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Res poly unit i (1)ppt Res poly unit i (1)ppt Presentation Transcript

  • RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES(22033)POLYTECHNIC SYLLABUSUnit I (1/3)FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY- C. CoomarasamyFormerly Professor, JRPC, Trichy(2012-2013)
  • UNIT I (1/3) -FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY Introduction to Energy-Energy consumption and standardof living-classification of energy resources-consumptiontrend of primary energy resources -importance of renewable energy sources-energy chain-common forms of energy-advantages and disadvantages ofconventional energy sources-salient features ofnonconventional energy sources-environmental aspects ofenergy -energy for sustainable development-energy density ofvarious fuels-availability of resources and future trends. Energy scenario in India – Overall production andconsumption-Availability of primary energy resources: Conventional, Non-Conventional-Estimated potential andachievement-Growth of energy sector and its planning inIndia – Energy conservation: Meaning and importance.2
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGYEnergystrength, might, force, power, activity, intensity, stamina, exertion, forcefulness, liveliness, life, drive, fire, spirit, determination, pep, go(informal), zip(informal), vitality, animation, vigour, verve, zest, resilience, welly(slang), get-up-and-go (informal), élan, brio, vivacity, vim (slang)power- Oil shortages have brought an energy crisis.French énergie,from Late Latin energa,from Greek energeia,from energos, active :en-, in, at;en + ergon, work;werg- in Indo-European roots.3
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY Inphysics,energy (Ancient Greek:ἐνέργεια energeia "activity, operation”) is anindirectly observed quantity that is often understood as theability of a physical system to do work on other physicalsystems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance(a length ofspace),energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls orpushes against the basic forces ofnature, along a path of a certain length. The total energy contained in an object is identified with itsmass, and energy (like mass), cannot be created or destroyed.When matter (ordinary material particles) is changed intoenergy (such as energy of motion, or intoradiation), the mass of the system 4
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY However, there may bemechanistic limits as to how much of thematter in an object may be changed into other types ofenergy and thus intowork, on other systems. Energy, like mass, is a scalar physical quantity. In the International System of Units(SI), energy is measured injoules, but in manyfields other units, such as kilowatt-hours andkilocalories, are customary. All of these units translateto units of work, which is always defined in terms offorces and thedistances that theforces act through.Force:push or pullexerted by an objecton another 5
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY Energy makes change. It does things for us. The work output depends on the energy input. It moves cars along the road and boats over the water. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer. It plays our favorite songs on the radio and lights our homes. Energy makes our bodies grow and allows our minds tothink. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. The capacity to do work depends on the amount of energy onecan control and utilize. Energy is themost basic structure input required for theeconomic growth anddevelopment of a country6
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGYEnergy is the primary and mostuniversal measure of all kinds work byhuman beings and nature.Before 200 years ago, people were essentiallydependent on manual and animal labour.Near the end of the 18th century,-James Watt-steam engine -coals power as a prime mover was unleashed.1769-steam pumps1800-output of 20 kW1700 and 1800s-an agricultural revolution and industrialization-farmimplements, nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and farm tractorsSteam ships (1807) steam locomotives (1804)1885 Karl Benz invented the carIn 1903 the Wright Brothers Flyer7
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGYMichael Faraday first proved the feasibility of converting mechanicalenergy into electrical energy in 1831.The industrial revolution began in theUnited Kingdom, and then subsequently spread throughoutWestern Europe, North America, Japan, andeventually the rest of the world.Later in 18 th century theintroduction of electrical machines along with thecommercial availability of electrical power started thenew electrical age.All this led to an increase of energy requirement by leaps andbounds.Today’s World Has Challenging Energy Requirements.Energy has been the life-blood for continual progress of humancivilizationThus with an increase in the living standard of humanbeings, the energy consumption also accelerated. 8
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVINGEnergy is animportant input of all sectors of anycountry’s economy.The standard of living of a givencountry can bedirectly related toenergy consumption.Energy crisis is due to two reasons. They are,(i) The population of the world hasincreased rapidly, and(ii) The standard of living of human being hasincreased.The energy required forhuman activities can beclassified into thefollowing major areas or sectors.9
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVING. Energy required SectorsIndustrysectorAgriculturesectorTransportationsectorDomestic SectorHouses & OfficesBetter comfort athome, due to theuse of variousappliancesBetter transportfacilitiesMore agriculturalactivitiesMore industrialproductionConsumption of more energy in a country indicates more activities in these sectorsAll these make better quality of lifeTherefore the per capita energy consumption of a country is an index ofthe standardof living or prosperity (i.e., income) of the people of that country 10
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVINGPOWER SAVED IS POWER PRODUCED 11
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVING.Energy use per capitaPrimary energy use (before transformation to other end-use fuels)in kilograms of oil equivalent, per capita.Just to give you an idea about how India compares with other economies in energyconsumption – Indian used 510 kg of energy compared toU.S.A, which consumes 7,778 kg of energy per capita.The World average of energy consumption is close to 1818 kg.12
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVING1Total annual energyconsumption of the world11 x 10*13kWh/year2 Country U.S.A India3 Energy consumed by 22 % ofenergy2.6% ofenergy4 % of World’s Population 6 % 17 %5 Present annual per capitaelectrical energyconsumption13000 kWh 400 kWhThis mismatch reflects the negative differential in thequality of life of the Indian people.13
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVINGDeveloping countries at present export primary products suchas food, coffee, tea, jute, ores etc.,This does not give them thefull value of their resources.To get better value, theprimary products should beprocessed to products for export.This needs energy.The per capita energy indeveloped countries remainsmuch more than in thedeveloping countries.If the standard of living in thedeveloping countries is improved, and approaches that of thedeveloped countries, theenergy requirement will bemuch more than the estimation.14
  • 1.2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OFLIVINGENERGY AS AN OBSTACLE TO IMPROVED LIVINGSTANDARDSChief characteristic of poverty:basic human needs – food, shelter, health care, education, and livelihoods –remain unfulfilled .The real determinant of poverty is the level of services thatenergy provides.The poor use energy very inefficiently:the technologies available are inefficientinadequate inanimate energyMain assumption:Poverty and scarcity of energy services go hand in hand,and exist in a synergistic relationship.Goal: Increasing magnitude of energy consumptionImproving the efficiency of energy utilization.15
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES.Energy ResourcesBased onusabilityBased onTraditionaluseBased onLong termavailabilityBased onCommercialapplicationBased onoriginPrimaryInter-MediateSecondaryConventionalNon-ConventionalNon-RenewableRenewableCommercialNon-commercialFossilNuclearHydroSolarWindBiomassGeo-thermalwaveOceanthermalOceanwave 16
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES1. Based on Usability of Energy(a) Primary Resources:These are resources embodied in nature prior to undergoingany human made conversions ortransformations.Examples: coal, crude oil, sunlight, wind, running rivers(hydro),vegetation, uranium, etc.These resources are generally available inraw forms and arelocated, explored, extracted, processed and areconverted toa form as required by the consumer.Thus, some energy isspent in making the resource available to a user in a usableform.17
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES(b) Intermediate Resources:These are obtained from primary energy by one or moresteps of transformation.Some forms of energy may becategorized both in intermediate as well assecondary resources,e.g., electricity and hydrogen.(c) Secondary Resources:The form of energy which isfinally supplied to aconsumer forutilization is known assecondary or usable energy, e.g.,electrical energy,thermal energy (in the form of steam or hot water),chemical energy (in the form of hydrogen or fossil fuels), etc.18
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES2. Based on Traditional Use(a) ConventionalEnergy resources which arebeing traditionally used formany decades are calledconventional energy resources,e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro resources.(b) Non-conventionalEnergy resources which arebeing produced continuously in nature and arein exhaustible are calledrenewable sources of energy (or)non- conventional energy.e.g., Solar, wind, biomass, bio gas, wave, tidal,ocean thermal, etc.,19
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES3. Based on Long-term Availability(a) Non-renewableResources which arefinite anddo not get replenished aftertheir consumption are callednon-renewable,e.g., fossil fuels, uranium, etc.(b) RenewableResources which arerenewed by nature again and again andtheir supply isnot affected by the rate of their consumption are calledrenewable,e.g.,solar, wind, biomass, ocean (thermal, tidal and wave),geothermal, hydro, etc.20
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES4. Based on Commercial Application(a) Commercial Energy ResourceThe secondary usable energy forms such aselectricity, petrol, diesel, gas, etc., areessential forcommercial activities and arecategorized as commercial energy resources.(b) Non-commercial EnergyThe energy derived from nature and used directlywithout passing through a commercial outlet is calleda non-commercial resource,e.g., wood, animal dung cake, crop residue, etc.21
  • 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES5. Based on Origin(a) Fossil fuels energy(b) Nuclear energy(c) Hydro energy(d) Solar energy(e) Wind energy(f ) Biomass energy(g) Geothermal energy(h) Tidal energy(i) Ocean thermal energy(j) Ocean wave energy22
  • 1.4 CONSUMPTION TREND OF PRIMARY ENERGYRESOURCES The average percentage consumption trend ofvarious primary energy resources of theworld is indicated in Fig. 1.1, though thetrend differs from country to country. Looking at this figure, theheavy dependence onfossil fuels stands out clearly. About 86% of theworld’s energy supply comesmainly from fossil fuels. The share of fossil fuels is more than90% in India. Fig. 1.2.23
  • 1.4 CONSUMPTION TREND OF PRIMARYENERGY RESOURCES.In 2006, the world consumed 10.8 billion tonnes (79.7 billion barrels) in oilEquivalent energy, comprised of 36 % oil, 24 % natural gas,28 %, 6 % nuclear and 6 % hydro electric energy.Fig. 1.1 Consumption trend of various primary energy resourcesof the world 24
  • 1.4 CONSUMPTION TREND OF PRIMARYENERGY RESOURCES.Fig.1.2.The image shows the energy consumption pattern of India. 25
  • 1.5 IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGYSOURCESEver-increasing use offossil fuels andrapid depletion ofnatural resources have led todevelopment ofalternative sources of energy which arerenewable andenvironment friendly.The following points may be mentioned in this connection:1. The demand of energy isincreasing by leaps and bounds due torapid industrialization andpopulation growth, and hence theconventional sources of energy will not be sufficient tomeet the growing demand.26
  • 1.5 IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGYSOURCES2. Conventional sources (except hydro) are non-renewableand are bound to finish up one day.3. Conventional sources (fossil fuels, nuclear) also causepollution; thereby their use degrades the environment.4. Large hydro resources affect wildlife, causedeforestation and pose various social problems due toconstruction of big dams.5. In addition to supplying energy, fossil fuels are alsoused extensively as feed stock materials for themanufacture of organic chemicals.6. As reserve deplete, the need for using fossil fuelsexclusively for such purposes may become greater.Due to these reasons it has become important to exploreand develop non-conventional energy resources toreduce too much dependence on conventionalresources.27
  • 1.5 IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGYSOURCESRealizing theimportance of non-conventional energy sources,in 1981, the Government of India established aCommission for Additional Sources of Energy(CASE) in theDepartment of Science and Technology.In 1982, Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources(DNES) under theMinistry of Energy wascreated.In 1987, Indian Renewable Energy Development AgencyLtd., (IREDA) wasestablished.In 1992, DNES was laterconverted toMinistry of Non Conventional Energy Sources.28
  • 1.6 ENERGY CHAINGenerally, (but not always) wecannot use the energy available fromprimary energy sources directly.For example we cannot drive an electric motor fromuranium or coal.The energy available from a primary energy source is knownas raw energy.This energy undergoes various forms of transformations beforebeing utilized finally.The sequence of energy transformations between primaryand secondary energy (usable energy) is known as energychain or energy route.PrimaryenergyElectricalenergyTransmissionTransportedProcessingProcessingSecondaryEnergy(Fuel)Primaryenergyconsumerconsumer29
  • 1.6 ENERGY CHAIN.PrimaryEnergyResourcesElectricRouteNon- electricRouteFinal energyConsumptionThe block diagram of energy chain is shown in the fig.At present about 30 t0 40% world’s energy supply is metthrough electrical energy route.30
  • 1.6 ENERGY CHAINEnergy Chain- from extraction to combustion31
  • .1.6 Energy chain32
  • 1.6 Energy chain33
  • 34
  • 35
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY1. Mechanical Energy is the sum ofpotential energy and kinetic energy present in the componentsof a mechanical system.It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object.It is required for movement of objects, changing the shapeof the objects, and so on.It is used intransportation, agriculture, handling, processing, and otherindustrial processes. 36
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY.Mechanical energy can be eitherkinetic energy (energy of motion) or potential energy (stored energy ofposition)Potential EnergyAn object can store energy as the result of its position.For example, the heavy ball of a demolition machineis storing energy when it is held at an elevated position.This stored energy of position is referred to as potentialenergy. Similarly, a drawn bow is able to store energyas the result of its position.Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.An object that has motion - whether it is vertical orhorizontal motion – has kinetic energy.There are many forms of kinetic energy –vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion),rotational (the energy due to rotational motion),and translational (the energy due to motion fromone location to another).37
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY2. Electrical Energy:can refer to several closely related things. It can mean: The energy stored in an electric field. The potential energy of a charged particle in an electric field. The energy provided by electricityElectrical energy - energy made available by the flow of electriccharge through a conductor; e.g.,“ built a car that runs on electricity"Electrical energy is considered to be the top-grade form ofenergy.I t is used universally as a vehicle of energy.About 30–40% energy distribution in the world is met throughelectrical supply systems at present.It can be very conveniently and efficiently converted to otherforms of energy.38
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY39
  • 1.7 Common forms of energy40
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY3. Thermal Energyis the part of the total internal energy of athermodynamic system orsample of matter that results in thesystem temperature.This quantity may bedifficult to determine or even meaninglessunless the system hasattained its temperature only through heating, andnot been subjected to work input or output, orany other energy-changing processes.i.e.,It is usedto raise the temperature of an object duringindustrial processes.It canalso be converted to mechanical energy with the help ofheat engines.There are three grades of thermal energy:41
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY(a) High Grade (500–1000 C and higher)- can beconverted efficiently intomechanical energy.(b) Medium Grade (150–500 C)- can beconverted intomechanical energy withdifficulty.(c) Low Grade (80–150 C)- cannot beconverted efficiently intomechanical energy and isused mostly forheating purposes.42
  • 1.7 Common forms of energy43
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY- heat ofenergy flow is aflow of energy from anobject at ahigher temperature to anobject at alower temperature.- thermal energy is thetotal randomkinetic energy ofparticles in an object.44
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGYProduction of electricity fromthermal energy45
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY46
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGY4. Chemical Energy:- is the potential of a chemical substance toundergo a transformation througha chemical reaction or, to transform other chemicalsubstances.- Breaking or making ofchemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbedor evolved from a chemical system.- Energy that can be released (or absorbed) because of areaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to thedifference between theenergy content of the products and the reactants.Fuels and organic matter contain chemical energy.Exothermic chemical reactions release heat energy.Also, chemical energy is directly converted intoelectrical energy in fuel cells,storage batteries, etc., and intothermal energy by combustion. 47
  • 1.7 COMMON FORMS OF ENERGYThe energy held in the covalent bonds between atoms in amolecule is called chemical energy.Every bond has a certain amount of energy.To break the bond requires energy –in chemical language it is called endothermic.These broken bonds then join together to create new molecules,and in the process release heat -- chemists call this exothermic.If the total heat given out is more than the heat taken in then thewhole reaction is called exothermic, and the chemicals get hot.The burning of methane in oxygen is an example of this.48