The Enlightenment (1650-1800) The Age Of Reason
1. What does it mean to be enlightened?2. What ideas might they be questioning?3. How does this painting reflect the ideas of the Enlightenment?
Principal Ideas:A. Applied Scientific Method towards correcting problems in society. Challenged traditional practices/questioned authority.B. Questioned divine right theory , hereditary privileges of nobility, and power of the church.C. Believed in natural laws , found by the use of reason to improve the quality of life.
Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment: A. Thomas Hobbes : Wrote Leviathan in 1651. - Hobbes supported the absolute monarchs because he believed that human beings in their pure state of nature, without any controlling authority would fight, rob, and oppress one another. Life would be “solitary, brutish, and short .” - In order to prevent this “brutish” life, people entered into a “social contract.” People would give up all their power and freedom for an organized society run by an absolute monarch, a Leviathan. Such a government would keep order and obedience in society.
B. John Locke: Wrote “Two Treatises of Government” in 1690. - Locke supported the power of Parliament. He believed that human beings in their pure state of nature were basically good, moral, and reasonable . Also, he believed that all humans had “natural rights” that they had since birth, which included the right to ______________________. life, liberty, and property - People would agree with each other in a social contract to set up a government to protect their natural rights. People would give up some rights but keep many others. The best government had limited power and was accepted by all citizens .
Baron de MontesquieuThe powers of government should be separated into executive, legislative, andjudicial branches, to prevent any one group from gaining too much power.VoltaireWriter and orator who targeted corrupt officials and criticized inequality, andsuperstition. Fought for freedom of speech by saying, “I disagree with what yousay, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”WollstonecraftQuestioned the notion that women were by nature inferior to men and arguedthat women have been excluded from the social contract. Stated that awomen’s first duty was to be a good mother, but that a woman should be ableto have an education and equal rights of men.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - "Man is born free but everywhere is in chains."Believed in the "social contract" in which government and authority are a mutualcontract between the authorities and the governed; this contract implies that thegoverned agree to be ruled only so that their rights, property and happiness beprotected by their rulers. Once rulers cease to protect the ruled, the social contract isbroken and the governed are free to choose another set of governors or magistrates.
**Locke changed the world with the idea that government had an obligation to those it governs. If it fails its obligations and violatespeople’s natural rights, the people have the right to ____________ the overthrow government. For Locke, the power of the government was not ___________, the consent of the __________ was needed. absolute people