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Auto flight part 4

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  • 1. MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 2. THIS IS PART FOUR OF THE AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM. IN THIS MODULE, WE WILL DISCUSS THEAUTO APPROACH, AND APPROACH MANUAL MODES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 3. TO BEGIN, THE AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED IN THE MANUAL MODE, AND THE AIRPLANE ISFLYING A HEADING OF 3 1 5 DEGREES. ALTITUDE HOLD IS OPTIONAL. (pause2) TO USE THEAUTO APPROACH MODE, SELECT THE DESIRED ILS FREQUENCY ON THE CAPTAINS NAVRECEIVER. THEN SET THE INBOUND ILS FINAL APPROACH COURSE IN THE CAPTAINS HSI.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 4. THE AIRPLANE IS NOW in THIS POSITION. NEXT, PREPARE TO INTERCEPT THE LOCALIZER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 5. SET []IN THE INTERCEPT HEADING OF 045, AND SELECT AUTO APPROACH. OBSERVE THE VOR-LOC, AND GLIDESLOPE ANNUNCIATORS ILLUMINATE AMBER. (pause2) THE AIRPLANE MAY BEMANEUVERED MANUALLY WITH CONTROL WHEEL STEERING, OR, BY POSITIONING THE HEADINGSWITCH TO HEADING SELECT. THE AIRPLANE WILL AUTOMATICALLY TURN TO THE INTERCEPTHEADING. IN HEADING SELECT, THE MAXIMUM BANK ANGLE IS 25 DEGREES, AND THE ROLLCHANNEL IS IN THE HIGH DETENT FORCE LEVEL. (pause2) RECALL THAT HIGH DETENT IS ASAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT INADVERTENT DISENGAGEMENT OF A SUBMODE. THIS MEANSTHAT THE PILOT WOULD HAVE TO APPLY IN EXCESS OF EIGHT POUNDS FORCE TO THECONTROL WHEEL TO DISENGAGE THE HEADING SELECT SUBMODE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 6. AT 2 DOTS DEVIATION ON THE HSI, THE LOCALIZER COURSE IS CAPTURED. THE HEADINGSWITCH TRIPS TO THE CENTER POSITION AND THE VOR-LOC ANNUNCIATOR ILLUMINATESGREEN. THE ROLL CHANNEL CONTINUES IN HIGH DETENT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 7. ONCE ON THE INBOUND COURSE, THE NEXT STEP IS TO CAPTURE THE GLIDE SLOPE.SELECT ALTITUDE HOLD. THIS IS NOT A REQUIREMENT BEFORE THE AUTOPILOT WILLCAPTURE THE GLIDE SLOPE, BUT IT REDUCES CREW WORKLOAD AND IS THE USUALPROCEDURE. IN ALTITUDE HOLD, THE PITCH CHANNEL IS IN THE HIGH LEVEL, EIGHTEENPOUND, FORCE DETENT. AGAIN, THIS HELPS TO PREVENT INADVERTENTDISENGAGEMENT. (pause2) THE WHITE GLIDE SLOPE INDICATOR ON THE LEFT OF THE HSIMOVES DOWN AS THE AIRPLANE FLIES INTO THE GLIDE SLOPE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 8. AT ONE THIRD OF A DOT DEVIATION ON THE CAPTAINS HSI, THE AUTOPILOTAUTOMATICALLY CAPTURES THE GLIDE SLOPE. THE GLIDE SLOPE ANNUNCIATORILLUMINATES GREEN AND ALTITUDE HOLD TRIPS [`]off. THE AUTOPILOT THEN TRACKS THEGLIDE SLOPE BEAM. AFTER CAPTURE, THE PITCH CHANNEL CONTINUES IN HIGH DETENT.THERE IS NO PRIORITY IN LOCALIZER OR GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE. THEREFORE IT ISPOSSIBLE, BUT NOT DESIRABLE, TO FLY THE GLIDE SLOPE WITHOUT BEING CAPTURED ONTHE LOCALIZER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 9. AT FIFTEEN HUNDRED FEET ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE, AS INDICATED ON THE LOW RANGERADIO ALTIMETER, A FEATURE CALLED GAIN PROGRAMMING BEGINS. DURING THE FINALPHASES OF THE APPROACH, GAIN PROGRAMMING REDUCES AUTOPILOT SENSITIVITY OFTHE LOCALIZER AND GLIDE SLOPE SIGNALS. DURING GLIDE SLOPE DESCENT FROMFIFTEEN HUNDRED FEET DOWN TO ONE HUNDRED FEET, LOCALIZER SENSITIVITY ISGRADUALLY REDUCED FROM 100 PERCENT TO FIFTY PERCENT, AND GLIDE SLOPESENSITIVITY IS GRADUALLY REDUCED FROM 100 PERCENT DOWN TO ZERO PERCENT AT 50FEET.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 10. IF THE RADIO ALTIMETER IS INOPERATIVE, GAIN PROGRAMMING BEGINS AT GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE. THEGAIN PROGRAMMING IS ALMOST THE SAME, EXCEPT IT IS TIME BASED THROUGHOUT A ONE HUNDREDAND FIFTY SECOND PERIOD, AND THE GLIDE SLOPE SENSITIVITY IS REDUCED TO AND MAINTAINED AT 20PERCENT RATHER THAN ZERO. WITH AN INOPERATIVE RADIO ALTIMETER, AND IF THE GLIDE SLOPE ISCAPTURED MORE THAN FIFTEEN HUNDRED FEET ABOVE GROUND LEVEL, THE MODE SELECTOR SHOULDBE ROTATED MOMENTARILY TO THE LEFT, BACK TO THE MANUAL POSITION, AT FIFTEEN HUNDRED FEETABOVE THE AIRPORT ALTITUDE, AND THEN BACK TO AUTO APPROACH. (pause2) THIS REINSTATES THETIME BASED GAIN PROGRAMMING, AND IS AN IMPORTANT REQUIREMENT BECAUSE IF THIS IS NOT DONE,AND THE GLIDE SLOPE SENSITIVITY IS REDUCED TO 20 PERCENT, THE AUTOPILOT WILL NO LONGER BECAPABLE OF MAKING ACCEPTABLE CORRECTIONS TO THE GLIDE SLOPE, BUT THE A-P ANNUNCIATORWILL STILL INDICATE A GREEN GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 11. THE AUTOPILOT REMAINS ON THE LOCALIZER COURSE AND GLIDE SLOPE ANDAUTOMATICALLY COMPENSATES FOR WIND DRIFT. THE VOR-LOC AND GLIDE SLOPEANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS ARE GREEN THROUGHOUT THE APPROACH.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 12. IN THE EVENT A GO-AROUND IS REQUIRED, PRESS THE DISENGAGE SWITCH ON EITHERPILOTS CONTROL WHEEL. THE MODE SELECTOR REVERTS TO MANUAL, (pause2) THEENGAGE SWITCHES MOVE TO DISENGAGED, AND THE ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS EXTINGUISH.HOWEVER, A GO-AROUND MAY BE PERFORMED IN C-W-S BY EXERTING MORE than 18POUNDS FORCE HIGH DETENT, CAUSING THE MODE SELECTOR TO REVERT TO MANUAL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 13. IN MANUAL, PILOT C-W-S INPUTS TO THE AUTOPILOT CONTROL THE AIRPLANE ATTITUDEIN PITCH & ROLL. HOWEVER, THE PITCH []up EFFECT OF GO AROUND THRUST AND FLAPRETRACTION WILL ALMOST ALWAYS RESULT IN ILLUMINATION OF THE STAB OUT OF TRIMLIGHT BECAUSE THE AUTOPILOT TRIM RATE IS NOT FAST ENOUGH TO KEEP THESTABILIZER IN TRIM WITH THE ELEVATOR. FOR THIS REASON, ALMOST ALL MISSEDAPPROACHES ARE DONE MANUALLY, WITH THE AUTOPILOT DISENGAGED. THE STAB OUTOF TRIM LIGHT WILL BE DISCUSSED IN MORE DETAIL LATER IN THIS MODULE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 14. THE MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE MODE CAPTURES THE GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVE OR BELOW. TO SELECTMANUAL GLIDE SLOPE, THE MODE SELECTOR MUST BE PRESSED IN AND TURNED. WHEN SELECTED, THEGLIDE SLOPE ANNUNCIATOR LIGHT ILLUMINATES GREEN. THE AIRPLANE IMMEDIATELY PITCHES []DOWNAT A RATE OF SEVEN HUNDRED FEET PER MINUTE, FOR TEN SECONDS. THIS HAPPENS IF THE AIRPLANEIS EITHER ABOVE OR BELOW THE GLIDE SLOPE. AFTER GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE, THE AUTOPILOTOPERATES THE SAME AS IN THE AUTO APPROACH MODE. TO AVOID ABRUPT PITCH MANEUVERS, IF THEAIRPLANE IS MORE THAN ONE HALF DOT ABOVE OR BELOW THE GLIDE SLOPE BEAM, DO NOT SELECTMANUAL GLIDE SLOPE. BECAUSE OF THE EXCESSIVE PITCH CHANGES, EVEN WHEN WITHIN ONE HALFDOT OF THE GLIDE SLOPE, THIS MODE IS SELDOM USED. (pause2) INSTEAD, THE NORMAL PROCEDURE ISTO SELECT ALTITUDE HOLD [`]off, AND USE C-W-S TO FLY THE AIRPLANE SMOOTHLY INTO GLIDE SLOPECAPTURE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 15. B IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 16. WHEN MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE IS SELECTED, THE AUTOPILOT WILL IMMEDIATELY CAUSETHE AIRPLANE TO PITCH []DOWN AT A RATE OF SEVEN HUNDRED FEET PER SECOND, FORTEN SECONDS. THIS WILL OCCUR WHETHER THE AIRPLANE [`]IS [`]ABOVE, OR BELOW, THEGLIDESLOPE. (pause2) ANSWER C REFLECTS THE ALTITUDE WHERE GAIN PROGRAMMINGBEGINS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 17. RECALL THAT PITCH TRIM CHANGES ARE MADE WITH THE MAIN ELECTRIC TRIM SWITCHON THE CONTROL WHEELS. AS THE AIRPLANE IS TRIMMED, THE MANUAL TRIM WHEEL ONTHE CONTROL STAND ROTATES, AND THE STABILIZER TRIM LIGHT ILLUMINATES WHILETHE SWITCH IS PRESSED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 18. WHEN THE AUTOPILOT PITCH CHANNEL IS ENGAGED, CONTROL COLUMN PITCH INPUTSCAUSE AUTOMATIC TRIM CHANGES. HOWEVER, THE RATE OF AUTOPILOT TRIM ISAPPROXIMATELY HALF THAT OF MAIN ELECTRIC TRIM WITH THE FLAPS DOWN, AND ONLYONE FIFTEENTH WITH THE FLAPS []up. AUTOPILOT TRIM IS INDICATED ONLY BY ROTATIONOF THE MANUAL TRIM WHEELS. THE STABILIZER TRIM LIGHT ON THE CONTROL STANDDOES NOT ILLUMINATE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 19. A STABILIZER OUT OF TRIM LIGHT IS LOCATED ON THE PILOTS CENTER INSTRUMENTPANEL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 20. IN THE EVENT A C-W-S PITCH INPUT IS MADE, AND THE MANUAL TRIM WHEELS DO NOT ROTATE, ORTHE TRIM RATE OF THE AUTOPILOT IS NOT FAST ENOUGH, THE STABILIZER OUT OF TRIM LIGHTILLUMINATES. BECAUSE THE AUTOPILOT TRIM RATE IS SLOWER THAN THE MAIN ELECTRIC TRIMRATE, LARGE PITCH CHANGES MAY MOMENTARILY ILLUMINATE THE LIGHT UNTIL THE STABILIZERREPOSITIONS TO THE NEW TRIM COMMAND. SO LONG AS THE STABILIZER IS TRIMMING IN THECORRECT DIRECTION NO ACTION IS REQUIRED, BUT THE CONTROL COLUMN SHOULD BE GUARDED.HOWEVER, IF THE STABILIZER IS NOT TRIMMING, OR IS TRIMMING IN THE WRONG DIRECTION, THECONTROL COLUMN SHOULD BE HELD FIRMLY WHILE THE AUTOPILOT IS DISENGAGED. THE LIGHT ISDEACTIVATED WHEN THE AUTOPILOT ELEVATOR CHANNEL IS DISENGAGED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 21. C IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 22. IF THE LIGHT ILLUMINATES, AND THE TRIM WHEEL IS NOT MOVING, OR IS MOVING IN THEWRONG DIRECTION, THE PILOT SHOULD HOLD THE CONTROL COLUMN FIRMLY,DISENGAGE THE AUTOPILOT, AND TRIM THE AIRPLANE WITH THE MAIN ELECTRIC TRIM.THE AUTOPILOT STABILIZER TRIM IS SLOWER THAN THE MAIN ELECTRIC TRIM RATE.LARGE PITCH CHANGES MAY MOMENTARILY ILLUMINATE THE STABILIZER OUT OF TRIMLIGHT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 23. AN AUTOPILOT DISENGAGE SWITCH IS LOCATED ON EACH CONTROL WHEEL. BOTH THEELEVATOR AND AILERON CHANNELS DISENGAGE WHEN THE SWITCH IS PRESSED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 24. AUTOPILOT DISENGAGED LIGHTS ARE LOCATED ON BOTH PILOTS PANELS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 25. ILLUMINATION OF THE AUTOPILOT DISENGAGE LIGHTS IS A WARNING THAT ONE OR BOTHCHANNELS HAVE DISENGAGED. THE LIGHTS FLASH WHEN THE AUTOPILOT IS AUTOMATICALLYDISENGAGED, SUCH AS WHEN THE COMPASS OR VERTICAL GYRO TRANSFER SWITCHES ON THEOVERHEAD PANEL ARE REPOSITIONED TO CHANGE THESE INPUTS TO THE AUTOPILOT. (pause2)THE LIGHTS WILL ALSO FLASH IF EITHER CHANNEL SWITCH IS MANUALLY SELECTED TODISENGAGED. THE LIGHTS MAY BE EXTINGUISHED AND RESET BY PRESSING EITHER DISENGAGESWITCH, OR PRESSING EITHER DISENGAGE LIGHT. THE LIGHTS ALSO FLASH WHEN THE PILOTPRESSES THE DISENGAGE SWITCH, AND EXTINGUISH WHEN THE DISENGAGE SWITCH ISRELEASED. IF THE LIGHTS ILLUMINATE STEADY, A TEST SWITCH IN THE E AND E COMPARTMENTHAS BEEN LEFT []on. THE TEST SWITCH MUST BE TURNED [`]off TO EXTINGUISH THE LIGHT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 26. THE AUTOPILOT AILERON AND ELEVATOR ENGAGE SWITCHES AUTOMATICALLYDISENGAGE UNDER THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS: FIRST, MOVING THE HYDRAULICSYSTEM SELECT SWITCH TO AN INOP POSITION; SECOND, LOSS OR TRANSFER OF THEVERTICAL GYRO; THIRD, EITHER PILOT PRESSING THE DISENGAGE SWITCH ON THECONTROL WHEEL; FOURTH, MOVING THE SYSTEM B FLIGHT CONTROL SWITCH TO [`]off ORSTANDBY RUDDER, AND FIFTH, LOSS OF AIRSPEED SIGNALS FROM THE AIR DATACOMPUTER. THE DISENGAGE LIGHTS WILL FLASH FOR ANY OF THESE CONDITIONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 27. NOW, LETS DISCUSS THE THREE CONDITIONS THAT WILL DISENGAGE ONLY THE AILERONENGAGE SWITCH. THE FIRST IS TO MANUALLY MOVE THE AILERON SWITCH TO THEDISENGAGE POSITION. THE SECOND CONDITION IS LOSS OR TRANSFER OF THE COMPASSSYSTEM. THE THIRD CONDITION IS LOSS OF EITHER AC OR DC ELECTRICAL POWER TO THEROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER. WHENEVER THE AILERON CHANNEL DISENGAGES, THEDISENGAGE LIGHTS FLASH UNTIL THEY ARE RESET.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 28. THE ELEVATOR ENGAGE SWITCH TRIPS TO THE DISENGAGED POSITION AND THE LIGHTSFLASH IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS: FIRST, MOVING THE SWITCH TO THE DISENGAGEPOSITION. SECOND, TRIMMING THE ELEVATOR WITH THE STABILIZER TRIM SWITCH ON THECONTROL WHEEL. THIRD, MOVING THE AUTOPILOT STABILIZER TRIM SWITCH FROMNORMAL TO CUTOUT (pause2) THE FOURTH CONDITION IS LOSS OF AC OR DC POWER TOTHE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 29. C IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 30. PRESSING EITHER DISENGAGE LIGHT OR EITHER PILOTS DISENGAGE SWITCH WILLEXTINGUISH AND RESET THE DISENGAGE LIGHTS. NOW, LETS LOOK AT CONDITIONS THATWILL CAUSE THE AUTOPILOT TO AUTOMATICALLY REVERT BACK TO THE MANUAL MODE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 31. AS A SAFETY FEATURE, THE AUTOPILOT WILL TRIP FROM THE THREE RADIO MODES, THATIS VOR-LOC, AUTO APPROACH, OR MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE, BACK TO THE MANUAL MODEUNDER SEVERAL CONDITIONS. FIRST, MOVING THE CONTROL WHEEL THROUGH THE HIGHDETENT LEVEL AFTER VOR OR LOCALIZER CAPTURE (pause2) OR MOVING THE CONTROLCOLUMN THROUGH THE HIGH DETENT LEVEL AFTER GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE, WILL CAUSETHE MODE SELECTOR TO TRIP BACK TO MANUAL. THE APD LIGHTS EXTINGUISH WHENTHE MODE SELECTOR TRIPS TO MANUAL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 32. THE FOLLOWING ACTIONS ALSO TRIP THE MODE SELECTOR TO THE MANUAL POSITIONFROM EITHER AUTO APPROACH OR MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE. TRANSFER OF THENAVIGATION RADIO (pause2) CHANGING THE ILS FREQUENCY (pause2) SELECTING A VORFREQUENCY (pause2) OR, PERFORMING AN ILS TEST WITH AN ILS FREQUENCY SELECTED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 33. WITH THE MODE SELECTOR IN EITHER VOR-LOC OR AUTO APPROACH, AND AN ILSFREQUENCY TUNED; SELECTING THE TURBULENCE SUB-MODE WILL TRIP THE MODESELECTOR TO MANUAL. THE LAST CONDITION THAT WILL TRIP THE MODE SELECTOR TOMANUAL IS THE LOSS OF THE ALTITUDE SIGNAL FROM THE AIR DATA COMPUTER WHILE INTHE AUTO APPROACH OR MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE MODES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 34. C IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 35. THE MODE SELECTOR WILL TRIP TO MANUAL IF THE PILOT TRANSFERS VHF RADIOINPUTS, CHANGES THE ILS FREQUENCY, OR PERFORMS AN ILS TEST.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 36. YOU SHOULD BE AWARE THAT AFTER VOR, OR LOCALIZER GLIDE SLOPE CAPTURE, A FAILURE OFTHE GROUND NAVIGATION TRANSMITTER OR THE AIRPLANE NAV RECEIVER WILL NOT CAUSE THEAUTOPILOT TO CHANGE FROM THE CAPTURE MODE. WHEN SUCH A FAILURE OF A NAVIGATIONSIGNAL OCCURS, THE AUTOPILOT GOES INTO A MEMORY MODE OF OPERATION AND THEANNUNCIATOR LIGHT REMAINS GREEN. THE AUTOPILOT WILL CONTINUE ON THE FLIGHT PATHTHAT EXISTED AT THE MOMENT OF FAILURE. OF COURSE, THE PILOT WILL HAVE NUMEROUSWARNING FLAGS DISPLAYED ON HIS FLIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL, BUT THERE IS NO AUTOMATICCHANGE FROM THE AUTOPILOT CAPTURE MODE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 37. THIS CONCLUDES THE AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM FOR THE BOEING 737.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 38. RETURN TO MENURETURN TO MENUMENU PRINCIPAL