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  • Robust Engineering is an excellent way to build high quality into the design of your product. Increasingly being applied successfully to the service. Engineers and mathematicians can study and understand the methodology. But what if you are a manager in a service company, trying to improve services? DON’T GET SCARED OFF BY THE FORMULAS! If you understand the basics, you can apply Robust Engineering to your service and measure its success.
  • Problem Solving at different stages of service delivery. If the problem is corrected in the design phase, less resources are expended than if the problem is corrected post-delivery.
  • How do you know if you are meeting the needs of your customers? Take a good look at you customer base. How many are return customers? Find out why they come back, or don’t come back. How many complaints do you receive? Remember for every complaint you hear, there are TEN you don’t hear. How many customers take the time to compliment your service? You employees must be happy with what they do.
  • Whenever a product or service misses its intended quality mark, a loss to society occurs. Whether it is too little service or too much service, resources are lost.

Tqm4ppt Total QualityManagement Tqm4ppt Total QualityManagement Presentation Transcript

  • MG 1401 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 4. T.Q.M Tools 2010-2011 C. Coomarasamy Professor, TEC
  • TQM Tools1.BENCH MARKING (BM) - Reasons - Process2.QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) - House of quality - Process - Benefits - Taguchi Quality Loss Function3.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) - Concept - Improvement needs4. FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) - Stages
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)• In civil - the process of gathering information about the level• In military- the process of gathering information about the enemy- spying• In cricket - the process of gathering information about the Performance- South Africa, ( next- India, Australia)• In police - the process of gathering information about the people and their activities- - intelligence or vigilance• In industries- the process of gathering information about the industrial activities - industrial intelligence
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)• In the Quality world the process of gathering information about the “best quality product manufacturing company” in order to copy or follow or excel- is known as Bench marking.Foundation – is to gather data- from either I or E sources – friendly or unfriendly- for future action to improveHence BM is the systematic method / approach orpopular TQM tool for best practices, innovative ideas and highly effective operating procedures
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)It considers the experience of others, and uses itIt is a continuous process of identifying, understanding, and adopting the best practices and process that will lead to superior performanceConcept : BM measures performance against that of best-in-class organizations,- determines how the best in class achieve those performance levels, and uses the information as the basis for adaptive creativity and breakthrough performance
  • Key elements: TWO bm 1. Units of measure- called metrics- expressed numerically 2. Managers understand why their performance differs ? Bench Markers must develop a thorough, in-depth knowledge of both their own processes & the processes ofWhat is our performance level ? What are other’s performance levels ?How we do it ? How did they get there ? best in class organizationsAn understanding of the BM is aboutdifferences setting goals andallows Creative objectives andmanagers to organize about meeting them by adaptiontheir improving processes. improvement efforts tomeet the goal. Breakthrough performance
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)Reasons :1. Helps to develop their Strengths and reduce Weaknesses2. Makes in total to be competitive by understanding the competitive ideas from proven practices3. Time and cost efficient as process involves imitation and adaptation rather than pure invention. BM partners provide – working model of an improved process- which reduces some of planning, testing & proto typing effort4. Inspires managers and organizations to compete5. Allows goals to be set based on external information
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)6.Guides in adopting the best practices in the industry as a total solution to achieve superior performance7. Gives a better perception in defining and understanding the customer requirements to be competent in the market consistently8. Establishes effective goals and objectives for credible performance9. Establishes the consistent monitoring to ensure continuous improvement10. Enhances innovationThe primary weakness- best-in-class performance is a moving target
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)Typical steps in a benchmarking process1. Decide what to BM, Scope definition- Choose benchmark partner - Decide objectives2. Understand current performance - Assess the current level3. Plan- - Plan the strategy Determine measurement methods, units, indicators4. Study others- - Study - competing Os Data collection5. Learn from the data- - Analyze the gap Analysis of the discrepancies6. Use the findings- - Prepare & Execute Present the results and action plan
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)Types - classificationBased on the object to be benchmarked 1. Product, 2.Performance, 3.Process, 4.Strategic- BMBased on the Organizations, against whom one is BM: 1. Internal BM(benchmark within a corporation, for example between business units) 2. Functional BM(benchmark similar processes within an industry) 3.Competitive BM(performance or processes with competitors) 4. Generic -Best-in-class BM(comparing operations between unrelated industries) 5. Relationship-Collaborative BM(carried out collaboratively by groups of companies)
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)Benefits• strength and weakness are well understood• best practices adopted- than invention- (saving money & time)• performance measures are compared- (return on assets, cycle time, proportion of defects, time spent on administrative functions)• focus on process and performance measures- (professionalizing the processes not on products or for improving communication- So it identifies the superior for the chosen measures)• helps in setting realistic new performance targets and make the people to do things than others do• enables to rebuild or redesign their products/services (to meet the customer expectations)• helps in training and human resources (Employees come forward to fill the gap to achieve the organizational goals)• improves synergic effect between the activities of the organization through BM
  • BENCH MARKING (BM)Limitations• comparing performances and processes with best in class is important – it is not a static one - a moving target- should ideally be done on a continuous basis is a tough process that needs a lot of commitment to succeed and time-consuming and expensive.• more than once BM projects end with the they are different from us syndrome or competitive sensitivity prevents the free flow of information that is necessary.• it can not replace all quality improvement and management development programs• it will not ensure any instant return - requires necessary infrastructure, training and TQM practices• requires a basic corporate culture, information system process control and HRD programs in practice
  • The Essence of Benchmarking .
  • Benchmarking process Benchmarking Standards Benchmark practicesBenchmark Gap►How much How to close the Gap► Where ►Improved Knowledge►When ►Improved Practices ►Improved Process Management Commitment Organization Communication Employee Participation
  • .
  • The power of benchmarking:How looking around at others can help you raise more money for your cause . Stage 5 Disseminate improvements Stage 1 and/or review Agree best action plan practice Stage 4 Review Stage 2 achievement Assess against towards best price best practice Stage 3 Produce and implement action plan aimed at achieving best practice
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) Introduction• QFD is a technique for requirements engineering borne out of the quality movement.• it did not originate as a requirements engineering technique, but rather as a systematic method for translating customer requirements into specific product design targets. hence - sometimes called as “customer driven engineering”• the first application of QFD was at Mitsubishi, Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe shipyard, Japan in 1972 and then Toyota Auto body uses QFD in 1978.• including the customer is one of the
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)Definition :1• First, from the American Supplier Institute (ASI) A system for translating customer requirements into appropriate company requirements at each stage from research and development to engineering and manufacturing to marketing/sales and distribution. [ASI, 2001].• This definition emphasizes that QFD is more than the House of Quality. (the House of Quality, or quality chart, is the primary tool for QFD practitioners to use for recording and analyzing requirements and design targets.)• The ASI definition mentions "each stage from research ... to marketing/sales and distribution."• The breadth of the QFD process, therefore, is larger than recording and analyzing requirements.
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)Definition: 2• The second definition is from Akao, generally recognized as the founder of QFD: A method for developing a design quality aimed at satisfying the consumer and then translating the consumers demand into design targets and major quality assurance points to be used throughout the production phase. [Akao, 1990].• This definition also emphasizes the broad use of QFD in phases beyond requirements elicitation, specifically mentioning "to be used throughout the production phase."• Both of these definitions include the term "consumer" or "customer."• This emphasizes how important the customer is to the QFD process.• The customer plays a central role in QFD.• For us in the early 2000s, this is hardly a revolutionary idea, but back in the 1960s, this was a novel and intriguing concept.• Much of todays customer awareness comes from the quality movement, and QFD was one of the techniques that lead this movement into North America.
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)Objectives/ advantages:• improve engineering knowledge, productivity, and quality and reduced costs, product development time, and engineering changes• focuses on customer expectations or requirements, often referred to as the voice of the customer ( dissatisfiers, satisfiers, exciters/ delighters )• employed to translate customer expectations, in terms of specific requirements, into directions and actions, in terms of engineering or technical characteristics that can be
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)*Product Planning, *Part development, *Process Planning, *Production Planning, *Service industries• helps identify new quality technology and job functions to carry out operations• provides a historic reference to enhance future technology and prevent design errors• enables the design phase to concentrate on the customer requirements, thereby spending less time on design and modifications
  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)• the saved time has been estimated at 1/3 to ½ of the time taken for redesign or modifications using traditional means• this saving means (time) reduced development cost and also additional income because the Quality assurance product enters the market sooner QFD Quality control QFD can be viewed as a part of QA QFD was evolved from QA
  • From Concept to Customer [ASI, 2001]Traditional product engineering processesQFD product engineering process.
  • "Before QFD" versus "After QFD" [ASI, 2001] Before QFD After QFDIndividual work Cross- functional teamsSome customer focus Intense customer focus"Over the wall" development Supports simultaneous engineeringPoor documentation Supports integrated product developmentPoor communication Better communication /documentationThe bottom line is this: QFD includes methods, tools, and techniques to support satisfying your customer.
  • Primary Benefits of Using QFD [ASI, 2001]Benefit RationaleImproved Customer This is a result of using QFD since the first input, and theSatisfaction driving force behind the rest of the process, is the voice of the customer. The QFD process actually refers to the "verbatim" comments from the customer as the starting point, and then provides a mechanism for translating these into design targets.Reduced Development This is mostly the result of concurrent engineering, thatTime is, using cross-functional teams.Improved Internal Using cross-functional teams also means that there isCommunications less communications overhead, and less likely that one conversation in a serial chain of several conversations inadvertently misinterprets one of the inputs.Better Documentation The quality charts (House of Quality) provides anof Key Issues excellent documentation mechanism for key issues. In addition, the quality chart links these key issues to voice- of-the-customer concerns. This gives us a better idea of what a "key issue" is to the customer, knowledge that is powerful in terms of maintaining an excellent working relationship with the customer.Save Money The reduced development time leads to time savings, and money savings.
  • Additional benefits• include improved morale and organizational harmony,• improved efficiency,• reduction in design changes,• increased competitiveness,• high market acceptance, and• making it easier to identify problems with the development process.• many of these benefits come from the simple inclusion of the customer, and the feedback that the customer provides during the initial stages of a QFD effort.• this feedback provides the focus for the team and they have a sense that they are all working toward a common goal.• this is a powerful mindset for people to have on a project.History• There are several ideas that Akao merged and evolved together to form QFD.Akao describes at least three core techniques that he combined into QFD:• statistical process control,• design quality, and• value engineering.
  • History The approximate time-line for QFD’s development and integration into manufacturing is in Table 3. Year Activity• 1966 Bridgestone Tire Corporation uses a "process assurance items" table• 1967 Akoa writes about QFD• 1972 Mitsubishis heavy Industries Kobe Shipyard uses a "quality chart" (House of Quality)• 1978 Toyota Auto body uses QFD• 1983 First QFD Seminar in Japan• 1990s American automotive industry adopts QFD• 1996 Survey indicates that QFD is used more in the US than in Japan, based on a survey of companies that participated in QFD seminars and conferences QFD Time-line [Akao, 1997]
  • The Traditional QFD Process"Quality Function Deployment is a process of listening to the voice of the customer, identifying the customers needs, and incorporating those needs in the design and production of goods and services" [Madu, 1999].This quote emphasizes the role of QFD in the entire production scheme, not just at the beginning.QFD is NOT equal to the House of Quality!As part of investigating QFD as a requirements engineering tool, however, we have to focus on the quality charts (House of Quality) since it is more relevant to requirements engineering than the other QFD concepts.The House of Quality is a blueprint for product development [Madu, 1999].Its called a "house" because of its physical appearance.Customer requirements, technical requirements, requirements prioritization, and design targets all merge onto the quality chart through a multi-step process.
  • QFD and software development life cycle [Betts, 1989];
  • Traditional QFD Phase - The Four-Phase Model A common model describing how the quality chart helps a team produce a product is the four-phase model presented in Figure Control documents Machine settings Control methods maintenance Operation Sampling Engineering Parts Key process characteristics characteristics operators characteristics characteristics Key process operators Engineering Customer attributes Parts
  • QFDt TQM De sig n Of Ex pe rim De en sig ts nF DOE or M an ufa c tur ing The voice of the QFD DFM FTA SPC Survey customer Fa u lt T ra c eA na lys is QFD and other technical tools in a TQM program
  • House Of Quality
  • QFD MatricesGeneral organization of a QFD matrix
  • House Of Quality
  • QFD Methodology1. Identify customers (both internal and external).2. Create a list of customer requirements (WHATS). * Record customer responses to the question: "What are the important (qualities, characteristics, elements, features) of _____________?" * Record in customers own words - "Voice of the Customer." * Categorize hierarchically (primary, secondary, tertiary,...).3. Prioritize the customer requirements on a scale of 1-5.4. Compile list of design requirements (HOWS) necessary to achieve the market-driven whats. * Each requirement should be quantified. * Arrows show direction for improvement ( up for increasing, down for decreasing, etc.)
  • Start with WHATs and HOWs
  • Determine relationship5. Determine relationship of design requirements to customer requirements. * Cell strengths quantify the importance of each HOW to achieving each WHAT. Strong relationship Some relationship Weak relationship No mark for no relationship
  • Adding correlations between WHATs and HOWs
  • 6.Determine how the. customer perceives competitors abilities to meet requirements. * Competition benchmarking. * Rate competitors on a scale of 1-5 with respect to each customer requirement.7. Rank the technical importance of each design requirement. * Absolute rank is total of relationship value (quantify step 5 relationships) times customer importance ranking. * Relative importance is based on assigning ordinal ranking to each design requirement based on absolute rank (from previous step).
  • 8. Rate the technical difficulty of each design requirement. so design team can focus on the important/difficult HOWS.9. Establish correlation matrix (roof of House of Quality) to determine interrelationships of design requirements.• Strong positive interaction Positive interaction Strong negative interaction Negative interaction10. Determine target values for the design requirements (HOW MUCH).11. Areas that require concentrated effort are identified. Key elements are identified for follow-up matrix development. Assessment of technical difficulty and importance are useful in identifying these elements.
  • QFD matrix with objective measures added
  • Completed QFD matrix
  • House of quality Roof Hows? Trade off matrix (similar and/or conflicts) Inter relationship between Technical descriptors Ceiling / II floor Technical descriptors Hows? (voice of the organization) Product design characteristics Whats? Expressed in engineering terms Whats and Hows (between customer requirements and technical descriptors) Interior wallsLHS RHS Prioritized customerCustomer requirements(voice of the customer) requirements Foundation Prioritized technical How much? Descriptors Technical BM Degree of technical difficulty Target value
  • House of QualityLHS - Customer requirements: it is on the left side of the HOQ. This section documents the “voice of customer” It represents the "whats" of the system. Affinity diagrams and Tree diagrams are used to structure the requirements.RHS - Planning Matrix: It is on the right side of the HOQ matrix. It represents the Customer Competitive Assessment. It Provides customers’ views on existing products. This matrix uses questionnaires to elicit information.Technical requirements: This section lists how the company will meet the customer requirements. This is the "HOWS" of the system. It represents the engineering characteristics or voice of the company. This information is collected by QFD design team and structured using Affinity diagrams and Tree diagrams.
  • House of Quality This information includes: Top-level solution-independent metrics Product/service requirements Product/service features or capabilitiesRelationship Matrix: It occupies the middle portion of the HOQ diagram which is the largest portion. It uses the prioritization matrix. It shows how well customer requirements are addressed by product features. Roof: This is the Correlation matrix. It shows how the HOWs conflict with one another This section focuses on design improvement. It focuses on negative relationships in the design.Targets: This the final section of House of Quality matrix. It summarizes the conclusions of the planning matrix. It includes three parts:• Technical priorities (relative importance of each technical requirement)• Competitive benchmarks (relative position of the existing product)• Targets (engineering target values to be met by the new product design)
  • House of Quality• In this process, a single quality chart represents each phase.• The left-hand side of the chart contains a list of "what" characteristics the product must exhibit.• They are matched up with several "hows," technical requirements that enable the product to satisfy the "whats" within the same chart. In the first phase, for example, the first list of "whats" contains the "voice of the customer" list of requirements.• Then several engineering characteristics enable the product to satisfy those initial customer requirements.• The list of "hows" from a previous phase take on the role of the "whats" for the next phase.• So the second phase, for example, matches parts characteristics that will enable the product to satisfy the engineering characteristics listed previously.• Note the immediate traceability from one quality chart to the next.• This is the linking mechanism that causes us to describe the customer requirements as "driving" the entire product design process.
  • House of Quality
  • House of QualityCascaded matrices are used to propagate the customer voicethrough more detailed parts of the design and solution stages.
  • QFD: Summary• * The importance of QFD:• - Provides a framework for upfront planning and product development. - Uses multi-functional teams to enhance design and decision- making. - Promotes teamwork (necessary for Concurrent Engineering). - Maintains customer ideas and requirements, in the customers words, throughout the process.• * Engineered products adhering to customer wants result in customer satisfaction.
  • Benefits of QFDCustomer driven: The focus is on customers wants, not what thecompany thinks the customer wants. The "Voice of the Customer" drives the development process.Competitive analysis: Other products in the marketplace are examined, and the company product is rated against the competition.Reduced development time: The likelihood of design changes isreduced as the QFD process focuses on improvements to be made tosatisfy key customer requirements.Careful attention to customer requirements reduces the risk thatchanges will be required late in the project life cycle. Time is not spent developing insignificant functions and features.Reduced development costs: The identification of requiredchanges occurs early in the project life cycle. Minimizing changes following production reduces warranty costsand product support costs.Documentation: A knowledge base is built as the QFD process isimplemented. A historical record of the decision-making process isdeveloped.
  • Taguchi’s Quality Loss Function (QLF)• The quality loss function is based on the work of Electrical engineer, Dr.GENICHI TAGUCHI• (born January 1, 1924, in Tokamachi, Japan)• worked during 1950’s to improve Japan’s post-WWII telephone communication system• Served as Director- Japanese Academy of Quality from 1978 to 1982• Awarded the Deming prize in 1960- development of various techniques for industrial optimization• Father of the “Taguchi Method” and “Robust Engineering”• QLF view disagrees with the traditional (goalpost) view.• The quality loss function recognizes that products falling between specific limits are not all equal. DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Taguchi’s Quality Loss FunctionDon’t run away!• Not a mathematician?• You can still successfully apply Taguchi Method concepts to your service business.• Basic concepts are simple.• He combined the engineering, statistical methods, and experimental design principles with the economy of manufacturing• The objectives of his philosophy is to design quality into every product and corresponding processes• Taguchi’s technique is the off-line quality control method, where efforts are taken to build quality in upstream DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI ie., from manufacturing to design 1924) (B. -Loss Function.
  • The Quality Loss Function (QLF)• The four following statements summarize Taguchi’s philosophy.1. We cannot reduce cost without affecting quality.2. We can improve quality without increasing cost.3. We can reduce cost by improving quality.4. We can reduce cost by reducing variation. When we do so, performance and quality will automatically improve. DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI• In Taguchi’s view, (B. 1924) quality is not defined by specific limits, -Loss Function. but rather on whether or not it creates a financial loss to society. An example given is a defective automobile exhaust system creating air pollution.• There are many types of quality loss functions. However, in all types, the loss is determined by evaluating variation from a specific target. Taguchi’s philosophy includes three general ways to evaluate the relationship between quality and variability.
  • Taguchi’s Quality Loss FunctionQuality Defined• “Any engineered system reaches its ‘ideal function’ when all of its applied energy (input) is transformed efficiently into creating desired output energy.” (Robust p. 6)• Employee energy = input• Customer satisfied = outputCUSTOMER SATISFACTION• Design to the highest standards early in the process to eliminate all non-random errors• Quality Loss = Loss to Society quantified through “Quality Loss Function”• Variation (+/-) from optimal measure results in a loss. DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Taguchi’s Quality Loss FunctionResources Expended on Quality Design Service Delivered Post Service Delivery DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Taguchi’s Quality Loss FunctionCustomer SatisfactionWays to measure service: 1. Returning customers 2. Number of complaints (1:10) 3. Number of compliments 4. Employee attitudeDesign:• Equipment – No breakdowns• Specific jobs defined – Need to know responsibilities• Policies and Procedures – What do you want, anyway?• Taguchi Method experiment DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Quality Loss Concept• Deviation from target results in loss. – Lower than target – Greater than target – Both lose• Quantify the Loss
  • Quality Loss Function DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI• v (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Quality Loss Function L(y) = k(y-m)2 L(y) = Loss in rupees k = constant = cost to correct tolerance2 y = reported value m = mean value (average)(Taguchi On Robust Technology p. 22) DR. GENICHI TAGUCHI (B. 1924) -Loss Function.
  • Example:• Company C received an average of 10 complaints per month last year. In November they received 15 complaints (y). Management sets an acceptable level at 2 (tolerance).• It costs the company Rs.50 directly per complaint to correct the problems. They determined the cost in lost sales to be Rs.100.• Total cost per complaint: Rs.150 cost to correctk = constant = tolerance2k = Rs.150/22 = Rs.37.50 DR. GENICHI TAGUCHIL(y) = k(y-m)2 (B. 1924)L(y) = 37.50 (15-10)2 -Loss Function. = 37.50 (5)2 = 37.50 (25) = Rs.937.50 is loss for the month of November
  • 1. Nominal is better approachIn this approach, the closer to the target value,the better. . It does not matter whether the deviation is aboveor below the target value. Under .this approach the deviation is quadratic. • 2.Smaller is better approach The smaller is better approach is when a company desires smaller values. As the value gets larger, the loss incurred grows.3.Larger is better approachLarger is better occurs when a company desires higher values of a characteristic. Two examples given are employee participationand the customer acceptance rate. Under this approach, the larger the characteristic,the smaller the quality loss function.
  • • What are the losses to society from poor quality? .• the cost of poor quality goes beyond direct costs to the manufacturer such as reworking or waste costs. Traditionally manufacturers have considered only the costs of quality up to the point of shipping out the product. Taguchi aims to quantify costs over the lifetime of the product. Long term costs to the manufacturer would include brand reputation and loss of customer satisfaction leading to declining market share. Other costs to the consumer would include costs from low durability, difficulty interfacing with other parts, or the need to build in safety margins.
  • Great, so what is the actual loss function?• Think for a moment about how the costs of quality would vary with the products deviation on either side of the mean. Now if you were to plot the costs versus the diameter of a nut, for example, you would have a quadratic function, with a minimum of zero at the target diameter. We expect therefore that the loss (L) will be a quadratic function of the variance (σ, or standard deviation) from the target (m). The squared-error loss function has been in use since the 1930s, but Taguchi modified the function to represent total losses. Next we will walk though the derivation of the Taguchi Loss Function.
  • .Loss function: This is the case for nominal is bestL= K(y-m) ^2K=constant of proportionalityL=LossM= AverageLoss function:1. Effectively a one-sided tolerance => L=KY^2 (small is better)2. L=K(l/y^2) (bigger is better)
  • Uses of Quality Loss Function (QLF) Data• 1. Reduces Costs• There are three ways that managers can use QLF to reduce costs.• 1. Move the average of the actual distribution closer to the target value. 2. Reduce variability. 3. Do a combination of both.• 2. Setting Specific Limits• The data from the quality loss function can be used to determine where limits should be set to help minimize losses.
  • Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM )• What is Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) ? It can be considered as the medical science of machines.• Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment.• The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.
  • Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM )• TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity.• Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process.• The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.• TOTAL -All encompassing by maintenance and production personnel working together• PRODUCTIVE-Production of goods and services that meet the customer requirements• MAINTENACE-Keeping the plant and equipment in good condition at all times
  • Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM )• Why TPM ?TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives.The important ones are listed below.• Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.• Producing goods without reducing product quality.• Reduce cost.• Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.• Goods send to the customers must be non defective.
  • Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM :• The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program or its extended form TQP (process)• Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM.Similarities:• Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programs• Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and a long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.Differences:Category TQM TPMObject Quality ( Output and effects ) Equipment ( Input and cause )Mains of attaining goal Systematize the management. It is software oriented Employees participation and it is hardware orientedTarget Quality for PPM Elimination of losses and wastes.
  • Steps in introduction of TPM in a organizationA - PREPARATORY STAGE :• STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization : Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management is needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programs, after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all concerned individuals if required.• STEP 2 - Initial education and propaganda for TPM : Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented.
  • Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization• STEP 3 - Setting up TPM and departmental committees : TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs.• STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM working system and target : Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement.• STEP 5 - A master plan for institutionalizing : Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level.
  • Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization B - INTRODUCTION STAGE• This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers, sister concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.C – IMPLEMENTATION STAGE• In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity. Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, two for improving the efficiency of administration and one for control of safety, sanitation and working environment. D - INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE• By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage. Now is the time for applying for Planned Maintenance award. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.
  • Operational Performance Effectiveness Overall Equipment Effectiveness
  • Pillars of TPM1. 5S2. Jishu Hozen (Autonomous group or maintenance)3. Kaizen4. Planned Maintenance5. Quality Maintenance6. Training7. Office TPM8. Safety, Health and EnvironmentPILLAR 1 - 5S :TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.Japanese Term English Translation Equivalent S term• Seiri Organization Sort• Seiton Tidiness Systematize• Seiso Cleaning Sweep• Seiketsu Standardization Standardize• Shitsuke Discipline Self - Discipline
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 2PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance )• This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.• Policy :• Uninterrupted operation of equipments.• Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments.• Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation.• Stepwise implementation of JH activities.• Targets:• Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH.• Reduce oil consumption by 50%• Reduce process time by 50%• Increase use of JH by 50%
  • JISHU HOZEN• Steps in JISHU HOZEN : 1.Preparation of employees. 2.Initial cleanup of machines. 3.Take counter measures . 4.Fix tentative JH standards. 5.General inspection . 6.Autonomous inspection 7.Standardization and 8.Autonomous management.1.Train the Employees : - Educate the employees about TPM, Its advantages, - JH advantages and Steps in JH. - Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments.2.Initial cleanup of machines : - Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1 - Arrange all items needed for cleaning
  • JISHU HOZEN- On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department.- Dust, stains, oils and grease have to be removed.- The things that has to be taken care while cleaning are: Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nuts and bolts and worn out parts.- Clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tag is placed where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed.- Contents of tag is transferred to a register.- Make note of area which were inaccessible.- Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.
  • JISHU HOZEN3.Counter Measures : - Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. e.g. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets can be used. - To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken. - Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust.4.Tentative Standard : - JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly. - Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when, what and how.
  • JISHU HOZEN5.General Inspection : - The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical, hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety. - This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly. - After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others. - By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well aware of machine parts.6.Autonomous Inspection : - New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used. - Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor. - Parts which have never given any problem or part which dont need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience including good quality machine parts. - This avoid defects due to poor JH. - Inspection that is made in PM is included in JH. - The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.
  • JISHU HOZEN7.Standardization : - Up to the previous step only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced. - Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item. - Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly. - Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.8.Autonomous Management : - OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen. - PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen. - PI
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 3KAIZEN :• "Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically Kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization.• Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations.• Kaizen requires no or little investment.• The principle behind is that “a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value.”• This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies.• By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools.• These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.
  • KAIZENKaizen Policy :• Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.• relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources• Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.• Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.• Focus of easy handling of operators.
  • KAIZENKaizen Target :• Achieve and sustain zero losses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes.• It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.Tools used in Kaizen :• PM analysis• Why - Why analysis• Summary of losses• Kaizen register• Kaizen summary sheet.• The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness.• TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization.• As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects.• Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.
  • KAIZEN16 Major losses in an organization:Loss Category1. Failure losses – Breakdown loss2. Setup / adjustment losses3. Cutting blade loss4. Start up loss5. Minor stoppage / Idling loss.6. Speed loss - operating at low speeds.7. Defect / rework loss8. Scheduled downtime loss Losses that impede equipment efficiency1. Management loss2. Operating motion loss3. Line organization loss4. Logistic loss5. Measurement and adjustment loss Losses that impede man work loss1. Energy loss2. Die, jig and tool breakage loss3. Yield loss. Losses that impede effective use of production resources
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 4 PLANNED MAINTENANCE :It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which was defined earlier.• Preventive Maintenance• Breakdown Maintenance• Corrective Maintenance• Maintenance PreventionWith Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.Policy :• Achieve and sustain availability of machines• Optimum maintenance cost.• Reduces spares inventory.• Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.
  • PLANNED MAINTENANCETarget :• Zero equipment failure and break down.• Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %• Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %• Ensure availability of spares all the time.Six steps in Planned maintenance :1. Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.2. Restore deterioration and improve weakness.3. Building up information management system.4. Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan.5. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and6. Evaluation of planned maintenance.
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 5 QUALITY MAINTENANCE :• It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing.• Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement.• We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns.• Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).
  • QUALITY MAINTENANCE• QM activities are to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products.• The condition are checked and measured in time series to vary that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects.• The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.
  • QUALITY MAINTENANCEPolicy :• Defect free conditions and control of equipments.• QM activities to support quality assurance.• Focus of prevention of defects at source• Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )• In-line detection and segregation of defects.• Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.Target:• Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero• Reduce in-process defects by 50 %• Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.
  • QUALITY MAINTENANCEData requirements :• Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects.• For customer-end data, we have to get data on customer end line rejection field complaints.• In-house, data include data related to products and data related to processData related to product :• Product wise defects• Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor• Location of the defect with reference to the layout
  • QUALITY MAINTENANCE• Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement• Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process /changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.)• Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications /periodical replacement of quality components.Data related to processes:• The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material and machine.• The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process• The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.
  • TRAINING : Pillars of TPM–Pillar 6• aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently.• Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why".• By experience they gain, "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts.
  • TRAININGThe different phases of skills are Phase 1 : Do not know. Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do. Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach. Phase 4 : Can do and also teach.Policy :Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques.• Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs.• Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization• Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.
  • TRAININGTarget :• Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines.• Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques• Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.Steps in Educating and training activities :• Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training.• Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation.• Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills.• Preparation of training calendar.• Kick-off of the system for training.• Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 7OFFICE TPM :• Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, K, QM, PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are:• Processing loss• Cost loss including in areas such as procurement, accounts, marketing, sales leading to high inventories• Communication loss• Idle loss• Set-up loss• Accuracy loss• Office equipment breakdown• Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines• Time spent on retrieval of information• Non availability of correct on line stock status• Customer complaints due to logistics• Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases
  • OFFICE TPMHow to start office TPM ?• A senior person from one of the support functions e.g. Head of Finance, MIS, Purchase etc should be heading the sub-committee. Members representing all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub committee. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub committee.• Providing awareness about office TPM to all support depts.• Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to plant performance• Identify the scope for improvement in each function• Collect relevant data• Help them to solve problems in their circles• Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides - results and actions along with Kaizens.• Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.
  • Office TPMKobetsu Kaizen topics for Office TPM :• Inventory reduction• Lead time reduction of critical processes• Motion & space losses• Retrieval time reduction.• Equalizing the work load• Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the time loss on retrieval of information, by achieving zero breakdown of office equipment like telephone and fax lines.
  • Office TPM and its Benefits• Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant performance• Better utilized work area• Reduce repetitive work• Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain• Reduced administrative costs• Reduced inventory carrying cost• Reduction in number of files• Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital equipment)• Productivity of people in support functions• Reduction in breakdown of office equipment• Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics• Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases• Reduced manpower• Clean and pleasant work environment.
  • P Q C D S M in Office TPM• P - Production output lost due to want of material, Manpower productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools.• Q - Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOPs/job work, Office area rework.• C - Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics - inbound/ outbound, Cost of carrying inventory, Cost of communication, Cost- Demurrage• D - Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading) Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions Delay in payments to suppliers Delay in information• S - Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard data.• M - Number of Kaizens in office areas.
  • How office TPM supports plant TPM• Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu Hozen of the machines (after getting training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the initial stages machines are more and manpower is less, so the help of commercial departments can be taken, for this• Office TPM can eliminate the loads on line for no material and logistics.Extension of office TPM to suppliers and distributors :• This is essential, but only after we have done as much as possible internally.• With suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery, improved in-coming quality and cost reduction.• With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation, improved secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling.• In any case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight gaps in the system which affect both sides.• In case of some of the larger companies, they have started to support clusters of suppliers.
  • Pillars of TPM–Pillar 8SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT :Target :• Zero accident• Zero health damage• Zero fires• In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis.• A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers.• The committee is headed by Senior vice President ( Technical )• Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.
  • Overall Equipment Effectiveness(Total Effective Equipment Performance)
  • • Calculation: OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality•. Example:• A given Work Center experiences...• Availability of 86.7%• The Work Center Performance is 93.0%.• Work Center Quality is 95.0%.• OEE = 86.7% Availability x 93.0% Performance x 95.0% Quality = 76.6%• Total effective equipment performance• Where OEE measures effectiveness based on scheduled hours, TEEP measures effectiveness against calendar hours, i.e.: 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.• TEEP, therefore, reports the bottom line utilization of assets.• Calculation: TEEP = Loading x OEE• Example:• A given Work Center experiences...• OEE of 34.0%• Work Center Loading is 71.4%• TEEP = 71.4% Loading x 34.0% OEE = 24.3%• Stated another way, TEEP adds a fourth metric Loading, Therefore TEEP = Loading x Availability x Performance x Quality
  • • Loading• The Loading portion of the TEEP Metric represents the percentage of time that an operation is scheduled to operate compared to the total Calendar Time that is. available. The Loading Metric is a pure measurement of Schedule Effectiveness and is designed to exclude the effects how well that operation may perform.• Calculation: Loading = Scheduled Time / Calendar Time• Example:• A given Work Center is scheduled to run 5 Days per Week, 24 Hours per Day.• For a given week, the Total Calendar Time is 7 Days at 24 Hours.• Loading = (5 days x 24 hours) / (7 days x 24 hours) = 71.4%• Availability• The Availability portion of the OEE Metric represents the percentage of scheduled time that the operation is available to operate. The Availability Metric is a pure measurement of Uptime that is designed to exclude the effects of Quality, Performance, and Scheduled Downtime Events.• Calculation: Availability = Available Time / Scheduled Time• Example:• A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8 hour (480 minute) shift.• The normal shift includes a scheduled 30 minute break when the Work Center is expected to be down.• The Work Center experiences 60 minutes of unscheduled downtime.• Scheduled Time = 480 min - 30 min break = 450 Min• Available Time = 450 min Scheduled - 60 min Unscheduled Downtime = 390 Min• Availability = 390 Avail Min / 450 Scheduled Min = 90%
  • • Performance.• The Performance portion of the OEE Metric represents the speed at which the Work Center runs as a percentage of its designed speed. The Performance Metric is a pure measurement of speed that is designed to exclude the effects of Quality and Availability.• Calculation: Performance = (Parts Produced * Ideal Cycle Time) / Available Time• Example:• A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8 hour (480 minute) shift with a 30 minute scheduled break.• Available Time = 450 Min Sched - 60 Min Unsched Downtime = 390 Minutes• The Standard Rate for the part being produced is 40 Units/Hour or 1.5 Minutes/Unit• The Work Center produces 242 Total Units during the shift. Note: The basis is Total Units, not Good Units. The Performance metric does not penalize for Quality.• Time to Produce Parts = 242 Units * 1.5 Minutes/Unit = 363 Minutes• Performance = 363 Minutes / 390 Minutes = 93.0%
  • .• Quality• The Quality portion of the OEE Metric represents the Good Units produced as a percentage of the Total Units Started. The Quality Metric is a pure measurement of Process Yield that is designed to exclude the effects of Availability and Performance.• Calculation: Quality = Good Units / Units Started• Example:• A given Work Center produces 230 Good Units during a shift.• 242 Units were started in order to produce the 230 Good Units.• Quality = 230 Good Units / 242 Units Started = 95.0%
  • FMEAIntroduction FMEA -Failure Mode Effect Analysis is an analytical technique that goes in for combining Technology and Experience of people to identify foreseen failures in a product or process and planning to eliminate the Failure.Definition FMEA is a group of activities to understand and evaluate potential failure of product or process and its effects, and identify actions that eliminate or reduce the potential failures.
  • What is an FMEA?• FMEA stands for Failure Mode Effect Analysis.• Learning from each failure can be costly & time consuming.• FMEA is a systematic method of studying failure.• This ensures that time is not wasted & the root of the problem is quickly determined.• It is used to Identify methods to eliminate or reduce the chance of that failure occuring in the future.• It should be noted that an FMEA is a Living Document that is used to anticipate & prevent failures from occuring.• As such it must be continuously updated as changes in the system occur.• Failure Mode is defined as the manner by which a failure is observed.• It describes the way the failure occurs.
  • What exactly is an FMEA & how was it developed?
  • Failure mode: FMEA -Basic terms "The manner by which a failure is observed; it generally describes the way the failure occurs."Failure effect: The immediate consequences a failure has on the operation, function or functionality, or status of some itemIndenture levels: An identifier for item complexity. Complexity increases as the levels get closer to one.Local effect: The Failure effect as it applies to the item under analysis.Next higher level effect: The Failure effect as it applies at the next higher indenture level.End effect: The failure effect at the highest indenture level or total system.Failure cause: Defects in design, process, quality, or part application, which are the underlying cause of the failure or which initiate a process
  • Types of FMEADesign FMEA use in the design processby identifyingknown and foreseeable failures modes andranking failuresaccording to their impact on theproduct. Sub Classification Equipment FMEA Maintenance FMEA Service FMEA System FMEAProcess FMEA is used toidentifypotential process failure modesby ranking failures and establishing priorities, andits impact on theInternal or external customers.
  • FMEA Using FMEA in problem solvingRoot Cause Analysis / FMEA Failure mode and effect Effect Severity Corruption of hard disk 20 Loss of whole documents 10 Character loss 7 Printout scrambled 4 FMEA table
  • Failure criticality
  • FMEA Working Model
  • How to do a FMEA Analysis?- an exampleWhat are theeffects of boxfailures on the This example is asystem? bottoms-up approach to a Design FMEA, but a tops-down approach could also be used.What are theeffects ofboard failureson the box? What are the effects of part failures on the board?
  • Role of FMEA in a design
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  • Uses of FMEA• Development of system requirements that minimize the likelihood of failures.• Development of methods to design and test systems to ensure that the failures have been eliminated.• Evaluation of the requirements of the customer to ensure that those do not give rise to potential failures.• Identification of certain design characteristics that contribute to failures, and minimize or eliminate those effects.• Tracking and managing potential risks in the design. This helps avoid the same failures in future projects.• Ensuring that any failure that could occur will not injure the customer or seriously impact a system.
  • Advantages• Improve the quality, reliability and safety of a product/process• Improve company image and competitiviness• Increase user satisfaction• Reduce system development timing and cost• Collect information to reduce future failures, capture engineering knowledge• Reduce the potential for warranty concerns• Early identification and eliminitation of potential failure modes• Emphasis problem prevention• Minimize late changes and associated cost• Catalyst for teamwork and idea exchange between functions
  • Disadvantages• If used as a top-down tool, FMEA may only identify major failure modes in a system.• Fault tree analysis (FTA) is better suited for "top-down" analysis. When used as a "bottom-up" tool FMEA can augment or complement FTA and identify many more causes and failure modes resulting in top-level symptoms.• It is not able to discover complex failure modes involving multiple failures within a subsystem, or to report expected failure intervals of particular failure modes up to the upper level subsystem or system.[citation needed]• Additionally, the multiplication of the severity, occurrence and detection rankings may result in rank reversals, where a less serious failure mode receives a higher RPN than a more serious failure mode.• The reason for this is that the rankings are ordinal scale numbers, and multiplication is not a valid operation on them.• The ordinal rankings only say that one ranking is better or worse than another, but not by how much.• For instance, a ranking of "2" may not be twice as bad as a ranking of "1," or an "8" may not be twice as bad as a "4," but multiplication treats them as though they are.