PERIOD IV 1450-1750 AP WORLD HISTORY REVIEW Smithtown High School West Age of Exploration  Start of Political Revolutions
Overall Themes <ul><li>Absolutism – centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3...
Ming Dynasty <ul><li>1368-1644 </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled world’s most populous state </li></ul><ul><li>Restored ethnic Chine...
Founder <ul><li>Zhu Yuanzhang </li></ul><ul><li>Military commander in revolt against Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>Became Hong...
Peak of cultural grandeur & elegance <ul><li>Confucianism revived </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service exams reinstated, expand...
Culture  <ul><li>Principal strength in 1500s-1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Art & literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novels </li></...
Foreign relations:  Most dynamic dynasty <ul><li>1300s-1400s: active in conquering neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Population ...
Voyages of discovery <ul><li>Zheng He </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol, eunuch </li></ul><ul><li>7 naval voyages, 1405-1433 </li><...
Compared to Europeans <ul><li>Zheng He’s ships 400 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Maria 85 feet </li></ul>
Why did they stop? <ul><li>Interesting but not practical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giraffes, zebras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gla...
Fall of Ming <ul><li>Poor leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Internal corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant revolts </li></ul><ul...
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912 <ul><li>Last dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kangxi Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1654-1722 ...
Japan <ul><li>Governed since 1100s by shogunates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1300-ea...
Nobunaga (1534-1582) <ul><li>One of first daimyos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative & fierce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ext...
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) <ul><li>1 st  of 15 Tokugawa  shoguns 1603 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital at Edo (Tokyo) </li><...
“The nightingale does not sing!” <ul><li>Nobunaga  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will kill it.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toyoto...
Tokugawa years <ul><li>Great Peace through dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly on gunpowder technology </li></ul><ul><...
Restricted Europeans’ access to Japan <ul><li>1500s: Portuguese, Spanish Dutch arrived  </li></ul><ul><li>Traders & missio...
Shoguns distrusted Christianity <ul><li>Restrictions began 1580s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries ordered to leave </li>...
1649 Japan closed to foreigners <ul><li>By 1630s, Japanese ships forbidden to sail overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Only Nagasak...
Shogunate’s accomplishments <ul><li>Peace restored </li></ul><ul><li>Population grew </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, canals, inte...
The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires Mughal and Ottoman Empires 1450-1750
Rise of Mughal India /  Major Leaders <ul><li>Babur (r. 1526-1530) </li></ul><ul><li>Military general who led his people t...
Major Leaders <ul><li>Jahangir (r.1605-1627) </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Not the best ruler </l...
Mughal Military Power <ul><li>Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms purchased from Europe...
Form of Government <ul><li>Emperor had absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Vazirs – royal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons...
Religious Beliefs / Policy <ul><li>Belief in God – Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim and Hindu subjects </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Major Achievements <ul><li>Enormous army </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Artwor...
<ul><li>Emperors neglect people </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy was corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Army backwards in technology a...
The Early Ottoman Empire 1281 - 1600s
Ottoman Rise <ul><li>Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian...
Ottoman Military Might <ul><li>Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Initial...
Major Leaders Mehmet II <ul><li>Mehmet II:  1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror” </li></ul><ul><li>1453 – 80,000 soldiers lai...
Major Leaders Suleyman the Magnificent <ul><li>Suleyman:  (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Emp...
The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners /  Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Chris...
Religious Beliefs and Policies <ul><li>Ottomans were Sunni Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans claimed the title of Caliph –...
Social Structure/Role of Women <ul><li>Four main Occupational Classes: peasants,  </li></ul><ul><li>artisans, merchants, p...
Major Achievements <ul><li>Restored city of Constantinople (Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque ...
Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529 </li></ul><ul><li>The B...
Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>Vague process of succes...
Age of Exploration and the Rise of Europe
Motivation Gold – Wealth and prestige for  the crown Glory – Glory for their nation,  Individual Glory and  fame  God – Gr...
1.  Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2.  The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes...
<ul><li>Portugal  </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa </li></ul...
The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages.   <ul><li>Columbus discovered the Americas for ...
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniards capture the Inca King
<ul><li>Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>Northern areas of the Americas  – settlements and search for a “north-west  pa...
Oversight Institution The Crown – Monarch and Church received 20% of profits!  Mercantilism. Relied of King and Pope to ma...
European Empires: 1660
Impact of Exploration <ul><li>Positive Effects:   </li></ul><ul><li>New trade :  led to  weakening of the feudal system, r...
<ul><li>Mercantilism : economic policy that created a favorable  </li></ul><ul><li>balance of trade for the parent country...
The Triangle Trade Atlantic Slave Trade :  Africans faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became ...
Africa <ul><li>Forced migration of over 15 million people </li></ul><ul><li>African kingdoms reorient their economies   to...
Americas 1450-1750 <ul><li>Conquest – arrival of Spanish in western hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Population impacts: disea...
Empires:  Russia <ul><li>Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and development </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing absolu...
Land Based Empire vs. Sea Based Empires C
Land Based  Sea Based <ul><li>Self-defense extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, Ming </li></ul>...
Cultural and Intellectual Development <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Patr...
Comparisons <ul><li>Be able to compare the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial systems:  European monarchy vs. a land-ba...
Do You Know Your Stuff? Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period....
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  • Europeans look towards alternative routes to Asia, build ocean worthy ships)
  • Period iv examreview

    1. 1. PERIOD IV 1450-1750 AP WORLD HISTORY REVIEW Smithtown High School West Age of Exploration Start of Political Revolutions
    2. 2. Overall Themes <ul><li>Absolutism – centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3 S’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Nomads </li></ul>Brainstorm: Use the “global outlook” map. What is going on in the world in unit 3?
    3. 3. Ming Dynasty <ul><li>1368-1644 </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled world’s most populous state </li></ul><ul><li>Restored ethnic Chinese rule after 400 years’ foreign domination </li></ul>http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/
    4. 4. Founder <ul><li>Zhu Yuanzhang </li></ul><ul><li>Military commander in revolt against Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>Became Hongwu emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Removed chief minister position </li></ul><ul><li>Established a bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Imperial City and the Forbidden City </li></ul><ul><li>Killed rivals, ruled through terror (public beatings) </li></ul><ul><li>Chose imperial wives from humble families </li></ul><ul><li>Censored writings </li></ul>http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/history-Ming-emperors.html
    5. 5. Peak of cultural grandeur & elegance <ul><li>Confucianism revived </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service exams reinstated, expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Return to scholar-gentry dominance </li></ul>Kaifeng Zhuxi (Neoconfucian)
    6. 6. Culture <ul><li>Principal strength in 1500s-1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Art & literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul>http://www.jozan.net/Artikelbilleder/MTA2003/Textile17ct-Ming-noah1_gr.jpg
    7. 7. Foreign relations: Most dynamic dynasty <ul><li>1300s-1400s: active in conquering neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth based on new crops </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese goods like paper, porcelain, and silks were in demand throughout Asia and Europe. Europeans were allowed to come to Macao and Canton to do business. </li></ul><ul><li>Active traders in Indian Ocean (major ports were Hangzhou, Quangzhou, and Guangzhou). Traded for silver with Europe and Japan. </li></ul>Ming peasant with wheelbarrow
    8. 8. Voyages of discovery <ul><li>Zheng He </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol, eunuch </li></ul><ul><li>7 naval voyages, 1405-1433 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Compared to Europeans <ul><li>Zheng He’s ships 400 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Maria 85 feet </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why did they stop? <ul><li>Interesting but not practical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giraffes, zebras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glamorous but expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants opposed—China is rich already </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar gentry opposed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>waste of money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>threat to their power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian bias against merchants & trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Fall of Ming <ul><li>Poor leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Internal corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu (Northern nomads) invaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded Qing dynasty </li></ul></ul>http://www.regenttour.com/china/history/qing.htm
    12. 12. Qing Dynasty 1644-1912 <ul><li>Last dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kangxi Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1654-1722 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Japan <ul><li>Governed since 1100s by shogunates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1300-early 1400s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order breaking down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent feudal states in conflict </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Nobunaga (1534-1582) <ul><li>One of first daimyos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative & fierce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive use of firearms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After his defeat, his generals gained control of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) </li></ul>http://www.wicknet.org/history/togden/Chapters/Chapter%208%20and%209/Chapters%208%20and%209%20Pictures/hideyoshi.jpg
    15. 15. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) <ul><li>1 st of 15 Tokugawa shoguns 1603 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital at Edo (Tokyo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought all daimyos under his authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil wars ended </li></ul></ul>http://samourais.free.fr/S_HistoireJapon.html
    16. 16. “The nightingale does not sing!” <ul><li>Nobunaga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will kill it.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will wait.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will teach it.” </li></ul></ul>http://www.uccash.com/graphics.htm
    17. 17. Tokugawa years <ul><li>Great Peace through dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly on gunpowder technology </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid class system </li></ul>http://www.hogaku.it/storia/azuchi_momoyama/map2.gif
    18. 18. Restricted Europeans’ access to Japan <ul><li>1500s: Portuguese, Spanish Dutch arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Traders & missionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Xavier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1614, up to 300,000 converts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.frontpagemag.com/articles/Printable.asp?ID=3993 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>http://www.kostecki.de/en/chegada.htm “ Portuguese arrive in Japan” Thomas Kostecki
    19. 19. Shoguns distrusted Christianity <ul><li>Restrictions began 1580s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries ordered to leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1590s persecution began </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned 1614 </li></ul></ul>http://cue.stanford.edu/journal/entry.cgi?index=382 Monument to Nagasaki martyrs
    20. 20. 1649 Japan closed to foreigners <ul><li>By 1630s, Japanese ships forbidden to sail overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Only Nagasaki open to foreign merchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch post on Deshima Island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western books banned </li></ul>http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/images/deshima.jpg
    21. 21. Shogunate’s accomplishments <ul><li>Peace restored </li></ul><ul><li>Population grew </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, canals, internal economy grew </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawas dynamic through mid-1700s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1800s: Japan forced open by foreign powers (U.S. Commodore Perry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokugawa rule ended 1868 </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires Mughal and Ottoman Empires 1450-1750
    23. 23. Rise of Mughal India / Major Leaders <ul><li>Babur (r. 1526-1530) </li></ul><ul><li>Military general who led his people to victory </li></ul><ul><li>Writer, loved music and art </li></ul><ul><li>Did little to administer the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar (r. 1556-1605) </li></ul><ul><li>Great military commander </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was </li></ul><ul><li>Reformed government </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted Hinduism – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created the Din-i-Ilahi </li></ul>
    24. 24. Major Leaders <ul><li>Jahangir (r.1605-1627) </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Not the best ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Jahangir indulged in courtly luxuries, such as opium </li></ul><ul><li>Strong political and artistic influence of his wife, queen Nur Jahan </li></ul>Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) <ul><li>Shah Jahan (r.1628-1658) </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal for his wife </li></ul><ul><li>Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations. </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court, </li></ul><ul><li>abolished ceremonies </li></ul>
    25. 25. Mughal Military Power <ul><li>Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms purchased from Europeans, limited local production </li></ul><ul><li>Troops poorly trained – conscripted from poor </li></ul>
    26. 26. Form of Government <ul><li>Emperor had absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Vazirs – royal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Wives of emperors gained power </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone could gain high office </li></ul>
    27. 27. Religious Beliefs / Policy <ul><li>Belief in God – Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim and Hindu subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar and the Din-i-Ilahi faith </li></ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb – Did not tolerate Hindus </li></ul>
    28. 28. Major Achievements <ul><li>Enormous army </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Artwork – influence from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: Baburnama (literally: &quot;Book of Babur“) </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Emperors neglect people </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy was corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Army backwards in technology and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes on people </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tolerance for Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to conquer all of India </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>European intervention </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Early Ottoman Empire 1281 - 1600s
    31. 31. Ottoman Rise <ul><li>Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Cavalry, Janissaries dominate along with a strong naval fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Conquer Constantinople, make it their capital </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the “terror of Europe” </li></ul>
    32. 32. Ottoman Military Might <ul><li>Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Initially they had superior technology </li></ul><ul><li>15th Century - Build navy to ward off Europeans, gain control of Mediterranean (Significance?) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Major Leaders Mehmet II <ul><li>Mehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror” </li></ul><ul><li>1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>and conquered the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate” </li></ul>“ What a city we have given to plunder and destruction.” Turks vs Europeans
    34. 34. Major Leaders Suleyman the Magnificent <ul><li>Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts </li></ul><ul><li>of Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools </li></ul><ul><li>and mosques. </li></ul>Major Achievement The Suleimaniye Mosque
    35. 35. The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?
    36. 36. Religious Beliefs and Policies <ul><li>Ottomans were Sunni Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans claimed the title of Caliph – guided and </li></ul><ul><li>maintained Islamic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Religious advisors – Ulema – set up schools </li></ul>Conversations between Christians and Muslims <ul><li>Tolerant of Non-Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, Jiyza, </li></ul><ul><li>but could freely practice religion </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries protected religious </li></ul><ul><li>minority </li></ul>
    37. 37. Social Structure/Role of Women <ul><li>Four main Occupational Classes: peasants, </li></ul><ul><li>artisans, merchants, pastoral peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants were most privileged, exempt </li></ul><ul><li>from taxes and gov’t regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Women treated better </li></ul><ul><li>than other Islamic states </li></ul><ul><li>(Turkish traditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Could own and inherit </li></ul><ul><li>property </li></ul><ul><li>Were not forced to marry </li></ul><ul><li>and could seek a divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Some gained political </li></ul><ul><li>power as officials and </li></ul><ul><li>governors </li></ul>
    38. 38. Major Achievements <ul><li>Restored city of Constantinople (Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque </li></ul>Islamic Calligraphy Prayer rugs and textiles Scholars in astronomy and medicine. (Galata Observatory, 1557) Bazaars, hospitals, ceramics, silk
    39. 39. Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529 </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Lepanto, 1571 </li></ul><ul><li>Major naval battle between Spanish and Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish victory gave hope to Christian empires that Turks could be stopped. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>Vague process of succession </li></ul><ul><li>Internal government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Empire became too large to control </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of loyalty – no more land to conquer and give away </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of military technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economy suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road Trade monopoly ended – European water routes </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation due influx of silver </li></ul><ul><li>Did not industrialize – craft guilds </li></ul>
    41. 41. Age of Exploration and the Rise of Europe
    42. 42. Motivation Gold – Wealth and prestige for the crown Glory – Glory for their nation, Individual Glory and fame God – Great Missionary Spirit to justify actions and gain new followers Need for new forms of revenue Take over trade from Muslims and Italians who dominated Mediterranean Iberian Gold – Wealth for individual and trading company Calvinists – wealth was a sign of God’s good grace. Glory – Individual fame and fortune God – Search for religious freedom (Puritans were persecuted) Competition developed with Iberian nations Northern European
    43. 43. 1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How did it all start? How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
    44. 44. <ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India </li></ul><ul><li>Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, </li></ul><ul><li>like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the 1600s. </li></ul>Location In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led the way Iberian
    45. 45. The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages.   <ul><li>Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent </li></ul><ul><li>conquistadors to Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, </li></ul><ul><li>Spain settled Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains in Peru. </li></ul>Location Iberian
    46. 46. The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniards capture the Inca King
    47. 47. <ul><li>Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.” </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands </li></ul><ul><li>British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation allowed to trade with Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>British later replace Dutch ( New York, South Africa, India, Malacca ) </li></ul>Location 1707 map of Japan that depicts William Adams’ visit with Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600 Northern European
    48. 48. Oversight Institution The Crown – Monarch and Church received 20% of profits! Mercantilism. Relied of King and Pope to make decisions. Resulted in slow, ineffective process of rule Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494: Pope made decision to split New World possessions into spheres of interest between Spain and Portugal. Iberian Trading companies received charters from King East and West India Companies develop – Privately funded ventures with goal of making a profit. Mercantilism existed, but development of capitalism began. Decisions can be made much faster by the settlers: Mayflower Compact Northern European
    49. 49. European Empires: 1660
    50. 50. Impact of Exploration <ul><li>Positive Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>New trade : led to weakening of the feudal system, rise </li></ul><ul><li>in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought </li></ul><ul><li>to New World </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade : Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in </li></ul><ul><li>cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity </li></ul>The World in 1600 The World in 1400
    51. 51. <ul><li>Mercantilism : economic policy that created a favorable </li></ul><ul><li>balance of trade for the parent country.  </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an </li></ul><ul><li>exclusive market for the parent country.  </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Destruction : Millions of natives died due to </li></ul><ul><li>disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization.  </li></ul>Parent Country Colony Raw Materials Profits $$ Products
    52. 52. The Triangle Trade Atlantic Slave Trade : Africans faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became the dominant labor force in the Americas. 
    53. 53. Africa <ul><li>Forced migration of over 15 million people </li></ul><ul><li>African kingdoms reorient their economies to do business with Europeans (guns for slaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Benin, Asante, Kongo </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized </li></ul><ul><li>East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swahili trading cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with Ottomans – ivory, gold, silver, people </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Americas 1450-1750 <ul><li>Conquest – arrival of Spanish in western hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Population impacts: disease, racial intermingling (Castas system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulare, Creole, Mestizo, Mulatto, African, Native American and Zambos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Columbian exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial societies </li></ul><ul><li>Encomienda System </li></ul>
    55. 55. Empires: Russia <ul><li>Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and development </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing absolutist rule and territorial expansion by 16 th Century – Ivan the Terrible </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Boyars, Cossacks, serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>Peter the Great accelerated westernization process </li></ul>
    56. 56. Land Based Empire vs. Sea Based Empires C
    57. 57. Land Based Sea Based <ul><li>Self-defense extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, Ming </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively Large </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on agriculture and not industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many were located in arid & uninhabitable area </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in forced labor </li></ul><ul><li>Power was centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1500 and 1800 had the largest administrative and economic systems because they were more of a threat to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Few strategic concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, Portugal, England </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively Small </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in profitable areas </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in forced labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly brutal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power “divided” amongst lands </li></ul><ul><li>Benefited from private investors or joint-stock companies </li></ul>
    58. 58. Cultural and Intellectual Development <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Patronage of the Arts </li></ul>
    59. 59. Comparisons <ul><li>Be able to compare the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial systems: European monarchy vs. a land-based Asian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive labor systems </li></ul><ul><li>Empire building in Asia, Africa and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s interaction with the west compared to others </li></ul>
    60. 60. Do You Know Your Stuff? Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period. Ming China - Tokugawa Japan - Ottoman Empire - Mughal Empire - Western Europe - Africa - Americas - Russia <ul><li>Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3 S’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Nomads </li></ul>

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