Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop


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  • Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop

    1. 1. Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop Monday, October 20, 2008 Dartmouth North Community Centre
    2. 2. Prepared and Presented by: <ul><li>Saint Mary’s University: </li></ul><ul><li>Community-Based Environmental Monitoring Network </li></ul><ul><li>Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nova Scotia Department of the Environment </li></ul>
    3. 3. Purpose: <ul><li>To provide a forum to increase awareness regarding aquatic invasive species on the basis of what took place in Little Albro Lake and to work towards mitigation of the spread of invasives in other bodies of water in Dartmouth utilizing early warning detection systems. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Background: <ul><li>Overview of what has taken place in Little Albro Lake </li></ul><ul><li>A local perspective from resident Ron Williams </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Dr. Jeremy Lundholm Associate Professor, Department of Biology/ Environmental Studies, Saint Mary’s University </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to invasive species </li></ul>
    6. 6. Native, Non-native, Invasive? Dr. Jeremy Lundholm
    7. 7. Biogeographic Realms <ul><li>Separate areas of evolution </li></ul>
    8. 8. Native Species <ul><li>Evolved in a particular biogeographical realm or region </li></ul><ul><li>For Nova Scotia, Native species are those considered to have been present for at least 500 years (pre-European contact) </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 plant species in NS are Native </li></ul><ul><li>Native to Canada, not necessarily Native to NS </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous </li></ul>Cloudberry/Bakeapple Red Maple
    9. 9. Non-native Species <ul><li>Have been Introduced from other regions </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of all plant species in NS </li></ul><ul><li>Most do not cause problems </li></ul><ul><li>Treat with caution </li></ul>Wild Carrot/Queen Anne’s Lace Dandelion
    10. 10. Invasive Species <ul><li>Are Non-native , and cause </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological </li></ul><ul><li>or Economical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Often spread rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Do not plant! </li></ul>Norway Maple Purple Loosestrife
    11. 11. How Invasive Species Contribute to Ecosystem Degradation <ul><li>1. Exclusion/consumption of natives </li></ul><ul><li>2. Change ecosystem functions </li></ul><ul><li>3. Aesthetic/human values </li></ul><ul><li>4. Economic costs ($137 000 000 000 US/yr) </li></ul>
    12. 12. What Proportion of Non-native Species Become Problematic? <ul><li>“ Ten’s Rule”: </li></ul><ul><li>imported->introduced 10% </li></ul><ul><li>introduced->established 10% </li></ul><ul><li>established-> pest 10% </li></ul>
    13. 13. Is It Native ? <ul><li>Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre (ACCDC) </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “Data Products” </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “Species Ranks” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Anything with “SE” for an SRank is not native </li></ul>
    14. 14. ACCDC, click “Data Products”
    15. 15. Click on “Species Ranks”, scroll down, choose which province
    16. 16. Is It Invasive ? <ul><li>Web Sites: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Contact local ecologists or botanists </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Dr. Cathy Conrad </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Saint Mary’s University </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to watershed stewardship </li></ul>
    18. 18. Everything is connected in nature:
    19. 19. The “Ribbon of Life” <ul><li>The &quot;ribbon of life&quot; is an area extending several metres on either side of the shoreline of lakes, rivers and wetlands, from shallow water up onto drier land. The &quot;ribbon of life&quot; is unique. It is a sensitive and critical life zone where up to 90 per cent of the wildlife in lakes, rivers and wetlands is found </li></ul>
    20. 20. Shorelines can: <ul><li>Trap sediments from uplands run-off. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle nutrients in on-shore plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect shallow waters from excessive warming. (Temperature rises increase algae growth.) </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve the ecological balance of lake. (Nourishing species such as insects and birds which in turn nourish fish.) </li></ul><ul><li>Play an essential role in the beauty of the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Human tampering can inadvertently destroy any or all of these important functions of the shoreline. Our &quot;cleaning up the waterfront&quot; slowly damages the shoreline environment which is vital to a healthy lake. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Shoreline Stewardship <ul><li>Shoreline stewardship is caring for your property for you, your children and grandchildren and for a healthy environment. Runoff of silt, chemicals and nutrients - including phosphorus - into lakes, rivers and wetlands is a big problem. It can cause algal blooms, kill fish and other wildlife and lower water quality. As a landowner, you can help to ensure clean water, maintain wildlife habitat and a healthy environment. </li></ul>
    22. 22. The “Living by Water” Project:
    23. 23. Some simple steps to healthier lakes: <ul><li>Stop cutting grass or reduce the size of your lawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Use phosphate-free soaps and detergents. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve and/or replant shoreline vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the lot well treed. Never clear-cut to the shoreline. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce water use. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use any fertilizer, herbicides or pesticides near the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid gas and oil spills. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Here are a few ideas that are useful in restoration initiatives: <ul><li>PRESERVATION - retain existing natural shoreline - minimize access to water to avoid shoreline damage </li></ul><ul><li>NATURALIZATION - leave degenerated shorelines to regenerate naturally - &quot;hands off &quot; approach ( no cutting, no spraying, no fertilizing, no work) </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCEMENT - plant native species and remove non-native species </li></ul><ul><li>- copy Mother Nature </li></ul><ul><li>RESTORATION - plant cleared areas with native species - duplicate existing natural shoreline </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Mr. Mark Elderkin </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Biologist (Species-at-Risk): Wildlife Division, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways of decisions, and pathways of introduction </li></ul>
    26. 26. INVASIVE SPECIES AND DARTMOUTH’S ALBRO LAKES Mark F. Elderkin Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources A Symptom or The Problem?
    27. 27. How Do Our Individual Choices and Decisions Affect The Environment and Enjoyment of Others?
    28. 28. WHAT ARE SOME OF OUR ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES? <ul><li>Lawns (Eutrophication, leaching of pesticides, higher maintenance costs) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Beaches (Shoreland erosion) </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Launches, Wharves, Jetties (Shoreland Fragmentation, Loss Fish Habitat) </li></ul><ul><li>Native or Exotic Plants (Higher Environmental and Economic Costs Using Exotic plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers, Pesticides (Maybe necessary with native or exotic plants, but greatly reduced and less expensive with native species). </li></ul><ul><li>View and Access to the Water </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered or Natural Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Infilling Shorelands and Altering Drainages </li></ul>URBAN SHORELANDS BY DESIGN OR ACCIDENT?
    29. 29. Aquatic Vegetation At Little Albro Lake (Survey August 2007) Of approx. 1750 species of vascular plants in NS, about 1/3 rd are exotic. * Invasive * Exotic Scientific Name Abundance Nymphoides pelata * abundant, from shoreline to ~ 5m from shore Potamogeton perfoliatus abundant through‑out Utricularia intermedia common from shoreline to ~ 5m from shore Utricularia purpurea common from shoreline to ~ 5m from shore Nymphaea odorata scattered Nymphaea odorata, a dark pink form * uncommon Elodea canadensis one plant seen Myriophyllum humile abundant Najas flexilis abundant Potamogeton foliosus common Typha latifolia scattered patches, introduced? Nuphar variegata rare Pontederia cordata scattered patches Sparganium angustifolium common Sparganium emersum uncommon Triadenum virginicum scattered along shoreline Lysimachia terrestris scattered along shoreline
    30. 30. Purple Loosestrife Glossy Buckthorn Garlic Mustard
    31. 31. North American Distribution Yellow Floating Heart (Nymphoides peltata) From 2007
    32. 32. Water Hyacinth – Hubley Lake Drainage 2001
    33. 33. Other Introduced Species At Little Albro Lake Exotic = Goldfish Invasive = Smallmouth Bass
    34. 34. HOW DO INVASIVES GET HERE? WHAT ARE THE PATHWAYS? <ul><li>Intentional Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental Plants, Nursery Sales, or Disposals </li></ul><ul><li>Land/Water Alterations </li></ul><ul><li>Ballast Water </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Hulls, Fishing Boats and Other Recreational Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture Escapes </li></ul><ul><li>Live Food Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicular Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>And many, many others………………. </li></ul>“ Hardy plants well adapted to the Canadian Environment!” Banner on homepage of an Aquatic Plant Internet Wholesaler
    35. 35. <ul><li>GET INFORMED : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn which invasive species are a problem in your area, what they look like, and monitor for their presence. Learning the difference between invasive non-native plants and native plants is the first step to managing vegetation on your property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a nursery stock plant is promoted as being “hardy” and “reproduces easily” these are indications that should be checked into further before buying and planting on your property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult with knowledgeable resource people before you try to control or eradicate an invasive species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be vigilant and monitor changes in the vegetation on your property. Even areas that are considered “wild” may have invasive plants move into them. Walk your property regularly, and keep an eye out for invaders. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>PRACTICE PREVENTION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid disturbing ground unnecessarily. Once ground is disturbed, invasive plants can get a foothold and out-compete native species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave a buffer of native plants such as shrubs and trees on the shore to reduce chances of fertilizer run-off that gives an advantage to invasive and nuisance exotic species to get established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant ground cover immediately after construction or other disturbance of your soil, before weed seeds can get started. Better still, carefully plan the layout of your property before any construction begins and leave as much native vegetation as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch out for other common garden and landscaping plants which may be aggressive in your area. Most invasive plants were introduced as landscaping plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before you plant a new plant – do you know what it is and what its characteristics are? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before you bring your boat and lawnmower from home to the cottage (or visa versa), clean or hose down the trailer, boat, motor and mower blades. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Nerissa Mulligan </li></ul><ul><li>Water and wastewater Branch, Nova Scotia Department of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>“Management” of yellow floating heart </li></ul>
    38. 38. Survey <ul><li>Yellow Floating Heart is present across North America. </li></ul><ul><li>NSE compiled summary table with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>management and/or control options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indication of their effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common control methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Management Options Herbicide Hand removal Dredging Bottom tarps Education
    40. 40. Panacea? Respondents who said there is no magic potion for getting rid of Yellow Floating Heart 100%
    41. 41. Example: Florida, USA <ul><li>Photo from Jess Van Dyke of the </li></ul><ul><li>Division of State Lands for Northwest Florida </li></ul>
    42. 42. Example: Washington, USA <ul><li>Photos from Laurel Baldwin of the </li></ul><ul><li>Whatcom County Noxious Weed Control Board </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><ul><li>Similar history to Little Albro Lake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dredging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom tarps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-removal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YFH continues to be present despite numerous initiatives by various agencies to control and/or eradicate it. </li></ul></ul>Example: Brown’s Inlet, Ottawa
    44. 44. Next Steps <ul><ul><li>No simple remedy for a complex problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts should focus on early detection and prevention </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. What can individuals do? <ul><li>Community-based monitoring for the early detection of invasive species in other bodies of water in Dartmouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated through the Community-Based Environmental Monitoring Network at SMU. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Albro Lake Watch Lake Sections: 1. Golden Park 4. Ambercrest Place Residents 7. East Gravel trail (Bench 1) 2. Boardwalk@ Parking area 5. Boardwalk @ skate park 8. East Gravel trail (Bench 2) 3. Leaman Drive Residents 6. East Boardwalk 9. Shore along Highway 111 Year Date (MM/DD) Section (Location around Lake) Species Identified Description/Comments
    47. 47. Thank you for attending. <ul><li>If you would like to have more information about this presentation or would like to receive a copy, please contact the Community-Based Environmental Monitoring Network office at: 491-6243 or </li></ul>