EXAM REVIEWAP WORLD HISTORY 10 Period III 600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.Rebuilding of Classical Civilizations and the birth of Islam Smithtown High School West
Rise of IslamI. Beginnings of Islam • 610 C.E. – Mohammad in Mecca begins to preach monotheism, seen as a threat, flees to Medina in 622 C.E. - the Hijra – Hajj (pilgimage) ____________________ • Mohammed and the Muslims conquer Mecca in 630 C.E. – soon almost all of Arabia under Muslim control II. Beliefs of Islam Qur’an/Koran • Holy book – _____________ • Five Pillars of Faith: Faith – there is one god and that god is Allah 1. ________________________________________________ Prayer – 5x a day facing Mecca 2. ________________________________________ Fasting – during Ramadan 3. ________________________________________ Pilgrimage – Hajj to Mecca at least once 4. ________________________________________ Alms – Give to charity, help the poor 5. ________________________________________
III. Islam spread in ____________________________________ Middle East, Northern Africa, South Asia
Missionary Efforts Islam Islam spread through two main avenues: military conquest, and trade and missionary activity. Through military conquest and political influence, the religion spread because of its tolerance for other beliefs and a special tax (jizya) levied against infidels. Through trade and missionary activity, the religion spread because of its simple message of what to do and what not to do. Plus, lower-class individualswelcomed their inclusion as spiritual equals as well as Islam’s influence on charity.
Islam DividedIV. Sects • After Mohammed’s death, successors –________ (theocratic) caliphs • Shia/Sunni Split a descendant of Mohammed • Shia believe caliph must be __________________________V. Empires • The Umayyads • Sunni, capital at Damascus, codified Islamic law • The Abbasids • Shia overthrew the Umayyads in 750 C.E. • Concentrated in Persia and Baghdad • Continued to spread and consolidate – efficient regional gov’t. • Great accomplishments in the fields of math, astronomy, medicine…
Islamic TradeVI. Islamic Trade • Traded with China and India • Navigated Arabian Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf • Used compass, lateen sail, astrolabe • Abbasids traded w/ Vikings and Russians via routes in Southern and Eastern Europe • Camelsalt, and slaves desert to trade w/ West Africa for gold, caravans crossed ___________________
West Africa: Ghana and Mali• Ghana (500-1200) • Mali (1235–1350) – Commercially based empire. Center of – Controlled and taxed gold salt trade. trade in gold from the south. – Timbuktu became economic, Islamic, – Controlled and secured trade routes. and scholarly focal point of Kingdom. – Also traded in ivory, slaves, horses, – Mansa Musa: The Hajj cloth, salt. – Ibn Battuta: The Traveler. – Conversion by emperors to Islam – Absorbed into Songhai. improved diplomatic and economic relations between West Africa and the Islamic World. Mosque @ Timbuktu Musa’s Hajj
Christianity in North and East AfricaMany Africans in the northern partof the continent converted to Islamafter 700 CE, yet there remained a significant Christian tradition inEgypt and Ethiopia. It is believedthat St. Mark preached to the EastAfricans during the Roman period.Ethiopia evolved into a nation with strong Christian traditions. Church of St. George, Lalibela complex, Ethiopia
I. CHINA Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.) • Korea and Tibet Expanded territory to _______________ • Developed network of roads to bind empire together and Grand Canal • Invention of gunpowder • Buddhism gained acceptance • Confucian meritocracy – civil service exam • high taxation, peasant rebellions Decline – _____________________________
CHINAII. Song Dynasty (960 – 1279 C.E.)- Silk Road – connected to outside world – ran through Central Asia and to Middle East and beyond- Trade with Southern Asia and Africa through port of Guangzhou Astronomy, 1st use of compass, clock, moveable- Achievements – _______________________________________________ type, landscape painting) ______________________________________________________- Urbanization- Confucian- Decline – military threats from the north (Mongols invaded in 1200s)
CHINAII. Mongol Rule (1278-1368 C.E.) • Warrior horsemen from northern steppes of Asia • Created the largest single land empire in human history • Genghis Khan (leader) • Kublai Khan (grandson) – conquered Song China • Established Yuan Dynasty until 1369 ____________ • Failed to invade Japan • Pax Mongolia – Mongol rule united two continents and allowed trade and contact • not able administrators, empire too large to manage, Decline – ____________________________________________ rivalry among successors, overspending led to inflation ____________________________________________________
CHINAII. Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644 C.E.) • Defeated the Mongols, use of civil service exam, re-elevation of scholar-gentry, neo-Confucianism
JAPAN• Shinto and borrowing of culture from China (Buddhism from China and Korea)• Internal power struggles led to decision to move capital to Heian (Kyoto) in 790s•Heian Period – (794-1185 C.E.) •“classical” era, peace, isolation of emperor, literature• Fujiwara clan – changing leadership, new clan, cont’d peace and literature, more uniquely Japanese and less borrowing•Kamakura Shogunate – Minamoto clan won civil war • feudalism, decentralized power under military leader (shogun). Each domain controlled by daimyo. Solidified power of warrior class, samurai and bushido code• Ashikaga Shogunate 1333 C.E. – daimyo gained more authority, wealthy class emerged as trade with China increased, rituals unique to Japan (tea ceremony, Noh theatre, haiku)
South AsiaIndia - • Gupta Empire collapsed in 550 C.E., until 1000 C.E. - disunity • 1022 C.E. Muslim armies conquer Northern India • 1206 Muslim generals establish the Delhi Sultanate ______________ • Introduce Islam to India • Collapsed in 1520s – invaders from North
Byzantine Empire• Off-shoot of the Roman Empire - “Eastern Roman Empire.”• Centralized State: Hereditary Monarchy. (Emperor Justinian, r. 527-565)• Replaced Latin with Greek as official language.• Constantinople was center for Silk Road imports and exports• Eastern Orthodox Church emerged.• Eastern Orthodoxy later spread to Russia and the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe.
Nomadic Empires: The Vikings (c. 800-1100) • Nomadic group from Scandinavia • Conducted seasonal raids to supplement farm production • Ransacked towns and villages across Europe • Use of small maneuverable boats combined with ruthlessness in battle facilitated their success. • Explored north Atlantic Ocean, inc. Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland Canada, and Northeast coast of U.S (c.1000). • Established settlements in Scotland, Northern France, and Eastern Europe. • Overtime, the Vikings adopted Christianity and were absorbed into the larger European feudal order (William the Conqueror).
Early Russia• Vikings colonized Eastern Europe, area populated by Slavic peoples• First king of Kiev, Dane named Rurik• Traded with Byzantium, Prince Vladimir converted to Eastern Orthodox• Decline – Mongols conquered
Medieval Europe (Western Europe)Political Developments Economic DevelopmentsFeudalism prevailed. Serfdom and the manor system prevailed.Weak central authority meantthat lords and vassals ruled Serfs were obligated to give alocally through feudal percentage of their crops to theobligations to the upper lords lord in exchange for a plot of landand king. and protection.The Catholic Church was single Manors operated as self-sufficientstrongest unifying factor across communities and a lack of foodWestern Europe during this surpluses resulted in most of theperiod. population being tied to agriculture.
The Crusades, 1095 - 1204• The Crusades were a series of Christian holy wars conducted against “infidels” in the holy land of Palestine.• Pope Urban II launched the Crusades in 1095 when he called for Christians to take up arms and seize the Holy Land.Results:- quest for the Holy Land was a failure- encouraged trade with Muslim merchants and created an increase in European demand for Asian goods.- Italian merchants (capitalizing on the weakened condition of Constantinople) greatlyprofited.- new merchant class emerges
BLACK DEATH (1340s to late 1600s)Deadly disease that was thought to be carried from Asia on ships Results: - population decreased significantly, causing labor shortages - In W. Europe, workers demanded higher wages and peasants rebelled, leading to a decrease in serfdom and a weakening of the feudal system - Anti-Semitism also increased as Jews, used as scapegoats were accused of poisoning the wells. - Some Christians, questioned their faith amid all of the death and seemingly senseless destruction.
MesoAmerican Civilizations Maya (c. 300 to 900) Borrowing from Olmec traditions, the Mayans developed large domain and lived in scattered settlements on the Yucatan peninsula in southeastern Mexico. Archaeologist have discovered the following features of their regional culture: An agricultural economy – slash and burn Lack of large domesticated animals for labor A ritualistic polytheism Urban areas with thousands of people Independent city-states, linked by trade A staple diet of maize (corn) and beans
Mesoamerican Civilizations Aztec (c. 1400 to 1521)Also known as the Mexica people, the Aztecs were the last great Mesoamerican culture before thearrival of the Europeans. Taking advantage of the Toltecs decline, the Aztecs used their fightingskills to take control off the Lake Texcoco region. The Aztec culture was characterized by: A militant warrior tradition to subdue tributary city-states. Present day central Mexico. Rule by severe despots A priestly class to oversee rituals, including human sacrifice A ritualistic polytheistic religion with an extensive pantheon A large urban capital, Tenochtitlan, with 150,000 inhabitants built on an island in Lake Texcoco A decentralized network of city-states that paid tribute. Aztecs fell due to contact with the Spanish (Cortes). Warfare and disease played major roles in the extinction of the Aztec people.
Mesoamerican Civilizations Inca (c. 1400 to 1540)In the South American highlands, clans developed an Andean culture which led to the rise of an empirein the 1300s CE. These people-the Incas-conquered a large area and absorbed many tribes in central-western South America. In 90 years, the Incan empire grew into a stretch of land that covered over3,000 miles from north to south. History remembers the Inca for: Centralized empire with its capital at Cuzco (present day Peru) An extensive irrigated agricultural economy that adapted to the rugged terrain of the Andes Mts. by building terraces for farming and extensive network of roads Polytheistic religion: Sun worship Patriarchal society Privileged class of nobles, headed by a king, in which royal ancestors were revered and worshipped No written language. Used quipu, a system of colored, knotted ropes to keep records. Fell to the Spanish conquistador, Pizarro
Do You Know Your Stuff?Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period. China - Japan - Western Europe - Africa - Americas - Eastern Europe – Southeast Asia Middle East Dominance of World Religions Increased Trade and Movement Rise and Spread of Islam Rebuilding of Declining Empires Development of Other Civilizations Centralized versus Decentralized Empires Golden Age of Nomads
COMPARISONSBe able to compare – Japanese and European feudalism Developments in political and social institutions in both eastern andwestern Europe The role and function of cities in major societies Islam and Christianity Gender systems and changes, such as the impact of Islam Aztec Empire and Inca Empire European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world