03 cfm56-3-day 01-regulation

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  • 1. THE POWEROF FLIGHT104/02/2006RXCFCFM56CFM56--3 REGULATION3 REGULATION
  • 2. THE POWEROF FLIGHT204/02/2006RXCFCFM56CFM56 -- 33
  • 3. THE POWEROF FLIGHT304/02/2006RXCFENGINE OPERATIONAL CONTROLENGINE OPERATIONAL CONTROLMECMEC PMCPMCMain Tasks Additional TasksSpeed Governing SystemIdling SystemFuel Limiting SystemVBVVSVHPTCCVN1 Vs ZN1 Vs PN1 Vs TCorrectionsCFMCFM 5656 -- 33
  • 4. THE POWEROF FLIGHT404/02/2006RXCFENGINE OPERATIONALENGINE OPERATIONALCONTROLCONTROL• The CFM56CFM56--33 engine control systemconsists of both:HYDRO MECHANICAL UNITELECTRONIC UNIT
  • 5. THE POWEROF FLIGHT504/02/2006RXCFHYDRO MECHANICAL UNITHYDRO MECHANICAL UNIT–– WFWF ( Fuel Flow )–– VBVVBV ( Variable Bleed Valve )–– VSVVSV ( Variable Stator Vane )–– HPTCCVHPTCCV ( High Pressure Turbine ClearanceControl Valve )• MECMECAutomatically schedules:N2Main Engine Control
  • 6. THE POWEROF FLIGHT604/02/2006RXCFELECTRONIC UNITELECTRONIC UNIT•• PMCPMC Power Management Control– Provide FAN scheduling N1
  • 7. THE POWEROF FLIGHT704/02/2006RXCFCONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATICCONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
  • 8. THE POWEROF FLIGHT804/02/2006RXCFCONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATICCONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC(Cont(Cont’’d)d)N1 Fan SpeedN2 Core SpeedWF Fuel FlowTMC Torque Motor CurrentPS12 Fan Inlet Static Air PressurePS3 Compressor Discharge PressureCBP Compressor Bleed PressureT12 Fan Inlet Total Air TemperatureT2.5 HPC Inlet Air TemperatureT2 Fan Inlet TemperatureTC1 Turbine Clearance Control 5Th StageTC2 Turbine Clearance Control 9Th StageTC3 Turbine Clearance Control Timer Signal
  • 9. THE POWEROF FLIGHT904/02/2006RXCFENGINE STATIONSENGINE STATIONS2 Primary Flow Inlet12 Secondary Flow Inlet25 HP Compressor Inlet3 HP Compressor Discharge49. 5 Stage 2 LPT Inlet
  • 10. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1004/02/2006RXCFMECMECMECFUEL PUMPOIL/ FUELHEATEXCHANGER
  • 11. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1104/02/2006RXCFMECMEC OPERATIONOPERATION• MEC is an Hydro mechanical device using fuel pressure to work.• A device monitors fuel pressure at low flow conditions for MECservo operation.FUELMETERINGVALVEPRESSURISINGPRESSURISINGVALVEVALVEFUELSHUT-OFFVALVEBYPASSVALVEFUEL PUMPHP STAGEFUEL PUMPLP STAGE MEC Fuel Metering System
  • 12. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1204/02/2006RXCFMECMEC PURPOSEPURPOSE• The MECMEC’’ss job is divided in 2 tasks:MAIN TASKS:ADDITIONAL TASKS:–– Speed governing systemSpeed governing system–– Fuel limiting systemFuel limiting system–– Idling systemIdling system–– VBVVBV– VSVVSV– HPTCCVHPTCCVControl functions to optimise engine performance
  • 13. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1304/02/2006RXCFSPEED GOVERNING SYSTEMSPEED GOVERNING SYSTEMSPEEDGOVERNINGSYSTEMFMV WfN2 demandN2 actualT2 FuelPS12MEC
  • 14. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1404/02/2006RXCFFUEL LIMITING SYSTEMFUEL LIMITING SYSTEM• During transient operation, the speed governing system could changethe fuel flow beyond the safe limits.• The purpose of the fuel limiting system is to define and impose correctengine fuel flow limits during rapid transients:ACCELERATIONSDECELERATIONSSTARTS
  • 15. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1504/02/2006RXCFSPEEDGOVERNINGSYSTEMFMVFuelWfT2N2 demandN2 actualFUELLIMITINGSYSTEMPS12MECFUEL LIMITING SYSTEMFUEL LIMITING SYSTEM (Cont(Cont’’d)d)+ / -N2PS3T2.5CBP
  • 16. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1604/02/2006RXCFIDLING SYSTEMIDLING SYSTEMHIGH IDLE:LOW IDLE:• Used only when anti-icing is selected or if a flying aircrafthas flaps configuration > 15°.• It is optimised to provide rapid recovery of takeoff thrust ifrequired.• Ground idle:•Flight idle:Provide adequate taxi thrust while minimisingnoise, fuel consumption and braking effortScheduled to minimise fuel consumption.
  • 17. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1704/02/2006RXCFDESIREDSPEEDSETTINGFMVFuelWfT2N2 demandN2 actual+ / -FUELLIMITINGSYSTEMPS3N2T2.5CBPPS12MECPLA IDLEYes / NOAIRCRAFTCONFIGURATIONIDLING SYSTEMIDLING SYSTEM (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 18. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1804/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKSVBVVBV SYSTEMSYSTEM• VBV system positions 12 valves byhydraulic pressure acting upon a fuel gearmotor.• The fuel pressure is scheduled by theMEC.• VBV feedback cable is positioned toprovide the MEC with a current VBVposition to compare with the desiredposition.
  • 19. THE POWEROF FLIGHT1904/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VBVVBV SYSTEMSYSTEM (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 20. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2004/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VBVVBV PURPOSEPURPOSEAs the Compressor is optimised for ratings close to maximum power engineoperation has to be protected during deceleration or at low speed:To re-establish a suitable mass flow VBV are installed on the contour of the primaryairflow stream between booster and HPC to download booster exit.Without VBV installed:At Deceleration or Low speed⇒ Booster Outlet Airflow ↓↓ much more than Booster Pressure Ratio⇒ LPC stall margin reducedWith VBV installed:At Deceleration or Low speed⇒ VBV fully open⇒ Booster Pressure Ratio ↓↓ but same Booster Outlet Airflow⇒ Plenty of LPC stall margin
  • 21. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2104/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VBVVBV PURPOSEPURPOSE (Cont(Cont’’d)d)MaxiEfficiencyDesign PointISO N1 LineEfficiency ↓↓BOOSTER OUTLET AIRFLOWBOOSTERPRESSURERATIOLOW EFFICIENCYREGION1234VBVOperationAcceleration Schedule1234• Low speed or Deceleration⇒ VBV OPEN• High speed or acceleration⇒ VBV CLOSEDTYPICAL LPC FLOW CHART55Operating LineDeceleration ScheduleIf VBV not openIf VBV not closedSTALLREGIONIDLEMCT
  • 22. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2204/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VSVVSV SYSTEMSYSTEMVSV system changes the angle of the HP Compressor IGV andN° 1,2 and 3 stator stages according to the MEC computation.MEC directs a resulting high pressure fuel flow to the dual VSVactuators.The actuators mechanically position the VSV.A feedback cable provides the VSV position to the MEC.A comparison is performed between schedule requirements andactual VSV position to determine the need to continue actuatorcontrol or not.
  • 23. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2304/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VSVVSV SYSTEMSYSTEM (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 24. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2404/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VSVVSV SYSTEMSYSTEM (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 25. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2504/02/2006RXCFIGVROTORVSV 1Etc …MECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VSVVSV PURPOSEPURPOSEIGV (Inlet Guide Vane)ROTORSTAGEVSV (3)- VSV optimise HPC efficiency.- VSV improve stall margin fortransient engine operations.• The Compressor is optimised for ratings close to maximum power.• Engine operation has to be protected during deceleration or at low speed.• VSV system position HPC Stator Vanes to the appropriate angle of incidence.
  • 26. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2604/02/2006RXCFMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)VSVVSV PURPOSEPURPOSE (Cont(Cont’’d)d)COMPRESSOR OUTLET AIRFLOWCOMPRESSORPRESSURERATIOLOW EFFICIENCYREGIONSTALLREGIONEfficiency ↓↓MaxiEfficiencyDesign PointISO N1 LineVSVOperation142TYPICAL HPC FLOW CHARTAcceleration Schedule1234 Operating LineDeceleration ScheduleIf VSV not open• Low speed or Deceleration⇒ VSV CLOSED• High speed or acceleration⇒ VSV OPEN3IDLEMCTMECMEC ADDITIONAL TASKSADDITIONAL TASKS (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 27. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2704/02/2006RXCFCLEARANCE CONTROLCLEARANCE CONTROL• Operating tip clearance in the core engine are of primaryimportance. They determine:Steady state efficiencies:⇒ Fuel consumptionTransient engine performance:⇒ Peak gas temperature⇒ Compressor stall margin
  • 28. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2804/02/2006RXCFCLEARANCE CONTROLCLEARANCE CONTROL (Cont(Cont’’d)d)• Clearance Control in the CFM56 engine is accomplished by a combination of3 mechanical designs:Passive control:⇒ Using materials in the compressor aft case with lowcoefficient of thermal expansion.Forced cooling:⇒ Using Low Pressure Booster discharge cooling air forcompressor and turbine.Automatic control:⇒ HPTCC VALVE and HPTCC TIMER are used to control thetip clearance between HPT blades and stationary tip shrouds.
  • 29. THE POWEROF FLIGHT2904/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION• Automatic Control is using Bleed Air from 5Th and 9Th stages ofHPC to either cool or heat the HPT shroud.MEC HPTCC TIMER HPT SHROUDAIRFROM5ThSTAGEAIRFROM9ThSTAGEAIRCRAFTON THEGROUNDYES / NON2 > 95 %YES / NOHPTCCVALVE
  • 30. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3004/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)• During flight:- Air selection is determined by fuel pressure signals sent fromthe MEC to the TIMER.- The TIMER sends fuel pressure signals without change toactuate the HPTCC VALVE.- The selected bleed air is ducted to a manifold surrounding theHPT SHROUD.
  • 31. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3104/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)• During takeoff:- The TIMER overrides the normal MEC operation of the valve.- It is sequencing a transient air schedule over a specified time periodto maintain a more nearly constant HPT blade tip clearance duringthe period of HPT Rotor/Stator thermal stabilisation.- This maintain Turbine efficiency and decreases transient EGTovershoot.- A lockout valve permits the TIMER to actuate only once per enginecycle. ( i.e. from start to shut down)
  • 32. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3204/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)
  • 33. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3304/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)• The TIMER SEQUENCE:- Starting Reference Point is when the engine reach 95 % N2.0 to 8 s ⇒ No air8 to 152 s ⇒ 5Th stage air152 to 182 s ⇒ 5Th + 9Th stage air- Then:
  • 34. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3404/02/2006RXCFHPTCCVHPTCCV ACTUATIONACTUATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)0 s 8 s 152 s 182 sNo Air 5+9Th stage Air5Th stage AirNO TIMER TIMERSTATOR ØROTOR ØCLEARANCE with TIMERCLEARANCE without TIMER
  • 35. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3504/02/2006RXCFPMCPMCINPUT POWERINPUT SIGNALS:N1, T12, PLAOUTPUT SIGNALS:FOR MEC TORQUE MOTORMONITOR CONNECTIONCOCKPIT SW:PMC On / OffPS12
  • 36. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3604/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC PURPOSEPURPOSE• In a high bypass engine, total thrust is more accurately controlledby controlling N1 speed.FAN is 80% of the POWER !FAN is 80% of the POWER !This is accomplished byvarying N2 speedto reach theaccurate N1 speed.
  • 37. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3704/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION• The main goal of the PMC is to make pilot’s job morecomfortable.• PMC is performing automatically 3 corrections:N1 Vs ALTITUDEN1 Vs PRESSUREN1 Vs TEMPERATURE
  • 38. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3804/02/2006RXCFN1N1 VsVs ALTITUDEALTITUDEPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)N1ZSTEADYTHRUST %• As the altitude is increasing, if you want to keep a steady thrust%, you need to increase N1.PMC OFFThe PILOT must increase N1⇒ PLA change.PMC ONPMC increase N1⇒ PLA remain unchanged.
  • 39. THE POWEROF FLIGHT3904/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)N1N1 VsVs PRESSUREPRESSUREN1PSTEADYTHRUST %• As the pressure is decreasing, if you want to keep a steady thrust %,you need to increase N1.PMC ONPMC increase N1⇒ PLA remain unchanged.PMC OFFThe PILOT must increase N1⇒ PLA change.
  • 40. THE POWEROF FLIGHT4004/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)N1N1 VsVs TEMPERATURETEMPERATUREN1 MAXTHRUSTEGTTCORNER POINTTEMPERATURET• At takeoff, to get the max thrust (flatrated thrust) as temperature increases, N1and EGT must also increase.• But mechanical limitations impose alimit which is a temperature called:“Corner Point” or “Flat RatedTemperature”.Beyond it:PMC ONPMC is limiting N1 and EGTPMC OFFThe PILOT must limit N1 and EGT
  • 41. THE POWEROF FLIGHT4104/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)• PMC efficiency start at 50% N1 and is fully efficient ator above 70% N1.• PMC trims MEC to maintain the commanded thrust• Schedule N1 is compared to actual N1.The error signalgenerates from the PMC an Output Current (TMC) to a torquemotor mounted on the MEC.The torque motor changes Fuel Flow (Wf).N2 and N1 change.
  • 42. THE POWEROF FLIGHT4204/02/2006RXCFPMCPMC OPERATIONOPERATION (Cont(Cont’’d)d)N1 / ZCORRECTIONN1 / PCORRECTIONN1 / TCORRECTIONSCHEDULEN1ENGINE MECTORQUEMOTORACTUALN1PMCPLAPMC on / offWf
  • 43. THE POWEROF FLIGHT4304/02/2006RXCFTHE ENDTHE ENDTHANKS FOR YOURTHANKS FOR YOURATTENTION !ATTENTION !