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Auto flight part 2

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  • 1. MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 2. THE AUTOPILOT CONTROLS THE AIRPLANE ABOUT THE ROLL AXIS USING THE AILERONSAND SPOILERS, AND THE PITCH AXIS USING THE ELEVATOR AND STABILIZER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 3. THE AUTOPILOT ASSISTS THE PILOT IN CONTROLLING THE AIRPLANE DURING THE CLIMB,CRUISE, AND DESCENT-APPROACH PHASES OF FLIGHT. THIS RESULTS IN A REDUCTION OFCOCKPIT WORKLOAD AND A CORRESPONDING REDUCTION IN FLIGHT CREW FATIGUE.(pause2) LETS IDENTIFY THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 4. THE AUTOPILOT USES ELECTRONIC REFERENCES FOR ROLL AND PITCH CONTROL. THEROLL REFERENCE IS FROM THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER, AND THE PITCH REFERENCEIS FROM THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER. BOTH ARE LOCATED IN THE E AND ECOMPARTMENT OF THE AIRPLANE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 5. THE ROLL AND PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTERS ARE PROGRAMMED FROM THE COCKPITUSING THE AUTOPILOT CONTROL MODULE. THIS MODULE IS LOCATED ON THE LIGHTSHIELD.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 6. THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER SENDS SIGNALS TO THE AILERON POWER CONTROL UNITTO REPOSITION THE AILERONS AND SPOILERS. THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER SENDSCONTROL SIGNALS TO THE ELEVATOR POWER CONTROL UNIT TO REPOSITION THEELEVATOR FOR REQUIRED PITCH CHANGES. BOTH OF THESE COMPUTERS RECEIVEINPUTS FROM OTHER AIRPLANE SUBSYSTEMS FOR PROPER OPERATION. (pause4) LETSEXAMINE THESE SUBSYSTEMS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 7. THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER RECEIVES INPUTS FROM THE COMPASS SYSTEM,VERTICAL GYRO AND AIR DATA COMPUTER. MANUAL CONTROL INPUTS ARE MADE BYPOSITIONING THE CONTROL WHEEL. NAVIGATIONAL RADIOS ARE ALSO REFERENCEDWHEN IN A NAVIGATION MODE. THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER IS PROGRAMMED BY THEAUTOPILOT CONTROL MODULE. A ROLL CONTROL SIGNAL REPOSITIONS THE AILERONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 8. THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER RECEIVES INPUTS FROM THE VERTICAL GYRO AND AIRDATA COMPUTER. MANUAL CONTROL INPUTS ARE MADE BY POSITIONING THE CONTROLCOLUMN. IN NAVIGATION MODES, THE RADIO ALTIMETER AND VHF NAV RADIOS ARE ALSOREFERENCED. THE PITCH CHANNEL IS ALSO PROGRAMMED BY THE AUTOPILOT CONTROLMODULE. A PITCH CONTROL SIGNAL WILL REPOSITION THE ELEVATOR. (pause4) NOW, ABRIEF OVERVIEW OF AUTOPILOT PROGRAMMING AND FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 9. AUTOPILOT SYSTEM PROGRAMMING IS ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE AUTOPILOT CONTROLMODULE LOCATED ON THE COCKPIT LIGHT SHIELD.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 10. BEFORE ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT, THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SELECT SWITCH MUST BEIN THE B POSITION. THIS IS AN ELECTRICAL INTERLOCK PERMITTING THE AUTOPILOT TOBE ENGAGED. IF THE SYSTEM SELECT SWITCH IS POSITIONED TO INOP, IT IS NOTPOSSIBLE TO MOVE THE AILERON AND ELEVATOR SWITCHES TO ENGAGED.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 11. THE AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED BY MOVING THE AILERON AND ELEVATOR SWITCHES TOENGAGED. THEY ARE MAGNETICALLY HELD IN THAT POSITION AND ARE SPRING LOADEDTO DISENGAGED. THE AILERON AND ELEVATOR MAY BE ENGAGED SIMULTANEOUSLY ORINDEPENDENTLY. THERE IS NO ENGAGEMENT PRIORITY.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 12. THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 13. THERE IS NO ENGAGEMENT PRIORITY. AILERON AND ELEVATOR SWITCHES MAY BEENGAGED INDEPENDENTLY OR SIMULTANEOUSLY. (pause4) NOW, LETS DISCUSS THEAUTOPILOT MODE SELECTOR.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 14. THE MODE SELECTOR IS SPRING LOADED TO MANUAL. THE MANUAL MODE IS USED TOMANEUVER THE AIRPLANE IN PITCH AND ROLL. THE AUTOPILOT MAY BE CONTROLLED BYTHE CONTROL WHEEL AND COLUMN. THIS IS CALLED C-W-S, OR CONTROL WHEEL STEERING.TO CLIMB OR DESCEND IN THE MANUAL MODE, POSITION THE CONTROL COLUMN TO ACHIEVEDESIRED AIRPLANE PITCH ATTITUDE. WHEN THE PRESSURE IS RELEASED, THE CONTROLCOLUMN RETURNS TO NEUTRAL AND THE AIRPLANE MAINTAINS PITCH ATTITUDE.TO BANK THE AIRPLANE, ROTATE THE CONTROL WHEEL AND RELEASE WHEN THE DESIREDBANK ANGLE IS REACHED. THE AIRPLANE MAINTAINS THIS ANGLE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 15. IN THE VOR-LOC MODE, THE AUTOPILOT MANEUVERS THE AIRPLANE USING INPUTS FROMTHE VHF NAV RECEIVER TO CAPTURE AND TRACK VOR RADIALS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 16. THE AUTO APPROACH MODE IS USED TO MANEUVER THE AIRPLANE DURING PRECISIONILS APPROACHES. AUTO APPROACH USES VHF NAV LOCALIZER AND GLIDE SLOPE INPUTSTO TRACK THE LOCALIZER COURSE AND THE GLIDE SLOPE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 17. THE MANUAL GLIDE SLOPE MODE IS USED TO CAPTURE THE GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVEOR BELOW, OR TO RECAPTURE THE GLIDE SLOPE IN THE EVENT THE AUTOPILOTDISENGAGES DURING AN AUTO APPROACH.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 18. C IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 19. THE MODE SELECTOR IS SPRING LOADED TO THE MANUAL POSITION, AND SOLENOIDHELD BY ELECTRICAL INTERLOCKS IN THE OTHER POSITIONS. INTERRUPTION OF ANYREQUIRED ELECTRICAL INTERLOCK CAUSES THE MODE SELECTOR TO TRIP OR SPRINGLOAD TO THE MANUAL POSITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 20. THE HEADING SWITCH SELECTS THE HEADING REFERENCE FOR THE AUTOPILOT. THEHEADING SWITCH IS A THREE POSITION SWITCH, SPRING LOADED TO THE CENTERPOSITION.ALTHOUGH NOT LABELED, THE CENTER POSITION IS REFERRED TO AS HEADING HOLD.THE SWITCH IS MAGNETICALLY HELD IN HEADING [`]OFF OR HEADING SELECT.INTERLOCKS MUST BE COMPLETED FOR THE SWITCH TO REMAIN IN EITHER OF THESEPOSITIONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 21. WITH THE SWITCH IN THE CENTER, OR HEADING HOLD POSITION, AND THE BANK ANGLELESS THAN FIVE DEGREES, THE AIRPLANE WILL ROLL WINGS LEVEL WHEN PRESSURE ONTHE CONTROL WHEEL IS RELEASED. THE AIRPLANE WILL MAINTAIN THE HEADING AT THEPOINT OF WINGS LEVEL. WHEN THE BANK ANGLE IS GREATER THAN FIVE DEGREES, THEAIRPLANE MAINTAINS THIS BANK ANGLE UNTIL CHANGED BY CONTROL WHEEL STEERING.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 22. IN HEADING [`]OFF. THE AIRPLANE MAINTAINS ANY DESIRED BANK ANGLE BETWEEN ZEROAND THIRTY-TWO DEGREES. THE HEADING [`]OFF POSITION MAY ONLY BE SELECTEDWHILE OPERATING IN THE MANUAL MODE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 23. THE HEADING SELECT POSITION IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE HEADING SELECTORON THE CAPTAINS HSI. ROTATE THE HEADING SELECTOR TO THE DESIRED HEADING ANDTHEN POSITION THE HEADING SWITCH TO HEADING SELECT. THE AIRPLANE WILL TURN TOAND MAINTAIN THE SELECTED HEADING. IN HEADING SELECT, THE AIRPLANE ALWAYSFOLLOWS THE HEADING CURSOR. FURTHER HEADING CHANGES MAY BE MADE BYROTATING THE HEADING SELECTOR. THE HEADING SWITCH REMAINS SOLENOID HELD INTHE HEADING SELECT POSITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 24. A IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 25. THE AIRPLANE WILL REMAIN IN A THREE DEGREES BANK ANGLE. IF OPERATING INHEADING HOLD, ANSWER B, ROLL WINGS LEVEL, WOULD BE CORRECT. (pause2) IFOPERATING IN HEADING SELECT, ANSWER C, MAINTAIN HEADING, WOULD BE CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 26. THE PITCH MODE SELECTOR IS AVAILABLE IN ALL MODES OF AUTOPILOT OPERATION,AND PROGRAMS AIRPLANE PITCH CONTROL. THE SELECTOR IS MAGNETICALLY HELD INTURBULENCE, OR ALTITUDE HOLD, AND IS SPRING LOADED TO [`]OFF. IN THE [`]OFFPOSITION, PITCH ATTITUDE IS CONTROLLED BY CONTROL WHEEL STEERING.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 27. POSITIONING THE PITCH MODE SELECTOR TO ALTITUDE HOLD DIRECTS THE AIRPLANE TOCAPTURE AND MAINTAIN THE ALTITUDE AT THE TIME OF SWITCH ACTUATION. AFTERALTITUDE HOLD IS ENGAGED, THE AIRPLANE WILL BRIEFLY CONTINUE ITS DESCENT ORCLIMB, AND THEN RETURN TO THE ALTITUDE AT TIME OF ENGAGEMENT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 28. WHEN OPERATING IN TURBULENT AIR, THE AUTOPILOT CAN CORRECT FOR AIRPLANEOSCILLATION. IN THE TURBULENCE POSITION, THE AUTOPILOT CONTROL INPUTS AREREDUCED SO THAT ATTITUDE CORRECTIONS ARE SOFTENED. THE TURBULENCE POSITIONMAY BE USED IN MANUAL OR, WITH A VOR FREQUENCY SELECTED, IN THE VOR-LOC MODE.THE DESIRED AIRPLANE ALTITUDE MUST BE MAINTAINED BY CONTROL WHEEL STEERINGPITCH INPUTS BY THE PILOT. AUTOPILOT ALTITUDE HOLD IS NOT AVAILABLE IN THE TURBSELECTION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 29. THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 30. WITH THE PITCH MODE SELECTOR IN ALTITUDE HOLD THE AUTOPILOT WILL MAINTAIN, ORCAPTURE AND MAINTAIN, THE DESIRED ALTITUDE. AUTOPILOT INPUTS ARE SOFTENEDIN THE TURBULENCE POSITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 31. YOU WILL RECALL THAT THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER RECEIVES INPUTS FROMVARIOUS AIRPLANE SUBSYSTEMS. LETS LOOK AT EACH OF THESE IN DETAIL.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 32. THE COMPASS SYSTEM DRIVING THE FIRST OFFICERS RMI PROVIDES HEADING INPUTS TOTHE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER. THIS HEADING REFERENCE IS USED WHEN THEAUTOPILOT IS IN HEADING HOLD, OR HEADING SELECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 33. THE VERTICAL GYRO SUPPLYING THE CAPTAINS ADI PROVIDES AN ATTITUDE REFERENCEFOR THE WINGS LEVELING AND ATTITUDE HOLD FEATURES OF THE AUTOPILOT. THEVERTICAL GYRO INPUTS PROVIDE CONSTANT ATTITUDE INFORMATION TO THE ROLLATTITUDE PROGRAMMED BY THE HEADING SWITCH.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 34. THE ADC PROVIDES AIRSPEED INFORMATION TO THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER FOR ALLMODES OF AUTOPILOT OPERATION. LOW AIRSPEEDS REQUIRE MORE AILERONDEFLECTION THAN HIGH AIRSPEEDS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 35. THE CONTROL WHEEL IS USED TO MAKE MANUAL AUTOPILOT CONTROL INPUTS FORAIRPLANE MANEUVERING. AS THE PILOT POSITIONS THE CONTROL WHEEL, AMECHANICAL INPUT IS MADE TO A FORCE TRANSDUCER. THIS TRANSDUCER CONVERTSTHE AMOUNT AND RATE OF MECHANICAL INPUT INTO A PROPORTIONAL ELECTRICALSIGNAL FOR THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER. THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER THENSENDS A CONTROL SIGNAL TO REPOSITION THE AILERONS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 36. ILS LOCALIZER AND VOR SIGNALS ARE RECEIVED BY THE VHF NAV RECEIVER THATSUPPLIES THE CAPTAINS FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS AND ARE SENT TO THE ROLL CHANNELCOMPUTER. THE COMPUTER SENDS CONTROL SIGNALS TO MANEUVER THE AIRPLANE ASPROGRAMMED IN THE NAVIGATION MODES; VOR-LOC, AUTO APPROACH AND MANUALGLIDE SLOPE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 37. B IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 38. THE COMPASS SYSTEM PROVIDES HEADING INPUTS TO THE AUTOPILOT ROLL CHANNELCOMPUTER FOR HEADING SELECT. HEADING SIGNALS ARE ALSO UTILIZED IN HEADINGHOLDMENU PRINCIPAL
  • 39. LIKE THE ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTER, THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER ALSO RECEIVESINPUTS FROM OTHER AIRPLANE SUBSYSTEMS.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 40. THE VERTICAL GYRO PROVIDES ATTITUDE REFERENCE FOR PITCH. THE GYRO INPUTSPROVIDE CONSTANT INFORMATION TO THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER. THE COMPUTERMAINTAINS OR ADJUSTS PITCH ATTITUDES PROGRAMMED BY THE PILOT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 41. THE AIR DATA COMPUTER PROVIDES TWO INPUTS TO THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER.AIRSPEED SIGNALS ARE USED TO MODIFY ELEVATOR CONTROL DEFLECTION FOR THEVARIOUS SPEED RANGES. MORE CONTROL DEFLECTION IS REQUIRED AT LOW AIRSPEEDSTHAN AT HIGH AIRSPEEDS. BAROMETRIC ALTITUDE SIGNALS ARE REFERENCED BY THEPITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER TO PROVIDE THE ALTITUDE HOLD FUNCTION OF THEAUTOPILOT.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 42. AS THE AIRPLANE PROGRESSES ALONG THE ILS APPROACH COURSE AND GLIDE PATH,THE RADIO ALTIMETER SIGNALS THE PITCH AND ROLL CHANNEL COMPUTERS TO BEGINREDUCING ILS GLIDE SLOPE AND LOCALIZER SIGNAL STRENGTH. THIS PROCESS ISCALLED GAIN PROGRAMMING. GAIN PROGRAMMING BEGINS AT FIFTEEN HUNDRED FEETABSOLUTE ALTITUDE. WHEN HAND FLYING AN I-L-S, SMALLER CORRECTIONS ARE MADEAS THE AIRPLANE APPROACHES DECISION HEIGHT. THE GAIN PROGRAMMING FEATUREASSISTS THE AUTOPILOT IN MAKING CORRECTIONS IN THE SAME MANNER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 43. GLIDE SLOPE SIGNALS ARE RECEIVED BY THE VHF NAV RECEIVER SUPPLYING THECAPTAINS FLIGHT INSTRUMENT AND ARE SENT TO THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER. THECOMPUTER SENDS CONTROL SIGNALS TO CAPTURE AND TRACK THE GLIDE SLOPE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 44. C IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 45. AIR DATA COMPUTER INPUTS TO THE PITCH CHANNEL COMPUTER ARE USED FORAIRSPEED AND ALTITUDE INPUTS FOR THE ALTITUDE HOLD MODE.MENU PRINCIPAL
  • 46. THIS CONCLUDES PART TWO OF AUTO FLIGHT. PLEASE CONTINUE TO PART THREE.RETURN TO MENURETURN TO MENUMENU PRINCIPAL