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Mughal And Ottoman Empires
 

Mughal And Ottoman Empires

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Mughal And Ottoman Empires

Mughal And Ottoman Empires

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    Mughal And Ottoman Empires Mughal And Ottoman Empires Presentation Transcript

    • The Early Ottoman Empire 1281 - 1600s
    • Rise in Power Osman I (Othman): 1299-1326
      • Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian Peninsula
      • Began to expand power by taking over the Bosporus and Dardanelle straits.
      • Developed an elite military guard, The Janissaries, and a strong naval fleet.
      • Defeated the Serbs in the Balkans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and began to dominate the region.
    • Major Leaders Mehmet II
      • Mehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror”
      • 1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople
      • and conquered the Byzantine Empire.
      • Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital.
      • The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate”
      “ What a city we have given to plunder and destruction.” Turks vs Europeans
    • The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
    • Major Leaders Suleyman the Magnificent
      • Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan
      • Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts
      • of Austria.
      • Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean
      • Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools
      • and mosques.
      Major Achievement The Suleimaniye Mosque
    • The Golden Age of the Ottomans
    • The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?
    • Collection of Taxes in Suleyman’s Court The Janissaries How were the Janissaries similar to the eunuchs?
    • Religious Beliefs and Policies
      • Ottomans were Sunni Muslims
      • Sultans claimed the title of Caliph – guided and
      • maintained Islamic Law
      • Religious advisors – Ulema – set up schools
      Conversations between Christians and Muslims
      • Tolerant of Non-Muslims
      • Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, Jiyza,
      • but could freely practice religion
      • Janissaries protected religious
      • minority
    • Social Structure/Role of Women
      • Four main Occupational Classes: peasants,
      • artisans, merchants, pastoral peoples.
      • Merchants were most privileged, exempt
      • from taxes and gov’t regulations.
      • Women treated better
      • than other Islamic states
      • (Turkish traditions)
      • Could own and inherit
      • property
      • Were not forced to marry
      • and could seek a divorce
      • Some gained political
      • power as officials and
      • governors
    • The Harem
      • The Harem “Sacred Place”
      • Sultan’s wives and concubines
      • resided in private domain
      • Sultan chose four wives as his
      • favorites
      • When a son was chosen as a
      • Sultan, mother became “Queen
      • Mother” and gained power
    • Major Achievements
      • Restored city of Constantinople (Istanbul)
      • Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque
      Islamic Calligraphy
    • Major Achievements Art work: Picture of Angel Gabriel visiting Muhammad Illuminated Qur’an Prayer rugs and textiles What is unusual about this painting?
    • Major Achievements Scholars in astronomy and medicine. (Galata Observatory, 1557) Architecture – Sinan, most famous architect Blue Mosque Bazaars, hospitals, ceramics, silk
    • Decline of Ottoman Empire
      • The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529
      • The Battle of Lepanto, 1571
      • Major naval battle between Spanish and Ottomans
      • Spanish victory gave hope to Christian empires that Turks could be stopped.
    • Decline of Ottoman Empire
      • Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries
      • Vague process of succession
      • Internal government corruption
      • Empire became too large to control
      • Loss of loyalty – no more land to conquer and give away
      • Lack of military technology
      • Economy suffered
      • Silk Road Trade monopoly ended – European water routes
      • Inflation due influx of silver
      • Did not industrialize – craft guilds
      I’ll stop Jafar! Maybe I can be Sultan!
    • The Ottoman Empire During the 16 c Ottoman Empire will last until 1917 It’s a whole new world!
    • Mughal Empire Unit III 1450-1750
    • Rise In Power Babur invaded and conquered Northern India. So began the Mughal Dynasty in 1526. The Mughals trace their heritage back to the Mongols (1258-1335) and the Timurids (1370-1501).
    • Major Leaders
      • Babur (r. 1526-1530)
      • Military general who led his people to victory
      • Writer, loved music and art
      • Did little to administer the empire
      • Akbar (r. 1556-1605)
      • Great military commander
      • Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was
      • Reformed government
      • Accepted Hinduism –
        • allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built
      • Created the Din-i-Ilahi
    • Major Leaders
      • Jahangir (r.1605-1627)
      • Patron of the arts
      • Not the best ruler
      • Jahangir indulged in courtly luxuries, such as opium
      • Strong political and artistic influence of his wife, queen Nur Jahan
      Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707)
      • Shah Jahan (r.1628-1658)
      • Patron of the arts
      • Taj Mahal for his wife
      • Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims.
      • Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations.
      • Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court,
      • abolished ceremonies
    • Form of Government
      • Emperor had absolute power
      • Vazirs – royal officials
      • Patrons of the arts
      • Wives of emperors gained power
      • Anyone could gain high office
    • Religious Beliefs / Policy
      • Belief in God – Islamic
      • Muslim and Hindu subjects
      • Akbar and the Din-i-Ilahi faith
      • Aurangzeb – Did not tolerate Hindus
    • Role of Women
      • Elite women gained influence
      • Women were patrons of the arts
      • The Mughal's treated women with respect. Babur and his officials often asked women for their reasons and information on political affairs; women could own land and they were paid salaries for their work; they were educated and they learned how to paint and write poetry; and women could participate in business activities.
    • Major Achievements
      • Enormous army
      • Cotton textiles
      • Polo
      • Artwork – influence from Europe
      • Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb
      • Literature: Baburnama (literally: "Book of Babur“)
      • Emperors neglect people
      • Bureaucracy was corrupt
      • Army backwards in technology and tactics
      • High taxes on people
      • Lack of tolerance for Hinduism
      • Tried to conquer all of India
      • Peasant uprisings
      • European intervention