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Renewable Energy Sources as per Polytechnic syllabus unit I (3/3)

Renewable Energy Sources as per Polytechnic syllabus unit I (3/3)

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Res poly unit i (3)ppt Res poly unit i (3)ppt Presentation Transcript

  • RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES(22033 ) POLYTECHNIC SYLLABUSUnit I (3/3)FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY- C.CoomarasamyFormerly Professor, JRPC, Trichy(2012-2013)
  • UNIT I (3/3)-FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY Introduction to Energy-Energy consumption and standard ofliving-classification of energy resources-consumption trend ofprimary energy resources -importance of renewable energy sources-energy chain-common forms of energy-advantages and disadvantages ofconventional energy sources-salient features ofnonconventional energy sources-environmental aspects ofenergy -energy for sustainable development-energy density of variousfuels-availability of resources and future trends. Energy scenario in India – Overall production andconsumption-Availability of primary energy resources: Conventional, Non-Conventional-Estimated potential andachievement-Growth of energy sector and its planning in India– Energy conservation: Meaning and importance.2
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURE TRENDS3
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS1.13.A. Conventional Resources(i) Fossil FuelsFossil fuels are so called because these are in fact the fossils ofold biological life that once existed on the surface of theearth.It is formed in several parts of the earth at varying depths, duringseveral million years by slow decomposition and chemicalactions of buried organic matter under favorablepressure, heat and bacterial marine environment.The fossil fuels include coal, oil and gas.Fossil fuels have been a major source of energy since about1850, the start of the industrial era. The fossil fuel age isexpected to cover only a span of 1000 years of human history(1850-2850).Presently, we are passing through the peak period of the fossil age.As per an estimate, if the world continues to consume fossil fuelsat year 2006 rates, reserves of coal will last 200years, oil - 40 years and gas - 70 years.4
  • (i) Fossil Fuels1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS5
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS6
  • (I) FOSSIL FUELS1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS7
  • (I) FOSSIL FUELS1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURE TRENDS8
  • . .1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURE TRENDS9
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(ii) Hydro ResourcesAmong all renewables, hydro power is the most advanced andflexible source of power.- a well developed and established source of electric power.Due to requirement of huge capital investment and strongenvironmental concerns about large plants, only aboutone-third of the realistic potential has been tapped so far.From about 1880 hydro turbines are used, a large number of largeand medium sized hydro schemes have been developed.The global installed generating capacity ofhydro power is about 627,000 MW.Hydro installations and plants are long lasting (turbine life isabout 50 years).This is due to continuous steady operation without hightemperature or other stresses.Therefore, it often produces electricity at low cost withconsequent economic benefits. 10
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS11
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(iii) Nuclear ResourcesU 235, U233(isotopes of uranium) and Pu 239(plutonium)areused as nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors (thermal reactors) andare known asfissile (or fissionable) materials.Out of these, only U235 occurs in nature.U233 from Th 232(thorium) andPu 239 are produced from U238 in Fast Breeder Reactors(FBRs).Th232 and U238 are known as fertile materials.Natural uranium contains 0.71% of U235 and 99.29 % of U238Currently there are around 440 nuclear power plants in the worldgenerating about 1/6 th world’s electricity.Uranium reserves in the world are small (expected to last hardlyfor 59 years at present, i.e., at the 2008 rate of consumption) andits recovery is expensive.12
  • NUCLEAR RESOURCES.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS13
  • B. Non-conventional SourcesNon-conventional technologies are presently under thedevelopment stage. At present, their share is very small.(i) Solar EnergySolar energy can be a major source of power and can be utilized byusing thermal and photovoltaic conversion systems.The solar radiation received on the surface of the earth on abright sunny day at noon is approximately 1 kW/m 2.The earth continuously intercepts solar power of 178 billionMW, which is about 10,000 times the world’s demand.But so far, it could not be developed on a large scale.According to one estimate, if all the buildings of the world arecovered with solar PV panels, it can fulfill electrical powerrequirements of the world.Solar PV power is considered an expensive source of power.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS14
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS15
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS16
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS17
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(ii) Wind EnergyThe power available in the winds flowing over the earth surface isestimated to be 1.6 10 *7 MW , which is more than thepresent energy requirement of the world.Wind power has emerged as the most economical of all renewableenergy sources.The installation cost of wind power is Rs 4 crore/ MW.Wind power installations world wide have crossed 47,317 MW.There has been remarkable growth of wind-power installation in theworld. Wind-power generation is the fastest growing energysource.It is expanding at a rate of more than 30 % annually.18
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS19
  • Savonius Wind TurbineDarrieus Wind Turbine1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS20
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(iii) Biomass EnergyEnergy resources available from animal andvegetation are called biomass energy resources.This is an important resource for developingcountries, especially in rural areas.The principal biomass resources are: Trees (wood, leaves and forest industry waste) Cultivated plants grown for energy Algae and other vegetation from oceans and lakes Urban waste (municipal and industrial waste) Rural waste (agricultural and animal waste, crop residue, etc.Solar energy absorbed by plants (through the photosynthesisprocess) is estimated to be 2 10* 21 J/year. Biomassmaterial may be transformed by chemical or biologicalprocesses to produce intermediate bio-fuels such as biogas(methane), producer gas, ethanol and charcoal.21
  • ..1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS22
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURE TRENDS23
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURE TRENDS24
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(iv) Geothermal EnergyGeothermal energy is derived fromhuge amounts ofstored thermal energy in theinterior of the earth, though itseconomic recovery on thesurface of the earthis not feasible everywhere.Its overall contribution intotal energy requirement isnegligible.However, it is avery important resource locally.25
  • (iv) Geothermal Energy1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS26
  • (iv) Geothermal Energy1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS27
  • ..(iv) Geothermal Energy1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS28
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(v) Ocean Tidal Energy :Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts energy of ocean tides into electricityor other useful forms of power.It is in the developing stage and although not yet widelyused, tidal power has potential for future electricitygeneration.Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.29
  • TIDAL ENERGYWhen tides comes into the shore, they can be trapped inreservoirs behind dams.Then when the tide drops, the water behind the dam can be letout just like in a regular hydroelectric power plant.Tidal energy has been used since about the 11th Century, whensmall dams were built along ocean estuaries and small streams.The tidal water behind these dams was used to turn water wheelsto mill grains.In order for tidal energy to work well, you need large increases intides.An increase of at least 16 feet between low tide to high tide isneeded.There are only a few places where this tide change occurs aroundthe earth. Some power plants are already operating with this idea.One plant in France(in 1966 La Rance Station)makes enoughenergy from tides (240 megawatts) to power 240,000 homes.It is more than 10 times the power of the next largest tidal stationin the world, the 17 megawatt Canadian Annapolis station.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS30
  • TIDAL POWERTidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower thatconverts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainlyelectricity.Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for futureelectricity generation.Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power hastraditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limitedavailability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flowvelocities, thus constricting its total availability.However, many recent technological developments andimprovements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidallagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, crossflow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal powermay be much higher than previously assumed, and thateconomic and environmental costs may be brought down tocompetitive levels.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS31
  • .1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS32
  • 1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS(vi) Ocean Wave EnergyWave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves andthe capture of that energy to do useful work.Good wave power locations have a flux of about 50 kilowattsper metre of shoreline.As per an estimate, the potential for shoreline-based wave powergeneration is about 50,000 MW.Deep-water wave-power resources are trulyenormous, but perhapsimpractical to capture.33
  • WAVE POWERWave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, andthe capture of that energy to do useful work —for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or thepumping of water (into reservoirs).Machinery able to exploit wave power is generally known as a waveenergy converter (WEC).Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and thesteady gyre of ocean currents.Wave power generation is not currently a widely employedcommercial technology although there have been attempts at usingit since at least 1890.In 2008, the first experimental wave farm was opened in Portugal, atthe Aguçadoura Wave Park.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS34
  • WAVE POWER.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS35
  • (vii) Ocean Thermal Energy ConversionOTEC technologyis still inits infant stages.Conceptual designs of small OTEC plantshave been finalized.Their commercial prospects arequite uncertain.The potential is likely to be more thanthat of tidal or wave energy.1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS36
  • OCEAN THERMALENERGY CONVERSION .1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS37
  • .OCEAN THERMALENERGY CONVERSION1.13 AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES AND FUTURETRENDS38
  • ENERGY – RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLESOURCES1.14 ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA39
  • 1.14 ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA1.14.1 OVERALL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION India is both a major energy producer and consumer. India currently ranks as the world’seleventh greatest energyproducer,accounting for about2.4% of the world’s total annual energyproduction,and as the world’ssixth greatest energy consumer, accounting for3.3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. Thus,India is a net energy importer, mostly duethe large imbalance betweenoil production andconsumption.40
  •  Out of 1, 57,229 MW total installed capacities India currently has15,789 MW of installedrenewable energy sources 1,00,598 MW ofThermal power- 64.6 per cent of thetotal installed capacity, 36,863 MW ofHydel power plants come next with24.7 percent of thetotal an installed capacity1.14 ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA1.14.1 OVERALL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION41
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCESA. Conventional(i) Fossil FuelIndia has vast reserves of coal, the fourth largest in the world afterthe USA, Russia and China.According to a rough estimate, the total recoverable coal in Indiais 90 billion tonne, about 10% of the world’s total.With the present rate of consumption, India will have enough coal forabout 300 years.We have only 0.6% of the world’s oil and gas reservesOil and gas represent over 40 per cent of the total energyconsumption in India.About 35% of oil needs are met through domestic productionand the balance 65% through imports.Crude oil reserves are estimated as 600 million tonne, enoughto last about 22 years at the present rate, if no further discovery ismade.1.14 ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA42
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCESNatural gas reserves are estimated as 1000 billion m 3, enoughto last for 30 years, if no further discovery is made.Oil and gas reserves are insufficient even for the transportationsector.The domestic production is decreasing slowly.However, recent findings of gas reserves in Rajasthan and theKrishna–Godavari basin off the Vishakhapatnam coast may changethe trend.The actual impact will be known once these resources are fullydeveloped and production begins.(ii) Hydro ResourcesIndia stands seventh in the list of nations with hydroresources with a total potential of100,000 M W of which approximately36,033 MW has been developed.Huge installation cost , environmental and social problems aremajor difficulties in its development. 43
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES(iii) Nuclear ResourcesIndia has modest reserves of uranium, mostly located atJadugoda, Jharkhand.Out of the total electrical power generation, 2.8% is beinggenerated by nuclear means.Nuclear-power generation is planned to reach 10,280 MW by theyear 2012 and 20,000 MW by 2020.Thorium is available in abundance in India in the form ofmonazite (ore) in the sand beaches of Kerala.The economically viable reserve of thorium in India is estimatedat 3,00,000 tonnes, which is 25% of the world’s thoriumreserves.Thorium is a fertile material, which is converted into a fissionablematerial U 233 in an FBR. (Fast Breeder Reactors)The U 233 so obtained may be used in a normal thermal reactorsuch as PHW R. (pressurized heavy water reactor)44
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCESB. Non-conventionalLocated in the tropical region, India is endowed withabundant renewable energyresources, i.e., solar, wind andbiomass including agricultural residue which are perennial innature.Harnessing these resources is best suited to meet the energyrequirement in rural areas in a decentralized manner.India has the potential of generating more than 1,00,000 MW fromnon-conventional resources.(i) Wind EnergyThe highly successful wind power programme in India wasinitiated in 1983–84 and is entirely market driven.This sector has been growing at over 35% in the last three years.India currently (year 2008) stands fourth in the world amongcountries having installed large capacity wind generators, afterGermany, USA and Spain.45
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES(ii) Solar EnergyIndia receives a solar energy equivalent of more than 5,000trillion kWh per year, which is far more than its total annualconsumption.The daily global radiation is around 5 kWh per sq. m per daywith sunshine ranging between 2300 and 3200 hours per year inmost parts of India.Though the energy density is low and the availability is notcontinuous, it has now become possible to harness thisabundantly available energy very reliably for many purposesby converting it to usable heat or through direct generation ofelectricity.The conversion systems are modular in nature and can beappropriately used for decentralized applications.46
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCESSolar Thermal Energy ProgrammeUse of solar thermal energy is being promoted f or waterheating, cooking, drying and space heating through variousschemes.The government is proposing to make solar-assisted waterheating mandatory in certain categories of buildings throughamendments in the building bylaws.Bangalore has been declared a solar thermal city with specialattention to popularize solar water heaters, and Thane in Mumbai isto follow soon.Solar Photovoltaic ProgrammeSolar PV energy is being used for solar lanterns, home-lightingsystems, street lighting systems, solar water pumps andpower plants.47
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES(iii) Biomass EnergyA large quantity of biomass is available in our country in theform ofdry waste like agro residues, fuel wood, twigs, etc., andwet wastes like cattle dung, organic effluents, sugarcanebagasse, banana stems, etc.These plants require little care, can be grown on fallow land andcan survive in harsh climatic conditions.Energy farming may be adopted in marginal and infertile lands ofthe country.(iv) Small Hydro ResourcesHydro resources of capacityless than 25 MW are calledsmall, less than 1 MW arecalled mini and less than100 kW are called micro hydro resources.The total potential is 15,000 MW out of which2,015 MW has been realized by approximately 611 plants. 48
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES(v) Geothermal EnergyThe potential in geothermal resources in the country is10,000 MW .As a result of various resource assessment studies/surveys, nearly340 potential hot springs have been identified throughoutthe country.Most of them are low-temperature hot-water resources and canbest be utilized for direct thermal applications.Only some of them can be consideredsuitable for electrical power generation.The geothermal reservoirs suitable for power generation have beenlocated at Tattapani in Chhattisgarh and Puga valley ofLadakh, Jammu and Kashmir.(vi) Ocean Tidal EnergyThere is no functional tidal plant at present and thetotal potential has been estimated as 9,000 MW.Three sites have been identified for development of tidal energy. 49
  • 1.14.2 AVAILABILITY OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES(vii) Ocean Wave and OTEC ResourcesA 150-kW pilot plant has been installed at Vizhingum harbour nearThiruvananthapuram, Kerala.The average potential (annual basis) for Indian coasts has beenestimated at around 0.02 MW/m of wave front.There is a proposal for an OTEC plant at the Minicoy Island ofLakhshdweep.Emerging technologies like ‘fuel cell’ and ‘hydrogen energy’are suited for stationary and portable power generation, whichsuits transportation purposes.In view of the growing importance of fuel cells andhydrogen, a National Hydrogen Energy Board has beencreated.50
  • 1.14.3 ESTIMATED POTENTIAL AND ACHIEVEMENT The country has an estimated renewable energy potential ofaround 85,000 MW from commercially exploitable sources: Wind, 45,000 MW; small hydro, 15,000 MW and biomass/bio energy, 25,000 MW. In addition the potential togenerate 35 MW per square km using solar photovoltaic and solar thermalenergy. The Government of India has outlined ambitious capacity expansionand investment plans for the eleventh five year plan period (FY2007- FY 2012). It has proposed an addition of 15,000 MW of Renewable Energygeneration capacities during the period. Wind Power projects form 70 percent (10,500 MW) of the proposedcapacity addition, while Small Hydro Projects (SHP) accounts for9.3 per cent (1,400 MW). The total investments on development of RE during the plan periodis expected to be about USD 2 billion. 51
  • No. Sources / Systems EstimatedPotential CumulativeAchievements(upto 31.12.2009)1. Biomass Power (Agro residues) 16,881 MW 834.50 MW2. Wind Power 48,500 MW 10925.00 MW3. Small Hydro Power (upto 25 MW) 15,000 MW 2558.92 MW4. Cogeneration-bagasse 5,000 MW 1302.00 MW5. Waste to Energy 2,700 MW 65.01 MW6. Solar Power 50 MW/sq.km. 6.00 MWSub Total (A) 88,081 MW 15691.43 MW7 Biomass Power /Cogen.(non-bagasse) 210.57 MW8. Biomass Gasifier 109.62 MWeq9. Waste-to- Energy 37.97 MWeq10. Solar PV PowerPlants and StreetLights 2.39 MWp11. Aero-Generators/Hybrid Systems 0.89 MWSub Total (B) 361.44 MWeqTotal ( A + B ) 16052.87 MWB. Off-grid/Distributed Renewable Power (including Captive/CHP plants)A. Details of Estimated Renewable Energy potential & CumulativeAchievements of power from renewables52
  •  India is endowed with abundant primary energy sources;fossil, renewable and unconventional. Coal dominates the country’s energy mix with a robust52% share in primary energy consumption, followed by oil at 30% and gas at 10%. Other sources include 2% hydroelectricity and less thana percent nuclear energy. The consumption profile in terms of primary sources is not matchedby indigenous production profile, creating concerns about energysecurity. Import dependence of oil consumption is currently about75%, which is projected to increase to 80% by 2016-17.1.14.4 GROWTH OF ENERGY SECTOR ANDITS PLANNING IN INDIA53
  •  Import component of gas is currently ruling at19%, slated to increase to 28% by 2016-17. Similarly, coal import is expected to rise from about90 million tons at present to over 200 million tons in 2016-17. As per present estimate85% of electric power generation is dependent onoil, natural gas and coal. Even though India has abundant quantities of coal, it is constrainedto regional locations, high ash content, affecting thethermal efficiency of power plants, and also there areenvironmental concerns.1.14.4 GROWTH OF ENERGY SECTOR ANDITS PLANNING IN INDIA54
  • ENERGY INDEPENDENCE BY 2030 * By 2030, the total energy requirement for the country would increaseto 400,000 MWs from the existing 185,000 MWs. Ideally India has to plan for 215,000 MWs of power to be realized fromrenewable energy resources like hydel, wind, solar, nuclear andconversion of municipal waste into energy by 2030. The country has capability to generate additional50,000 MWs of hydel power by creating regional waterways. India can generate solar energy to the extent of 60,000 MWs by havinglarge scale solar power. Gujarat State has already generated 680 MWs of solar electricpower through public-private partnership program and the power isbeing fed to the grid. India has to generate 50,000 MWs of nuclear power, particularly usingthe thorium route within the next decade and hasto generate 65,000 MWs of power using wind energy. If we work onthese targets, we will be getting nearly 225,000 MWs of electric power.1.14.4 GROWTH OF ENERGY SECTOR ANDITS PLANNING IN INDIA55
  •  Here we have to consider the reduction in load factor insolar, wind and hydel which will necessitate generation of20 to 30% excess power beyond the 400,000 MWs. This can certainly be achieved byconverting all the municipal wastes into electric energy which caneasily generate over 10,000 MWs of power. Movement towards energy independence would also demandaccelerated work in operationalizing the production of energy from thecoal sectorthrough integrated gasification and combined cycle route, so thatthe existing coal based power plant get clean coal and substantiallyreduce the carbon-di-oxide dumping in atmosphere.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* Ref- Paper presentation by Dr. DC Patra, Ph. D (PetroleumEconomics), Chief Manager, LPG Strategy Bharat PetroleumCorporation, MumbaiENERGY INDEPENDENCE BY 2030 *1.14.4 GROWTH OF ENERGY SECTOR ANDITS PLANNING IN INDIA56
  • 1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION:MEANING AND IMPORTANCEEnergy conservation refers to efforts madeto reduce energy consumption.Energy conservation can be achieved throughincreased efficient energy use, in conjunction withdecreased energy consumption and/orreduced consumption from conventional energy sources.We depend on energy for almost everything in our lives.We wish to make our lives comfortable, productive and enjoyable.Hence even if the outside temperature rises a little, we immediatelyswitch on the air conditioner to keep our house cool.This is again using up of energy.Unfortunately, what we do not realize is thatwe have starting taking things for granted andwe have started wasting energy unnecessarily.57
  • 1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION:MEANING AND IMPORTANCEMost of us forget thatenergy is available in abundance butit is limited and hence to maintainthe quality of life, it is important thatwe use ourenergy resources wisely.If we do not conserveenergy, the energywill exhaust andwe will have nothing to use.Also, energy conservation is also important when it comes to climatechange.Currently, erratic climates and climatic changes are the greatestthreats that we are facing today.Hence it is important toconserve energy.58
  •  As per the energy policy of GOI power to be made available to all by2012. One of the strategies to improve power scenario includespromotion of energy efficiency and its conservation in the country, this isfound to be the most cost effective option to augment the gap betweendemand and supply.Nearly 25,000 MW of capacity creation through energy efficiency inthe electricity sector alone has been estimated in India.( up dated on Monday, April 18, 2011) National Productivity Council (NPC), an autonomous organization underthe Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, was asked by BEE toundertake the study of energy saving potential in all 35 states / UTs. The study focused only on estimation of the total electricity consumptionand saving potential in different sectors of each state / UT. The potential for savings is about 15% of the electricityconsumption. The sector wise aggregated potential at the national level is as under:1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION:MEANING AND IMPORTANCE59
  • S.No. Sector Consumption(Billion KWh)Saving Potential(Billion KWh)1. Agriculture Pumping 92.33 27.792. Commercial Buildings/Establishments withconnected load > 500 KW9.92 1.983. Municipalities 12.45 2.884. Domestic 120.92 24.165. Industry (Including SMEs) 265.38 18.57Total 501.00 75.361.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION:MEANING AND IMPORTANCE60
  •  Seeing the huge scope of energy conservation the GoI with stategovernments is promoting investments through public-privatepartnerships in tapping renewable energy resources frommini hydro, solar, biomass, urban/industrialwaste, cogeneration, etc. For this purpose the State Governments are notifying nodal agenciesfor carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). All project developers (private as well as Government) can haveassistance of these designated agencies in terms of seeking carboncredits under CDM for both supply new and renewable sources ofenergy as well as demand (energy efficiency) side projects. With a view to intensifying efforts towards Energy Conservation ActionPlan to pursue a harmonious growth in energy efficiency different stategovernment has nominated different organization to act as nodal agencythe purpose of these is to implement energy efficiency programmes asper guide lines of BEE.(Bureau of Energy Efficiency.)1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION: MEANING ANDIMPORTANCE61
  •  The major objectives of the Energy Conservation Action Plan are to: · Raise the profile of energy conservation movement with the activeparticipation of the stakeholders, in consonance with the nationalobjectives of reducing the energy intensity of the economy. · Identify and implement cost-effective energy efficiency programsthrough a sustainable mechanism; · Encourage energy efficiency activities by drawing upon theprevailing best practices relevant to the state and keeping in mind thenational programs and activities being launched by BEE. These include the concerns of state electricity regulator in the domain ofenergy end-use efficiencies and focuseddemand-side management (DSM) initiatives.1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION: MEANING ANDIMPORTANCE62
  •  · Encourage a spurt towards professional activities with adequateemphasis on self regulation and market principles, and monitoring andevaluation of programs through quantitative metrics (performanceindicators). · Create consumer awareness vis-à-vis energy conservation andenergy efficiency consumer information and provide trainingopportunities for key professionals such as energy managers andauditors, building designers, government officials, and facility managers. · Protect and enhance the local, national and global environment.1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION: MEANING ANDIMPORTANCE63
  •  The Governments are announcing the mandatory following measuresapplicable to the governmental sector:- · Issuing notifications regarding the mandatory use of solar waterheating systems, · Use of compact fluorescent lamps, · Use of BIS marked pump sets in government and privatebuildings, including industries and · Use of solar water heating systems made mandatory in buildingshaving an area of more than 500 sq yard.1.15 ENERGY CONSERVATION: MEANING ANDIMPORTANCE64