I operations may be limited. CAT I Calvert Lighting System CAT I Calvert Approach Lighting System Stopway Displaced Threshold Caution Zone PAPI Centreline Crossbars Starter Extension Aiming Point
  • 311. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-28 ICAO CAT I Approach Lighting System Centreline Barrettes Crossbar ICAO CAT I Barrette Centreline Approach Lighting System 300 m 900 m
  • 312. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-29 PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY CATEGORIES II AND III The approach lighting systems for CAT II/III operations are modification of the CAT I Calvert system and the CAT I ICAO system. The major difference is the addition of the supplementary lighting in the inner segment. CAT II/III operations are designed to give the pilot the best possible chance of landing the aeroplane. If after a high precision approach flown by the autopilot, the approach lighting is no better than CAT I, the investment in the upgraded ILS has been wasted. At system minima for CAT II (100 ft) the aircraft will be 300 m from the threshold and for CAT III where DH is specified, it will be less than 100 ft which will mean the aircraft is less than 300 m from the threshold. So the area where the lighting needs to be enhanced is the last 300 m, which is the inner segment. Effectively the standard system is the Calvert 5 bar and centreline with 150 m between bars, and the alternative system is the ICAO barrette system. The CAT II/III approach lighting is further supplemented with touchdown zone flood lighting. The diagrams below show both systems.
  • 313. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-30 CAT II/III Calvert Approach Lighting System Cat II/III Calvert Approach Lighting System PAPI COLOUR CODED CENTRELINE TOUCHDOWN ZONE FLOODLIGHTING THRESHOLD WING BARS SUPPLEMENTARY APPROACH LIGHTING
  • 314. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-31 CAT II/III ICAO Approach Lighting System Centreline Barrettes Crossbar ICAO CAT II/III Barrette Centreline Approach Lighting System 300 m Rippling Strobe Lights Wing Strobes
  • 315. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-32 PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR (PAPI AND ABBREVIATED PAPI) PAPIs are the latest generation of visual approach slope indicators which are used to give the pilot a visual indication of the vertical deviation from the nominal glide path. They are precision engineered optical devices which use narrow light beams and combinations of beams to indicate above, on or below the glide path. On auxiliary runways an abbreviated PAPI system may be used which gives basic information only. The indications from a PAPI system are shown below: 1. Above the glide path 2. Slightly above the glide path 3. On the glide path 4. Slightly below the glide path 5. Below the glide path
  • 316. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-33 APAPI The APAPI uses only two light sources and gives indication: Two white – above the glide path One white one red – on the glide path Two red – below the glide path MINIMUM EYE HEIGHT (MEHT) The aerodrome designer has to ensure that when an aircraft crosses the threshold of the runway that the wheels are not already on the ground. The indication that the pilot gets from the PAPI is the position of his eyes with respect to the glide path, not the rest of the aeroplane. Some aeroplanes have a considerable distance between the pilot eye height and the lowest extremity of the undercarriage and this must be catered for. On the ICAO aerodrome chart (published in the individual aerodrome section of the AD part of the AIP), beside the position of the PAPI will be a number called the MEHT. This is the distance between the lowest on glide path indication and the ground, when the pilot’s eye is over the threshold of the runway. Fig: Minimum Eye Height MEHT SPECIFICATION The normal MEHT is 50 ft. On a 300 ft/nm glide path this equates to 300 m distance, therefore the aiming point and the origin of the PAPI beams must be not less than 300 m from the threshold. Where large aeroplanes (B777; B747 and A380 etc.) use the aerodrome the MEHT is increased because of the greater distance between the pilot’s eye and the bottom of the main gear. At Heathrow, the MEHT is 70 ft. This requires the aiming point to be 400 m from the threshold. An alternative to moving the aiming point along the runway is to increase the glide path angle. The maximum permitted GP angle is 3.5°. Lowest ‘On GP’ indication Minimum Eye Height (MEHT) Gear to ground height less than MEHT
  • 317. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-34 RUNWAY LIGHTS RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS Edge lights are used on runways used at night or in low visibility operations (RVR less than 800 m). They are fixed (not flashing), white, variable in intensity and unidirectional (facing the approach direction) except where the runway is used for circling approaches in which case, they are omni-directional. For a CAT I runway, the last 600 m or 1/3 of the runway length, the edge lights are possibly yellow, indicating the proximity of the end of the runway. This is called a caution zone. RUNWAY THRESHOLD AND WING BARS Threshold lights are provided for runways with edge lights and additional wing bars where there is a displaced threshold. They are fixed, green, variable intensity, and unidirectional facing up the approach. RUNWAY END LIGHTS End lights are fitted to runways with edge lights. They are fixed, red, variable intensity, and are unidirectional facing along the runway. Where a stopway is created at the end of the runway all four sides of the stopway are outlined in red lights. RUNWAY CENTRELINE LIGHTS Centreline lights are required on CAT II/III runways. They are fixed, white, and variable in intensity, and are unidirectional showing towards the approach end of the runway. The last 300 m of the centreline may be red, and preceding 600 m alternating red/white. This acts as a caution zone indicating the proximity of the end of the runway. CIRCLING GUIDANCE LIGHTS These are for use where the existing runway or approach lights are inadequate and the runway is to be used for circling approaches. They consist of lights indicating the approach direction, the threshold and the orientation of the landing runway. They are fixed or flashing, with the only proviso that if they are flashing, they are to be white. RUNWAY LEAD IN LIGHTS Where it is felt necessary to give visual track guidance to a position where the pilot should be able to see the approach lighting, lead in lights are used. They consist of groups of not less than three flashing white lights (which may be augmented by fixed white lights). Automatically, the groups are illuminated sequentially; giving the impression of the lights ‘running’ towards the runway. This effect is known as a ‘running rabbit.’ TAXIWAY LIGHTING Taxiway lights are provided to give pilots guidance and information during taxiing to and from the runways at night or during low visibility operations (RVR less than 800 m). They consist of centreline lights, edge lights, guard lights, and stop lights at holding points. EDGE LIGHTS Taxiway edge lights are provided at the edges of holding bays, de/anti-icing facilities, aprons, and on taxiways without centreline lighting. In areas where additional lighting (stadium lighting on aprons) is adequate, edge lights may be dispensed with. Edge lights are fixed, variable intensity, blue, and omnidirectional.
  • 318. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-35 CENTRELINE LIGHTS These are provided on taxiways for use in RVR conditions less than 350 m. They are fixed, variable intensity, green, and are designed to be visible only from aeroplanes in the vicinity of the light. On exit taxiways from instrument runways, the lights may be alternating green/yellow from the centreline of the runway to a point where interference with radio navigation aids (ILS) is no longer a hazard. This point may be marked with a ‘runway vacated’ sign and is usually coincident with the runway holding point for aircraft taxiing in the opposite direction. STOP BARS Stop bars should be provided at taxiway intersections and holding points when it is necessary to supplement the markings and signs. They are to be provided where operations in RVR less than 350 m are conducted. They consist of a row of lights spaced at 3 m across the taxiway, fixed, variable intensity, and showing red in the direction of approaching traffic. The bar may be augmented by two additional elevated lights at each end of the bar (off of the taxiway) where snow may be a hazard. 27 CAT II D27 CAT IID Stop Bar with elevated extensions
  • 319. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-36 RUNWAY GUARD LIGHTS Runway guard lights are used to warn pilots of the proximity of a runway. They are used where operations in RVR less than 550 m are conducted and stop bars are not provided. There are two configurations: Configuration A and Configuration B. In both configurations, the lights are flashing yellow. In Configuration A, the lights of each pair flash alternately like the lights at a railway crossing. In Configuration B, adjacent lights flash alternately. Guard Lights A B
  • 320. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-37 Taxiway and Runway Lighting Taxiway intersection with centreline showing SMG direction to runway Stop Bars ILS/MLS Sensitive Area Guard Lights Rapid Exit Taxiway
  • 321. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-38 OBSTACLES Clearly anything that is constructed on or near an aerodrome is a potential hazard to aeroplanes. For that reason, SIDs and STARs route aircraft away from high ground and large man made obstacles. Closer to the aerodrome normal buildings, power lines, chimneys, and radio antennas become obstacles to aircraft as they descend for landing. Where these cannot be removed, they must be marked and lit to make their presence obvious to pilots. CLEARED STRIP As previously discussed, the cleared strip is created either side of the runway extending at least the width of the runway on either side. In this area no obstacles are permitted. The ILS glide path aerial and the localiser aerial are the only exceptions. Aeroplanes and vehicles are required to enter the cleared strip and these are also treated as obstacles, and are lit (or marked in the case of vehicles) to show that they are there. OBSTACLE IDENTIFICATION SURFACE (OIS) Extending from the extremity of the cleared strip at ground level, out to a radius of 15 km from the aerodrome reference point and up to a height of 150 m, is a complex surface known as the OIS. Any obstacle that penetrates the OIS is considered to be an aerodrome obstacle and is required to be lit and where necessary, marked. The OIS is referenced vertically to the aerodrome elevation, therefore on rising ground obstacles with less vertical extent may require marking when compared with obstacles on ground which is falling away from the datum height. Within the OIS, approach lanes and climb out lanes are defined by the aerodrome designer and the instrument procedure designer, where additional information about obstacles is required, for the determination of OCA/H and MOC. The OIS consists of four planes: the inner transition surface, the inner horizontal surface, the outer transition surface, and the outer horizontal surface. The inner horizontal surface extends to a radius of 3000 m from the thresholds of the runway which is less than 1800 m long, and 4000 m if the runway is 1800 m or more long. Obstacle Identification Surface (OIS) Datum Elevation 15 Km Strip Inner Transition Surface Inner Horizontal Surface Outer Transition Surface Outer Horizontal Surface 45 m 150 m
  • 322. Aerodromes Chapter 23 Air Law 23-39 OBSTACLES OUTSIDE THE OIS Any significant obstacle (over 150 m) which is considered to be a hazard to aviation outside of the OIS may be marked and lit to draw pilots’ attention to its presence. Such obstacles need to be unusual (high TV masts and very tall buildings) or be close to low level helicopter routes. Environmental issues are also considered when lighting and marking obstacles away from aerodromes. LIGHTING OF OBSTACLES Obstacles which are required to be lit because they penetrate the OIS are lit by one of three options: low, medium, or high intensity lights. Low intensity lights are steady (fixed) lights, whereas medium and high intensity are flashing. Low and medium intensity lights are either red or white (but the colour is never mixed on the same aerodrome obstacle) whereas high intensity are always white. The exception to mixed colour rule is where an obstacle is an aerodrome obstacle to two aerodromes, requiring high intensity for one aerodrome and medium for the other. In that case, when required the obstacle is lit as high intensity, and at other times with medium intensity. For obstacles 45 m or less that need to be lit, they are lit by one low intensity light at the top. Obstacles over 45 m are lit by one medium intensity light at the top and one low intensity light at 45 m above the datum. Other obstacles are lit at the top and then at 45 m intervals below. Where high intensity lights are fitted, they flash sequentially. Aerodrome obstacle lights are controlled by the aerodrome controller and either come on automatically, or are switched on with the normal runway/taxiway lighting. Obstacle lights 45m 90m 135m 150m Datum High Intensity Medium Intensity Low Intensity
  • 323. Chapter 23 Aerodromes Air Law23-40 MARKING OF VEHICLES Vehicles that are permitted on the movement area of an aerodrome are to be in two-way RTF communication with the aerodrome controller. They are also required to be either lit or marked. Normally, maintenance vehicles are painted a distinctive colour (yellow) and carry flashing yellow lights. Where a trailer is towed, the trailer has a low intensity obstacle light fitted. Vehicles that use the aerodrome infrequently may carry a red/white chequered flag. EMERGENCY VEHICLES Paint of a distinctive colour is required for crash/rescue vehicles. It is recommended that they are painted ‘day-glo’ yellowish green, or red. They carry flashing blue lights for use in an emergency and also the normal yellow lights for non emergency movement on the aerodrome. When responding to an emergency, emergency vehicles from outside civilian agencies show blue flashing lights. EMERGENCY SERVICES More than 80% of aircraft accidents occur on or within close proximity to an aerodrome. Aerodromes serving international commercial aviation are required to maintain facilities for the provision of a crash/rescue service. The inherent nature of aircraft operations makes fire the greatest hazard to loss of life and crash/rescue teams are trained to fight fires. The objective of the provision of a crash/rescue service is to save life. Once all the passengers of a crashed aircraft have been rescued, the fire will be allowed to burn itself out unless other aircraft and facilities are threatened. LEVEL OF PROTECTION The number of fire vehicles and crews are determined from a table of categories, based on the size of the biggest aircraft normally using the aerodrome. The categories are based on a. the length of the aircraft and b. the width of the fuselage. If the fuselage width is greater than the maximum for a category, the category is increased by 1. RESPONSE TIME It is imperative that the crash/rescue service responds promptly to incidents on the aerodrome. The required standard aims to achieve 2 minutes but not more than 3 minutes is required to the extremities of the aerodrome. The response time is decided when the first fire vehicle arrives at the scene and is capable of delivering fire retardant foam at half the rate required for the fire. In order to enhance response time, special routes may be provided on aerodromes to and from the fire stations. BIRD HAZARD Birds and aeroplanes share the air but birds are a constant hazard to aeroplanes at low level especially where aircraft are at the most vulnerable, take-off, and landing. Aerodromes are attractive to birds, especially migratory species. The short grass gives the birds excellent visibility and the maximum warning of the approach of predators. Birds which have flocked together present special hazards to aircraft as multiple bird strikes can obscure windows and block air intakes. Aerodromes are required to maintain a bird control unit and also to publish information on known migratory patterns of birds that frequent the aerodrome and surrounding areas. ICAO operates the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) designed to collect and disseminate information concerning bird strikes.
  • 324. Air Law 24-1 GENERAL It is an unfortunate fact that international commercial aviation is now a target for terrorism and other political malcontents. In order to try and prevent, or at least make it too difficult, for terrorists to plant explosive devices on aircraft, or to smuggle on board weapons with which to take hostages or overpower the crew, aviation security measures have been developed and enforced. You have been subjected to security measures involving search, scanning, and inspection all of which are effective methods of ensuring that unwanted objects or explosives are not permitted anywhere near the aircraft. Each ICAO state is required to develop, implement, and maintain a national civil aviation security program. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of aviation security is to safeguard international civil aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference. The safety of passengers, crew, ground personnel, and the general public are the primary objective of aviation security policy. NATIONAL ORGANISATION ICAO contracting states are required to establish a national civil aviation security programme to keep under constant review the level of threat within its territory taking into account the international situation, and adjust relevant elements of its national civil aviation security programme accordingly. It is also to ensure the establishment of an airport security programme, adequate to the needs of international traffic, for each airport serving international civil aviation, and require operators providing service from that state to implement a security programme appropriate to meet the requirements of the national civil aviation security programme of that state. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION Each state is required to co-operate with other states in order to adapt their respective national civil aviation security programmes as necessary. The states should make available to other states, on request, a written version of the appropriate parts of its national civil aviation security programme; include in its bilateral agreements on air transport a clause related to aviation security; and ensure that requests from other states for special security measures in respect of a specific flight or specified flights by operators, as far as practicable, are met.
  • 325. Chapter 24 Aviation Security Air Law24-2 PREVENTATIVE SECURITY MEASURES Each state must establish measures to prevent weapons, explosives or any other dangerous devices which may be used to commit an act of unlawful interference, the carriage or bearing of which is not authorized, from being introduced, by any means whatsoever, on board an aircraft engaged in international civil aviation. In applying this standard, special attention must be paid to the threat posed by explosive devices concealed in, or using electric, electronic or battery- operated items carried as hand baggage and/or in checked baggage. CARRIAGE OF LEGAL WEAPONS States should ensure that the carriage of weapons on board aircraft, by law enforcement officers and other authorized persons acting in the performance of their duties, requires special authorisation in accordance with the laws of the state involved. States should also ensure that the carriage of weapons in other cases is allowed o