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Air conditions & pressurization part 1
 

Air conditions & pressurization part 1

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    Air conditions & pressurization part 1 Air conditions & pressurization part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • MENU PRINCIPAL
    • FIRST, WE WILL REVIEW THE PURPOSE OF THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND EXAMINETHE MAJOR COMPONENTS IN DETAIL. WE WILL THEN SEE HOW THE SYSTEM ISCONTROLLED AND MONITORED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM REGULATES THE DISTRIBUTION OF AIR, WITHIN ACOMFORTABLE TEMPERATURE RANGE, TO THE PASSENGER CABIN AND COCKPIT.(pause2) IT ALSO PROVIDES VENTILATION FOR THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICSCOMPARTMENT (pause2) AND DIRECTS AIR FLOW TO WARM THE CARGOCOMPARTMENTS. (pause4) NOW, LETS REVIEW THE MAJOR COMPONENTS.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • AIR FROM ANY PNEUMATIC SOURCE IS HOT AND MUST BE CONDITIONED. AIRCONDITIONING IS ACCOMPLISHED IN THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACK. ENGINE ONE IS THENORMAL IN-FLIGHT AIR SOURCE FOR THE LEFT PACK. ENGINE TWO SUPPLIES THE RIGHTPACK. ON THE GROUND, THE APU OR THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CART CAN SUPPLYEITHER PACK.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • CONDITIONED AIR FROM THE PACKS IS THEN SUPPLIED TO THE COCKPIT ANDPASSENGER CABIN. A GROUND CART MAY ALSO PROVIDE CONDITIONED AIR. THIS AIRCANNOT BE CONTROLLED FROM THE COCKPIT. (pause2) LETS STUDY A SINGLE PACK INDETAIL.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • HOT AIR ENTERS THE PACK THROUGH THE PACK VALVE. A PORTION OF THE HOT AIRBYPASSES THE COOLING PROCESS. THE REMAINING HOT AIR IS COOLED. THERESULTING COLD AIR AND HOT AIR ARE THEN MIXED TO OBTAIN CONDITIONED AIR ATTHE DESIRED TEMPERATURE. (pause4) LETS LOOK AT THE COOLING PROCESS.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • AFTER ENTERING THE PACK VALVE, HOT AIR IS COOLED BY FORCING IT THROUGH AHEAT EXCHANGER, (pause2) A COMPRESSOR, (pause2) A SECOND HEAT EXCHANGER,(pause2) AND A TURBINE. TRACE THE PATH OF THE HOT AIR AS IT IS COOLED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • NOTICE THAT THE COMPRESSOR AND TURBINE ARE ON THE SAME SHAFT. THIS UNIT ISCALLED AN AIR CYCLE MACHINE AND IS POWERED ONLY BY THE FORCE OF THE AIRBEING PUSHED THROUGH IT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ALL OF THE RAM AIR, WHICH COOLS THE HEAT EXCHANGERS, IS EXHAUSTEDOVERBOARD. NONE OF THE RAM AIR ENTERS THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WE WILL NOW EXAMINE THE RAM AIR SYSTEM, HEAT EXCHANGERS AND AIR CYCLEMACHINE.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ON THIS SLIDE, THE TWO TOP AMBER ARROWS INDICATE THE LOCATION OF THE RAM AIRINLET DOORS AND DEFLECTORS. DURING GROUND OPERATION, THE DEFLECTORS AREEXTENDED TO PREVENT FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE TO THE HEAT EXCHANGERS. THEDEFLECTORS ARE AUTOMATICALLY RETRACTED AFTER LIFT OFF. THE YELLOW ARROWSLOCATE THE RAM-AIR EXHAUST LOUVERS. THESE DOORS REGULATE AIR FLOWTHROUGH THE HEAT EXCHANGERS.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE DEFLECTOR AND RAM-AIR INLET DOORS ARE AUTOMATICALLY OPERATED BY ANELECTRIC MOTOR. WHEN THE INLET DOOR OPENS, THE EXHAUST LOUVERS OPEN.(pause2) WHEN THE INLET DOOR CLOSES, THE EXHAUST LOUVERS CLOSE.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE POSITION OF THE DEFLECTORS IS CONTROLLED BY THE AIR-GROUND SAFETYSENSOR. ON THE GROUND, THE DEFLECTORS EXTEND. THEY AUTOMATICALLY RETRACTAT LIFT OFF.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • AIR INLET DOORS CONTROL THE AMOUNT OF COOLING AIR FOR THE HEAT EXCHANGERS.WHENEVER THE AIRPLANE IS ON THE GROUND, OR THE FLAPS ARE EXTENDED IN-FLIGHT,THE RAM AIR INLET DOORS, AND THE EXHAUST LOUVERS, ARE AUTOMATICALLYPOSITIONED FULL OPEN.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ON THE GROUND, OR WHEN THE FLAPS ARE EXTENDED, A VALVE OPENS ALLOWING AIRFROM THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM TO POWER A TURBO FAN. THE TURBO FAN DRAWS AIRFLOW THROUGH THE HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR MAXIMUM COOLING.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • IN FLIGHT, WITH THE FLAPS RETRACTED, THE POSITION OF THE AIR INLET DOORS ISCONTROLLED BY THE OPERATING TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR CYCLE MACHINE.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • A IS THE CORRECT ANSWER.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE RAM-AIR INLET DOORS REMAIN FULL OPEN ANY TIME THE AIRPLANE IS ON THEGROUND, OR THE FLAPS ARE EXTENDED IN FLIGHT. THEY MODULATE TOWARD CLOZEWHEN THE AIRPLANE []is []in []ann []in flight, CLEAN CONDITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE PRIMARY HEAT EXCHANGER COOLS HOT BLEED AIR BEFORE IT FLOWS TO ACOMPRESSOR. (pause2) IN THE COMPRESSOR, THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BLEED AIRINCREASES.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE HOT AIR FROM THE COMPRESSOR FLOWS THROUGH THE SECONDARY HEATEXCHANGER (pause2) COOLS (pause2) AND THEN PASSES INTO THE TURBINE STAGE,WHERE IT ROTATES THE TURBINE AND IS RAPIDLY EXPANDED. THIS RAPID EXPANSIONCAUSES A LARGE TEMPERATURE DROP, PRODUCING VERY COLD AIR. (pause3) NOTICEAGAIN THAT THE TURBINE AND COMPRESSOR HAVE A COMMON SHAFT, AND THAT THETURBINE POWERS THE COMPRESSOR. THE ONLY POWER SOURCE FOR THE AIR CYCLEMACHINE IS THE AIR BEING PUSHED THROUGH IT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • AIR-MIX-VALVES REGULATE THE CORRECT AMOUNT OF HOT AND COLD AIR ENTERING AMIXING CHAMBER. (pause2) CHECK VALVES ENSURE THE PROPER DIRECTION OF FLOW.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • TEMPERATURE IS SENSED IN THE PASSENGER CABIN. THE RIGHT PACK AUTO AIRTEMPERATURE CONTROLLER POSITIONS THE AIR MIX VALVES TO MAINTAIN SELECTEDCABIN TEMPERATURE. A TEMPERATURE SENSOR IN THE COCKPIT SIGNALS THE LEFTPACK TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER TO MAINTAIN SELECTED COCKPIT TEMPERATURE.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ANSWER B IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • A GROUND CART CAN BE CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE SUPPLY DUCT TO PROVIDECONDITIONED AIR. IT DOES NOT GO THROUGH EITHER OF THE PACKS AND CANNOT BECONTROLLED FROM THE COCKPIT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • A WATER SEPARATOR DOWNSTREAM OF THE AIR CYCLE MACHINE REMOVES WATERFROM THE AIR SO THAT MOISTURE IS NOT CARRIED INTO THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.(pause3) A TEMPERATURE SENSOR IN THE WATER SEPARATOR SIGNALS A CONTROLLERTO AUTOMATICALLY MODULATE AN ANTI-ICE VALVE. THIS VALVE ROUTES WARM AIR TOTHE SEPARATOR TO PREVENT IT FROM FREEZING. (pause3) LETS DISCUSS THEDISTRIBUTION SYSTEM NEXT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • A MAIN SUPPLY DUCT CONNECTS THE OUTPUT OF THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACKS. (pause2)THEREFORE, EITHER PACK CAN SUPPLY THE COCKPIT OR PASSENGER CABIN. (pause3)THE LEFT PACK IS THE NORMAL INPUT TO THE COCKPIT. SINCE ONLY A SMALL PORTIONOF THE AIR IS REQUIRED FOR THE COCKPIT, THE REMAINING AIR IS DISTRIBUTED TO THEPASSENGER CABIN. THE RIGHT PACK IS THE PRIMARY AIR SOURCE FOR THE PASSENGERCABIN. THE PASSENGER CABIN AIR IS DISTRIBUTED EVENLY THROUGH A SINGLEOVERHEAD OUTFLOW DUCT RUNNING THE LENGTH OF THE CABIN.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • COCKPIT AND PASSENGER CABIN AIR FLOW IS USED TO HEAT THE FORWARD AND AFTCARGO COMPARTMENTS, AND IS THEN DISCHARGED OVERBOARD. (pause4) NOW, LETSLOOK BRIEFLY AT THE AIR FLOW FROM THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT COOLING.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL, INSTRUMENT PANELS, AND THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTCOMPARTMENT, ARE COOLED BY AIR FLOW FROM THE COCKPIT. COOLING AIR IS DRAWNBEHIND THE COCKPIT PANELS, AND THROUGH THE ELECTRONICS COMPARTMENT BY ABLOWER SYSTEM WHICH OPERATES ANYTIME AC POWER IS AVAILABLE TO THEGENERATOR BUSES.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE NORMAL POSITION OF THE EQUIPMENT COOLING SWITCH OPERATES THE MAIN EQUIPMENTCOOLING BLOWER. THE MAIN BLOWER IS POWERED BY 115 VOLTS AC FROM THE NUMBER ONEGENERATOR BUS. IN THE EVENT OF LOSS OF COOLING AIR FLOW DUE TO THE FAILURE OF THEMAIN BLOWER, THE ALTERNATE POSITION OF THE SWITCH OPERATES THE ALTERNATE COOLINGBLOWER. THE ALTERNATE BLOWER IS POWERED BY 115 VOLTS AC FROM NUMBER TWOGENERATOR BUS. AN AMBER [`]OFF LIGHT, WHEN ILLUMINATED, INDICATES THAT THE COOLINGAIR FLOW IS INSUFFICIENT. FOR ALL NORMAL OPERATIONS, THE AMBER [`]OFF LIGHT ISEXTINGUISHED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ON THE GROUND, AND AT LOW ALTITUDES, THE AIR IS DISCHARGED OVERBOARDTHROUGH A FLOW-CONTROL VALVE ON THE BOTTOM OF THE AIRPLANE. AT HIGHERALTITUDES THIS AIR IS DIRECTED TO THE FORWARD CARGO COMPARTMENT FORHEATING. THIS IS COVERED IN MORE DETAIL IN PART TWO OF THIS [sahbjhehkt].MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ANSWER IS A IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE LEFT PACK IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF AIR TO THE COCKPIT. (pause3) NOW, LETSDISCUSS THE GASPER AIR SYSTEM.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE GASPER AIR DUCT AND FAN ARE LOCATED JUST BEYOND THE WATER SEPARATORON THE RIGHT AIR CONDITIONING PACK. THE SYSTEM NORMALLY EXTRACTS COLD AIRFROM THE OUTPUT OF THE RIGHT PACK.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE GASPER FAN INCREASES THE FLOW OF COLD AIR TO INDIVIDUAL GASPER OUTLETSTHROUGHOUT THE AIRPLANE. THE FAN MAY BE OPERATED CONTINUOUSLY IF DESIRED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WHEN THE RIGHT PACK IS NOT OPERATING, THE GASPER SYSTEM DRAWS COCKPIT ANDCABIN AIR BACK THROUGH THE SUPPLY DUCT, AND RE-CIRCULATES IT THROUGH THEINDIVIDUAL GASPER OUTLETS.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • A CONDITIONED AIR CART MAY BE CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE MAIN SUPPLY DUCT(pause2) WHEN MINIMAL AIR CONDITIONING IS REQUIRED. THIS ENABLES THE AIRPLANETO BE HEATED OR COOLED, WITHOUT OPERATING AN AIR CONDITIONING PACK.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE AIR CONDITIONING CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE LOCATED ON THE FORWARDOVERHEAD PANEL. LOCATE THESE ON YOUR PANEL.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS FOR THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACKS ARE IDENTICAL.(pause4) LETS DISCUSS THE OPERATION OF THE RIGHT PACK.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE AIR CONDITIONING PACK SWITCH CONTROLS THE OPERATION OF THE PACK VALVE.POSITIONING THE SWITCH []ON, ALLOWS BLEED-AIR FROM THE PNEUMATIC DUCT TOOPEN THE PACK VALVE, AND THEN FLOW INTO THE PACK. IF THE TEMPERATURE IN THEPACK IS EXCESSIVE, THE VALVE AUTOMATICALLY CLOSES, AND THE PACK TRIP-OFFLIGHT ILLUMINATES.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE GASPER FAN IS CONTROLLED BY A SWITCH ON THE PNEUMATIC PANEL.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THERE ARE TWO TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS (pause2) ONE FOR THE CONTROL CABINOR COCKPIT, AND ONE FOR THE PASSENGER CABIN. EACH TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERHAS TWO MODES OF OPERATION, AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL. (pause4) LETS LOOK AT THEAUTOMATIC MODE OF THE CONTROLLER FOR THE PASSENGER CABIN.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE TEMPERATURE SELECTOR IS USED TO SET THE DESIRED TEMPERATURE. (pause2) ANAUTO AIR TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER COMPARES THE DESIRED TEMPERATURE, WITH THETEMPERATURE SENSED IN THE CABIN. THE CONTROLLER SIGNALS THE AIR-MIX VALVES TOMAINTAIN THE SELECTED TEMPERATURE. THE POSITION OF THE TWO AIR-MIX VALVES ISDISPLAYED ON A SINGLE POINTER INDICATOR LABELED COLD AND HOT, WHICH INDICATESTHE CONDITION OF THE AIR AS IT LEAVES THE MIXING CHAMBER. (pause2) A DUCT OVERHEATLIGHT WILL ILLUMINATE IF THE TEMPERATURE IN THE SUPPLY DUCT IS EXCESSIVE. THISINDICATION WILL BE DISCUSSED IN NON-NORMAL OPERATIONS. THE CONTROL CABINTEMPERATURE SELECTOR CONTROLS THE LEFT PACK IN THE SAME MANNER.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • TO PREVENT EXCESSIVE TEMPERATURES IN THE SUPPLY DUCT, A TEMPERATURE-LIMITING SENSOR WILL PREVENT ANY PACK FROM EXCEEDING 60 DEGREESCENTIGRADE. WHEN THIS TEMPERATURE IS APPROACHED, THE MIX VALVESAUTOMATICALLY MOVE TOWARD COLD UNTIL AN OPERATING TEMPERATURE BELOW 60DEGREES CENTIGRADE CAN BE MAINTAINED. (pause2) NOW, LETS LOOK AT THE MANUALMODE OF OPERATION.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • MOVING THE TEMPERATURE SELECTOR TO THE LOWER SEGMENT ESTABLISHES MANUALCONTROL (pause2) IN MANUAL, THE SELECTOR IS SPRING LOADED TO THE CENTER[`]OFF POSITION. TO CHANGE THE TEMPERATURE, ROTATE AND HOLD THE SELECTOR TOEITHER WARM OR COOL. THE MOVEMENT OF THE MIX VALVES WILL BE DISPLAYED ONTHE AIR-MIX VALVE POSITION INDICATOR. RELEASING THE SELECTOR STOPS THE VALVEMOVEMENT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WHEN A PACK IS TURNED []OFF, THE PACK VALVE CLOSES (pause2), AND THE AIR-MIX-VALVES MOVE TO THE FULL COLD POSITION. (pause4) LETS EXAMINE THE TEMPERATUREINDICATOR.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE AIR TEMPERATURE INDICATOR REFLECTS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE LEFT ORRIGHT PACK, SUPPLY DUCT, OR THE PASSENGER CABIN, AS SELECTED BY THE SOURCESELECTOR SWITCH. THE SUPPLY DUCT AND PASSENGER CABIN SELECTIONS PERMITSTHE TEMPERATURES IN THESE AREAS TO BE MONITORED. THE SELECTOR IS USUALLYLEFT IN SUPPLY DUCT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ANSWER C IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WHENEVER A PACK IS TURNED []OFF, THE AIR-MIX-VALVES MOVE TO FULL COLD. THISALLOWS ALL OF THE AIR TO BE INITIALLY DIRECTED THROUGH THE AIR CYCLE MACHINETHE NEXT TIME THE PACK IS TURNED []ON. (pause3) NEXT, LETS LOOK AT THEINDICATOR LIGHTS FOR THE RAM AIR INLET DOORS.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WHEN THE AIRPLANE IS ON THE GROUND, THE RAM AIR INLET DOORS ARE FULL OPENAND THE RAM-DOOR-FULL OPEN LIGHTS ILLUMINATE.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THE RAM DOOR FULL OPEN LIGHTS REMAIN ILLUMINATED WHILE THE FLAPS AREEXTENDED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • IN-FLIGHT, WHEN THE FLAPS ARE RETRACTED, THE AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURECONTROL TAKES OVER AND THE RAM-DOOR-FULL-OPEN LIGHTS EXTINGUISH. ATEMPERATURE SENSOR IN EACH PACK (pause2) CONTROLS AND MODULATES THERESPECTIVE RAM-AIR-INLET-DOOR AND EXHAUST LOUVERS TO MAINTAIN THEREQUIRED AMOUNT OF COOLING IN THE HEAT EXCHANGERS. (pause3) AT EXTREMELYHIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURES, AUTOMATIC CONTROL MAY POSITION THE RESPECTIVERAM-AIR-INLET-DOOR AND EXHAUST LOUVERS FULL OPEN FOR ADEQUATE PACKCOOLING. THE RAM-DOOR-FULL-OPEN LIGHT ILLUMINATES TO SHOW THIS CONDITION.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • ANSWER B IS CORRECT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • WHEN FLAPS ARE EXTENDED DURING DESCENT, THE RAM-AIR-INLET-DOORSAUTOMATICALLY DRIVE FULL OPEN. THIS ENSURES PROPER COOLING DURING FLIGHTAT SLOWER AIRSPEEDS. NOW, LETS LOOK AT NORMAL OPERATION OF THE AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • HERE ARE THE STEPS NECESSARY TO AIR CONDITION THE AIRPLANE ON THE GROUND,USING EITHER THE APU OR A PNEUMATIC GROUND CART.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • FIRST, POSITION THE TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SELECTOR TO SUPPLY DUCT. THISPERMITS THE CREW TO MONITOR THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR ENTERING THESUPPLY-DUCT. (pause3) NEXT, SET BOTH TEMPERATURE SELECTORS TO THE AUTO-NORMAL POSITION. THE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS WILL AUTOMATICALLYREGULATE THE AIR-MIX-VALVES WHEN THE PACKS ARE TURNED []ON.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THEN, POSITION THE RIGHT PACK SWITCH TO []ON AND, AFTER A FEW SECONDS,OBSERVE THE DUCT PRESSURE DECREASE. POSITIONING THE PACK SWITCH []ONOPENS THE PACK VALVE ALLOWING AIR TO FLOW FROM THE PNEUMATIC MANIFOLDINTO THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM. ON THE GROUND, WHEN OPERATING THE APU,ONLY ONE PACK IS NORMALLY USED.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • FINALLY, IF ADDITIONAL AIR IS REQUIRED AT THE GASPER OUTLETS, PLACE THE GASPERFAN SWITCH []ON.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • REVIEW THE PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE APU OR PNEUMATICGROUND CART IN THE SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES SECTION OF THE OPERATIONSMANUAL.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • B IS THE CORRECT ANSWER. TO OBTAIN SATISFACTORY HEATING FROM BOTH PACKS,THE APU MUST BE CAPABLE OF MAINTAINING BETWEEN 20 TO 25 PSI WITH BOTH PACKSWITCHES []ON. ANY PRESSURE BELOW THIS WILL VENTILATE THE AIRPLANE, BUT NOTCOOL IT.MENU PRINCIPAL
    • THIS COMPLETES THE NORMAL OPERATIONS SECTION OF AIR CONDITIONING. THE NEXTSECTION DEALS WITH PRESSURIZATION.MENU PRINCIPALRETURN TO MENU