Mughal And Ottoman Empires


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Mughal And Ottoman Empires

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Mughal And Ottoman Empires

  1. 1. The Early Ottoman Empire 1281 - 1600s
  2. 2. Rise in Power Osman I (Othman): 1299-1326 <ul><li>Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Began to expand power by taking over the Bosporus and Dardanelle straits. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed an elite military guard, The Janissaries, and a strong naval fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Serbs in the Balkans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and began to dominate the region. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Leaders Mehmet II <ul><li>Mehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror” </li></ul><ul><li>1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>and conquered the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate” </li></ul>“ What a city we have given to plunder and destruction.” Turks vs Europeans
  4. 4. The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
  5. 5. Major Leaders Suleyman the Magnificent <ul><li>Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts </li></ul><ul><li>of Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools </li></ul><ul><li>and mosques. </li></ul>Major Achievement The Suleimaniye Mosque
  6. 6. The Golden Age of the Ottomans
  7. 7. The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?
  8. 8. Collection of Taxes in Suleyman’s Court The Janissaries How were the Janissaries similar to the eunuchs?
  9. 9. Religious Beliefs and Policies <ul><li>Ottomans were Sunni Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans claimed the title of Caliph – guided and </li></ul><ul><li>maintained Islamic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Religious advisors – Ulema – set up schools </li></ul>Conversations between Christians and Muslims <ul><li>Tolerant of Non-Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, Jiyza, </li></ul><ul><li>but could freely practice religion </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries protected religious </li></ul><ul><li>minority </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social Structure/Role of Women <ul><li>Four main Occupational Classes: peasants, </li></ul><ul><li>artisans, merchants, pastoral peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants were most privileged, exempt </li></ul><ul><li>from taxes and gov’t regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Women treated better </li></ul><ul><li>than other Islamic states </li></ul><ul><li>(Turkish traditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Could own and inherit </li></ul><ul><li>property </li></ul><ul><li>Were not forced to marry </li></ul><ul><li>and could seek a divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Some gained political </li></ul><ul><li>power as officials and </li></ul><ul><li>governors </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Harem <ul><li>The Harem “Sacred Place” </li></ul><ul><li>Sultan’s wives and concubines </li></ul><ul><li>resided in private domain </li></ul><ul><li>Sultan chose four wives as his </li></ul><ul><li>favorites </li></ul><ul><li>When a son was chosen as a </li></ul><ul><li>Sultan, mother became “Queen </li></ul><ul><li>Mother” and gained power </li></ul>
  12. 12. Major Achievements <ul><li>Restored city of Constantinople (Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque </li></ul>Islamic Calligraphy
  13. 13. Major Achievements Art work: Picture of Angel Gabriel visiting Muhammad Illuminated Qur’an Prayer rugs and textiles What is unusual about this painting?
  14. 14. Major Achievements Scholars in astronomy and medicine. (Galata Observatory, 1557) Architecture – Sinan, most famous architect Blue Mosque Bazaars, hospitals, ceramics, silk
  15. 15. Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529 </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Lepanto, 1571 </li></ul><ul><li>Major naval battle between Spanish and Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish victory gave hope to Christian empires that Turks could be stopped. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Decline of Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>Vague process of succession </li></ul><ul><li>Internal government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Empire became too large to control </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of loyalty – no more land to conquer and give away </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of military technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economy suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road Trade monopoly ended – European water routes </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation due influx of silver </li></ul><ul><li>Did not industrialize – craft guilds </li></ul>I’ll stop Jafar! Maybe I can be Sultan!
  17. 17. The Ottoman Empire During the 16 c Ottoman Empire will last until 1917 It’s a whole new world!
  18. 18. Mughal Empire Unit III 1450-1750
  19. 19. Rise In Power Babur invaded and conquered Northern India. So began the Mughal Dynasty in 1526. The Mughals trace their heritage back to the Mongols (1258-1335) and the Timurids (1370-1501).
  20. 20. Major Leaders <ul><li>Babur (r. 1526-1530) </li></ul><ul><li>Military general who led his people to victory </li></ul><ul><li>Writer, loved music and art </li></ul><ul><li>Did little to administer the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar (r. 1556-1605) </li></ul><ul><li>Great military commander </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was </li></ul><ul><li>Reformed government </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted Hinduism – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created the Din-i-Ilahi </li></ul>
  21. 21. Major Leaders <ul><li>Jahangir (r.1605-1627) </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Not the best ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Jahangir indulged in courtly luxuries, such as opium </li></ul><ul><li>Strong political and artistic influence of his wife, queen Nur Jahan </li></ul>Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) <ul><li>Shah Jahan (r.1628-1658) </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal for his wife </li></ul><ul><li>Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations. </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court, </li></ul><ul><li>abolished ceremonies </li></ul>
  22. 22. Form of Government <ul><li>Emperor had absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Vazirs – royal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Wives of emperors gained power </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone could gain high office </li></ul>
  23. 23. Religious Beliefs / Policy <ul><li>Belief in God – Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim and Hindu subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar and the Din-i-Ilahi faith </li></ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb – Did not tolerate Hindus </li></ul>
  24. 24. Role of Women <ul><li>Elite women gained influence </li></ul><ul><li>Women were patrons of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal's treated women with respect. Babur and his officials often asked women for their reasons and information on political affairs; women could own land and they were paid salaries for their work; they were educated and they learned how to paint and write poetry; and women could participate in business activities. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Major Achievements <ul><li>Enormous army </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Artwork – influence from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: Baburnama (literally: &quot;Book of Babur“) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Emperors neglect people </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy was corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Army backwards in technology and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes on people </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tolerance for Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to conquer all of India </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>European intervention </li></ul>
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