8000 BCE AP World History Unit I: Foundations 600 CE Paleolithic Neolithic 1st Villages 1st Civs - RVC Classical Civs/Rise of World Religions 8 Elements of a Political Systems Civilization •Democracy •Writing System •Republic •Organized Belief System •Monarchy •Cities •Dictatorship •Public Works •Aristocracy •Specialized Jobs •Oligarchy •Government •Theocracy •Social Classes •Art/Architecture
8000 BCE Global History Review 600 CE Paleolithic Neolithic 1st Villages 1st Civs - RVC Classical Civs/Rise of World Religions•“Old Stone •Agricultural •Jericho •Mesopotamia (Tigris, Euphrates), • Persia: Zoroastrianism, tolerance, Cyrus theAge” Revolution Fertile Crescent, Hammurabi, Great •Catal Huyuk Sumerians, Babylonians,•Nomadic, •Farming, Assyrians, Hittites, Hebrews •Greece – City states, direct democracy,small clans domesticated •Jomon philosophy (SPA), Pericles, Hellenism, Alex the •Egypt (Nile), Theocracy, animals Great•Hunters/ Hieroglyphics, PolytheisticGatherers •Not everyone •India – Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Caste •Indus (Indus, Ganges), Mohenjo- System, Mauryan, Gupta Empires settled – Pastoral Daro, Harappa, Aryans, Vedic•Men/Women – Nomads Age, Origins of Hinduism, Caste •China –Q’in, Han Dynasties, Confucianism,social equality System Legalism, Daoism, spread of Buddhism, filial •Greater social piety, Shi Huangdi, Han Wudi, civil service •China (Huang He) Shang, Zhou, exam inequality, Dynasty, Oracle bones, “Middle specialized jobs, •Rome – Republic, Julius Caesar, Caesar Kingdom,” Mandate of Heaven, food surplus Dynastic Cycle Augustus, Pax Romana, Law of 12 Tables, Fall of Rome 8 Elements of a Political Civilization Systems India: Indus River Valley --------Aryan (Vedic Age)------------Maurya-------------Gupta •Writing System •Democracy 3600-1900 BCE -----------------1500 BCE--------------326 -184 BCE--------320-535 CE •Organized Belief •Republic China: Shang Dynasty --------Zhou Dynasty--------Qin Dynasty-------------Han Dynasty System •Monarchy 1500-1027BCE ---------1027-771BCE---------221-207BCE------------206BCE-220CE •Cities •Dictatorship •Public Works Mediterranean: Minoan --------Mycenaean--------------Greek-----------------Roman •Aristocracy •Specialized Jobs 1600 BCE -------1400 BCE--------------800BCE-----------500BCE-476CE •Oligarchy •Government •Theocracy Mesoamerican: Olmec ---------------------Mayan---------------------Aztec •Social Classes 1200BCE -------------300BCE-900CE---------1200-1500CE •Art/Architecture
2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE 1. Hunting and gathering: Small bands of 20-30people. Gender equality because both contributed to survival 2. Mostly Nomadic but some Permanent settlements were established in areas with abundant food resources (grains, fish). 3. Neanderthal Man: First fully modern human beings-physically and mentally. Belief in afterlife, buried dead4. Cro-Magnon man: Interested in fashion and art. Humans during this period found shelter in caves. Cave paintings were left behind.
Homo Sapiens Neanderthals Cro-Magnons ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )Paleolithic peoples lived insmall nomadic bands with Homo Sapienfew class distinctions, and Sapienhad an interest in art and (40,000 BCE-Present ) simple spiritual beliefs.
8000-3000 BCE 1. Food surplus lead to population boom 2. Permanent settlements and communities develop. Idea of private property 3. Development on farming technology, art, architecture, language, job specialization, irrigation, etc.4. Development of cities: Catal Huyuk, Jericho.
Advanced Advanced Cities Technology Specialized Art and Workers/ Architecture Complex Social Classes Institutions: Record- Government Keeping Public Works Economic Systems Organized religion
Mesopotamia: “The Cradle of Civilization”“Fertile Crescent” and lack of natural barriers allowed many groups to control this valuable area.
Sumerian City-States 3000 B.C.E. Successful agriculture, irrigation systems Writing, cuneiforms Use of wheel 12 month calendar Polytheistic Polytheistic: The Gods were Anthropomorphic.City-State: Urban areas that controlled surrounding regions and looselyconnected with other city-states: Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Lagash, Babylon, Kish Developed organized projects: irrigation systems, palaces, ziggurats, defensive walls, temples
The Babylonian Empires Hammurabi, the Judge • “King of the four quarters of the world” • Centralized bureaucratic government • System of taxation • First written code of lawsMathematics Babylonian Achievements 12 Month Babylonian Calendar Numbers
The Hittites The Assyrians •Learned to •Centralized extract iron from bureaucratic ore and were the government. first to make •Built military tools and roads to move weapons of iron. troops quickly. •Founded first The Phoenicians libraries. •Best known formanufacturing and trade The Hebrews •“Carriers of Civilization” •Belief in Judaism, first•Created first monotheistic faith alphabet • Ten commandments
Traders, Invaders, and Empire Builders?The Sumerians The Babylonians The Hittites Traders Empire Builders Invaders Assyrians Phoenicians Hebrews Invaders Traders Empire Builders
Geography of Egypt
Walk Like an Egyptian •Rich soil, gentle annual flooding • Led by Pharaoh – leader with total power •water management, pyramids, astronomy, hieroglyphs, mummification, calendar, gold •Polytheistic •Women rulers, buy, sell property, inherit, will property, dissolve marriages, still subservient to men • Hierarchy: pharaoh, priest, nobles, merchants, artisans, peasants, slaves •Conquered by (1100 BCE)
Geography of China
China: Shang on the Huang Shang: 1700-1100 BCE • Stable agri-surplus, trade-centered • N. China, walled cities, strong army, chariots • “The Middle Kingdom” World View • Bronze, pottery, silk, decimal system, calendar • Patriarchal, polytheistic, ancestor veneration, oracle bones• Aristocrats and bureaucrats directed the work and life of the Shang.• Warfare a constant feature.• Most commoners worked as semi free serfs in agriculture. Otherswere artisans, craftsmen.
It’s Zhou Time! Replaced Shang around 1100 BCE Ruled 900 years, kept customs, traditions Mandate of Heaven Feudal system, nobles gained, bureaucracies, war amongst feudal kingdoms, collapse 256 BCEEstablished early forms of feudalism in which the King gave largetracts of land to loyal leaders who became lords. These lords providedthe king with military forces in exchange for the land.
Geography of India
Indus Valley: 3300 – 1700 B.C.E.The Harappan Civilization Outside contact more limited - moutains Kyber Pass connection to outside Twin Cities of Harrappa, Mohenjo-Daro Master-planned, water system, strong central gov’t, polytheistic, written language Pottery, cotton, cloth Cities abandoned, reason unknown Aryans arrive 1500 BCE
Aryans: The Vedic Age: 1500-500 B.C.E.. From Caucasus Mtns. Black/Caspian Sea Nomads who settled Brahmins Vedas, Upanashads basis for Hinduism Caste system Kshatriyas warriors, priests, peasants later re-ordered: Brahmins Vaishyas (priests), warriors, landowners- merchants, peasants, untouchables (out castes) Shudras Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
Civilization in the Americas Olmecs (Mexico), Mayans (Mexico/Guatemala), and Chavin Cult (Andes) developed similarly to River Valley Civilizations: urbanization, polytheistic, irrigation, writing, calendar, monumental buildings, social structure, city-states. The point: Similar pattern of development in different part of earth, no contact The difference: No major river. Had to adapt to rainforest and mountains.
Geography of Greece
Greek Achievements Art, architecture, sculpture, amphitheaters, dramas, math, astronomy, medicine Ideal beauty, Sports, Olympics Age of Philosophy: Pericles; Socrates, Plato, Direct Aristotle.Democracy, Mythology –Golden age polytheistic humanistic gods
Alexander the Great! Peloponnesian War with Sparta (431 BCE) Athens loses power Macedonians from north conquer And unites Greek Peninsula Followed by son, Alexander, unified Greece, invaded PersiaWhat was Alexander’s Greatest Accomplishment?
Alexander’s Empire Hellenic Persian Indian EgyptianWhich four major civilizations did Alexander briefly unite?
Geography of Rome
Roman Achievements Art, architecture, arch, dome, aqueducts, roads Centralized government: Republic, Dictator, Empire, Civil Service, Senate, Patricians, Plebeians Equal under Law, justice, 12 tables of law Professional army,Coliseum, citizenshipBread and for Circus, conqueredGladiators, people, Paxchristianity Romana
Unified China: Centralized Government Q’in Empire Led by Emperor Shi Huangdi Unified monetary system, weightsand measurements Legalist government Connected – burned Confucian Great Wall of books China, terra cotta warriors
Expanded Empire, developed a bureaucracy, Silk Road Trade – The Han Dynasty! spread of Buddhism Emperor Han Wudi – Confucian style government Paper, Ship Rudders, Wheelbarrow,Hot air balloons, sundials, metallurgy Civil Service Exams – Social classes: Nobles, Scholar-gentry, Farmers, Merchants
Mauryan Empire Centralized government with bureaucracy, tax collection 321 BCE – 185 BCE Strong military, Ashoka converts to Buddhism: non-violence, moderation Rock & Pillar edicts, Buddhism spread, BigFounded by Chandragupta Maurya time traders: silk, cotton, Unified smaller Aryan kingdoms elephants (much more) to Greatest extent under Ashoka the west
Rise of Gupta: 220 BCE – 320 CE Hinduism resurgent Women lost rights; own property, study religion, child marriages common Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. 375-415 CE, revival under Chandra Gupta Achievements in mathematics –pi, zero, numerals, astronomy, medicine, literature
Extensive Trade:Land Route = Silk Road Water Route = Indian Ocean sp ic es s silk s on good rice & cott whea horst s spices e gold & ivory & ivory gold Pearls s on good co t t
Classical Comparison: Roman Empire and Han Dynasty Identity Greek and Latin based – Greco- Roman Patrician and Plebeians – social Citizenship – unifying Identity History, Music, Drama, ArtChinese – calligraphyConfucianism – Filial PietySuperior and InferiorStressed education – “Gentleman”Ethnocentrism – Great Wall
Well organized bureaucracy Government based upon Legalist and Confucian ideas and education Well organized bureaucracy founded on Greco-Roman law and classical learning
BeliefsPatriarchicalReliance on PatriciansGreek and Roman Mythological faithTemples, Sacrificies, OlympicsJudaism and Christianity –Persecuted at times Patriarchical Reliance on landed gentry Ancestor Veneration – Oracle Bones Daoism – “The Way” – Wu Wei Confucianism – five relationships Buddhism – Persecuted at times
Public Works“The Great Builders” Great Wall of ChinaColumns, Dome, Arch Bridges, Roads, CanalsAqueducts, roads, bridges, Tombs - Terra Cotta Warriorstheaters, The Coliseum
Grand Canal Roman Roads
Expansion And Trade Strong Military – led to expansionStrong Military – professional Gave land and riches to soldiers – seenarmy - led to expansion as very important figures in LegalistGave land and riches to soldiers China- reward Use of rivers – Huang He and YangtzeUse of Mediterranean Sea Built Roads, bridges, canalsBuilt roads, bridges, canals
Decline of EmpireRoman Empire Han China Decline in Morals and Values that have upheld society together Public Health and Urban Decay Political Corruption Unemployment and Inflation Military Spending- too costly
Developing a ThesisCompare the impact of the rise and fall of the Roman Empire in WesternEurope and the Han Dynasty in China. Acceptable Thesis: •Must address both the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty •Must address the impact of the rise and fall of each Civilization •Must address EITHER similarities OR differences in the impact of the rise and fall of each civilization. •Must be explicitly stated in introduction or conclusion of the essay. •May appear as one sentence or as multiple sentences. • A thesis that is split among multiple paragraphs or merely restates the prompt is unacceptable. For example, “There were many similarities and differences . . .” is not acceptable.Create a Thesis Statement for this Comparative Essay Question
Planning Chart Roman Empire Han Dynasty Direct Comparisons •Developed from Etruscans/ Greeks •Developed from Qin Empire •Both used military power to •Military power- professional army •Military power – Large army gain power •Environmental mosaic – Natural •Environmental mosaic – Natural •Both follow ConradRise protection, Tiber River, Med Sea protection, Yellow and Yangtze Demarest Model of Empire – •Use of technology – roads, aqueducts, River, Pacific Ocean Identity bridges, canals •Use of technology – roads, •Control of major trade routes- Punic bridges, canals •Both had optimal location Wars •Increase trade–Silk Road and environments to •Identity – Citizenship and ideals of •Identity – Mandate of Heaven, dominate Republic Confucianism and meritocracy •Poor Leadership and corruption •Poor Leadership and corruption •Both had poor leadership •No clear line of succession •Practice of concubinage and corruption in •Economic decline – Heavy taxes •Economic decline – Heavy taxes governmentFall •Land owned by rich •Land owned by rich •Both militaries failed and •Neglect of people’s needs – led to •Neglect of people’s needs – led allowed barbaric invasions riots, slave revolts to riots, Yellow Turban Revolt •Over expansion •Military power declined •Economic problems led •Military power declined •Soldiers lost will to fight – loss of people to revolt or lose faith •Soldiers lost will to fight – lack of Mandate of Heaven in government – Lost identity rewards and loss of loyalty •Invasions from Xiognu nomads. •Safety within empire declined – •China uses Mandate of Barbaric invasions Heaven and Confucianism to recover faster than Europe
Developing a ThesisCompare the impact of the rise and fall of the Roman Empire in WesternEurope and the Han Dynasty in China. After you analyze your planning chart, what conclusions can you make about similarities and differences between Rome and Han? 1. Think about major similarities and differences between the rise and fall of both the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty. 2. Think about causation and impact of major events to help formulate a thesis. 3. Look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the beneath-the-surface significance of these relationships. 4. Look for common trends or information. Is there overwhelming evidence that supports one aspect over another? 5. Make sure your thesis answers the question and attempts to prove something.
Sample ThesisCompare the rise and fall of the Roman Empire in Western Europe andthe Han Dynasty in China.1. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty both rose to power due to their superior military strength. However, once their military power declined both empires became vulnerable to internal and external threats that eventually led to their fall.2. Natural protection and a superior location for trade allowed for the rise of the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty, but it would be economic problems sparked by corrupt leaders that would cause their fall.3. The rise and fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty can best be attributed to the creation and loss of their common identity, Citizenship of a Republic and Confucian ideals respectively. Thesis Self Test: "Did I answer the question?" * Specific topic + "Have I taken a position that others might challenge Attitude/Angle/Argument = Thesis or oppose?" * What you plan to argue + How you plan "Does my thesis pass the So What? test?" to argue it = Thesis “Can I use evidence to support my thesis?”
Religions and Belief SystemsSedentary/Nationalistic Religions Missionary Religions •Born into religion •Develops out of Sedentary faith •Society structured around •Religion adapts to different cultural religious ideas practices •Complex religion and history •Simplistic rules •No real centralized hierarchy •Tends to have more centralized structure and hierarchy •Very little conversion •Spreads through trade routes and •Stationary – grounded to the land conquests – leads to cultural diffusion Judaism Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism Animism Confucianism
Who do the three individuals represent and does this image reflect Sedetary or Missionary Religions?
Southwest Asian Religions 3000 BCE Judaism 33 CE Christianity Coptic622 CE ISLAM Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Protestant Shiite Sunni Russian Orthodox Lutheran Calvinist Sufi Anglican
South Asian Religions 5000 BCE Hinduism800 BCE 500 BCE Jainism Buddhism Sikhism Thereveda 1469 CE Mahayana Zen Tibetan (Tantric)
Diffusion of Belief Systems
Religions and Belief Systems
Religions and Belief Systems
Animism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Africa, No holy book – mostly oral traditions Found among manyLatin America All things in nature have a soul (Trees, stones, pastoral nomadic tribal rivers, etc.) villages. No Founder Use of Shaman or Diviners who conducted Tribal masks inspired ceremonies and rituals and used fetishes Cubist art movement Ancestor Veneration – Your ancestor’s spirits watch over you and can protect you.
Hinduism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance India Brahman-supreme force: Gods are Caste System: Rigid3000 B.C.E. manifestations of Brahman (Vishnu- social structure, born preserver, Shiva-destroyer) into caste, must Spread Reincarnation. Dharma: rules and perform certain job, orthroughout India obligations. Karma: fate based on how Jati. Stationary dharma was met. Ganges is sacred river, Moshka: highest state of being, release of performance of rituals Religion soul Spawned Buddhism Vedas and Upanishads
Caste System Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas ShudrasPariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
Buddhism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance India, Nepal Founded by Siddhartha Guatama No Caste system, No Supreme Being– Buddha “Enlightened one” appealed to lower classes. 563 B.C.E. Four Noble Truths – Life is suffering caused by Not attached to social Spread structure, spread rapidly desire, follow Eight Fold Path throughout to other cultures.India, China, Nirvana, state of perfect peace and harmony Ashoka adopted Japan, S.E. path may take several lifetimes: Reincarnation, Buddhism. Asia Dharma, Karma Theraveda: meditation, harmony, Buddha not a Force of cultural diffusion Missionary via trade, Silk Road, god (Lesser Vehicle) Religion missionary Religion Mahayana: more complex, greater ritual, reliance on priests. Buddha a diety
Legalism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance China Founded by Han Feizi Accomplished swift reunification of China. 500 The Q’in Dynasty- Shi Huangdi Completion of projects B.C.E. Peace & order through centralized, tightly controlled state like the Great Wall. Mistrust of human nature; reliance on tough laws Caused widespread Punish those who break laws, reward those who resentment among common people, led to follow wider acceptance of 2 most worthy jobs: farmer, soldier Confucianism-Daoism.
Confucianism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance China Founded by Confucius (Kong Fu Tse) As a ethical, social, 500 Political-social philosophy, not religion political belief system it B.C.E. Moral, ethical, also practical – The Analects was compatible with other religions, couldSpread to Five Right relationships = right society: Parent practice Buddhism and Japan, to Child (Filial Piety), Ruler to Subject, Older toS.E. Asia Confucianism Younger, Husband to Wife, Friend to Friend. Embraced by Han, Education is valuable and everyone should be Tang, Song, Ming able to get one. Become a gentleman. Dynasties. Civil Put aside personal ambition for good of state Service Exam
Daoism-Taoism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books SignificanceChina Founded by Lao-tzu, philosopher Self-sufficient communities 500 Dao = “The Way” (of nature/cosmos) Counter to Confucian activismB.C.E. Wu wei- non-doing, harmony with nature Emphasis on harmony w/ Eternal principles, passive, yielding. nature leads gains: Like water, yet strong, shaping. astronomy, botany, chemistry Yin-Yang – symbol of balance in nature Co-existed w/Confucianism, Buddhism, Legalism Added to complexity of Chinese culture
Judaism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Middle Founded by Abraham, Moses The First East, Hebrews were chosen by God, special status Monotheistic Belief Caanan System Personal relationship with God – a covenantJerusalem Led to Christianity Afterlife, tradition, doctrines, philosophy, and Islam 3000 personal salvation. Forced migration – B.C.E. To honor, serve God, promote prophets – Exodus, Diaspora, Wailing Wall Holocaust A religion & culture – Torah, Talmud Like Hinduism – 10 Commandments, waiting for messiah Stationary faith
Christianity Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Middle Founded by Jesus of Nazareth - Bible Emphasis on East, Splinter group of Jews, quickly spread salvation, eternal lifeJerusalem throughout Roman Empire despite persecution after death appealed 30 C.E. Jesus, son of God, Messiah of Jewish prophecy to lower classes, women Spread Devotion to God, love of fellow man -north and Combo of religion & monotheistic west empire = huge impact Jesus sent to redeem man from sin on political, socialthroughout Europe, Salvation by faith in divinity, death, and development ofAmericas resurrection of Jesus. Europe Missionary Crucified by Roman gov’t 30 CE Religion
Islam Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books SignificanceMiddle East, Founded by Muhammad- Prophet – Koran Led to Islamic Mecca, Five Pillars of Faith: Empires Umayyad Medina, Caliphate, Abbasids, Allah is one true God, Prophet is Muhammad Jerusalem Ottoman, Mughal Pray Five times a day facing Mecca 622 C.E. Shiite-Sunni Split Almsgiving – give to the poorSpread North Crusades – Holy Ramadan – Fasting wars Africa,S.E.Asia, U.S. Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca Missionary religion Can not eat pork, gamble, drink alcohol, smoke Jihad – Struggle in God’s service
Shintoism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Japan God in all of us and in all of nature. Our body is the Justified power of visible temple for the soul. Emperor500BCE Anaterasu is the Sun Goddess and main god or kami. Emperor is descendant and was seen as divine During Meiji Restoration, No “Tori” is the symbol of prosperity in Shintoism and the Shintoism was used tofounder sacred gates that are found in front of all Shinto temples unite Japanese in Japan. People write wishes on the Tori gates wishing for good health, wealth and prosperity. During WWII, Kamikaze There are no written doctrines pilots sacrificed There are gods in every object in nature (Kami) themselves for their Animist - Ancestor veneration Emperor
Big Picture Themes! Unit I Unit II Foundations and Classical Development of Empire and eras of civilization spread of civilizations Classical Era – achievements in Classical Civs collapse – Rise arts, architecture, science, Math, of Post Classical Civs - continue weapons, metals, literature to achieve in different ways. Nomads are major outside Golden Age of Nomads! threat to sedentary peoples Continue to be biggest outside and impact Civs. threat to civilization and Empire Religion and goods spread Religion and goods spread over the Silk Road over Silk Road Extensive land routes and Land and sea routes expand! regional water routes Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan, River networks in Russia and Africa World Religions of Judaism, Golden Age of Religion – Christianity, Hinduism and Power in government - Rise Buddhism are established and Spread of Islam