UNIT III:  World Circa 1450-1750
Periodization Age of Exploration  Start of Political Revolutions
Overall Themes <ul><li>Absolutism – centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3...
Circa 1300 <ul><li>Population Decline and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Black Plague (@1348) </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism in Jap...
Circa 1300 <ul><li>Delhi Sultanate in South Asia – rise of Islam, decline of Buddhism, competing power bases. </li></ul><u...
Think about it… <ul><li>Predict what trends will change and which will stay the same. </li></ul><ul><li>As the world conti...
Empires:  Ming China 1368-1644 Manchu Qing Dynasty 1644 - 1912 <ul><li>  </li></ul>
MING CHINA <ul><li>Yuan (Mongols) out – Ming Dynasty proclaimed. </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of Chinese culture  </li></ul><...
Ming China and Absolutism <ul><li>Hongwu removed chief minister position </li></ul><ul><li>Established a bureaucracy  </li...
Exploration and Decline Emperor Yongle – eunuch Zheng He - 7 voyages between 1405-1423, collect tribute - Stopped: too cos...
Empires:  Japan
Tokugawa Japan Oda Nobunaga  – started unification Toyotomi Hideyoshi  – continued and launched attacks on Korea Tokugawa ...
Tokugawa Japan <ul><li>Ieyasu created new capital at Edo.  </li></ul><ul><li>Did not continue Hideyoshi's overseas expansi...
Empires:  Ottoman 1281-1914 <ul><li>1350’s – Initial Ottoman Invasion of Europe (Osman) </li></ul><ul><li>Janissary Corps ...
Ottoman Empire Led by Sultan    - absolute monarch, political and religious authority Bureaucracy – vizier (real power), g...
Empires:  Mughal India  1526-1739 <ul><li>Babur invaded and conquered Northern India </li></ul><ul><li>Empire based on mil...
Decline of Mughal Empire <ul><li>Corruption/neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Army behind the times </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes <...
Rise of the West Turned initial disadvantages into advantages
Age of Exploration and the  Rise of Europe
Motivation Gold – Wealth and prestige for  the crown Glory – Glory for their nation,  Individual Glory and  fame  God – Gr...
1.  Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2.  The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes...
<ul><li>Portugal  </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa </li></ul...
The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages.   <ul><li>Columbus discovered the Americas for ...
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniards capture the Inca King
<ul><li>Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>Northern areas of the Americas  – settlements and search for a “north-west  pa...
Oversight Institution The Crown – Monarch and Church received 20% of profits!  Mercantilism. Relied of King and Pope to ma...
European Empires: 1660
Impact of Exploration <ul><li>Positive Effects:   </li></ul><ul><li>New trade :  led to  weakening of the feudal system, r...
<ul><li>Mercantilism : economic policy that created a favorable  </li></ul><ul><li>balance of trade for the parent country...
The Triangle Trade Atlantic Slave Trade :  Africans faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became ...
Commodities:  Sugar, Silver and Slaves <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
Commodities
Empires:  African <ul><li>Characteristics of: </li></ul><ul><li>Stateless societies  - organized around kinship, often lar...
African Empires <ul><li>Benin  – Eware the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Kongo  – King Afonso </li></ul><ul><li>Asante  – Osei T...
East Africa – Indian Ocean Trade <ul><li>Swahili trading cities </li></ul><ul><li>Zanzibar – clove plantations </li></ul><...
Empires:  Russia <ul><li>Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and development </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing absolu...
Changing Beliefs <ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries:  Christ...
Cultural and Intellectual Development <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Patr...
Comparisons <ul><li>Be able to compare the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial systems:  European monarchy vs. a land-ba...
Conclusions <ul><li>What are the major themes that seem apparent? </li></ul><ul><li>What global processes are in action? <...
Do You Know Your Stuff? Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period....
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Midtermunitiiireview14501750

  1. 1. UNIT III: World Circa 1450-1750
  2. 2. Periodization Age of Exploration Start of Political Revolutions
  3. 3. Overall Themes <ul><li>Absolutism – centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3 S’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Nomads </li></ul>
  4. 4. Circa 1300 <ul><li>Population Decline and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Black Plague (@1348) </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism in Japan (Kamakura) and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Yuan dynasty in China, Kievan Rus under Mongol rule </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Inca and Aztec empires </li></ul><ul><li>Mali at its height </li></ul>
  5. 5. Circa 1300 <ul><li>Delhi Sultanate in South Asia – rise of Islam, decline of Buddhism, competing power bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Founding of Ottoman Dynasty (1281) </li></ul><ul><li>Continued decline of Byzantium </li></ul><ul><li>Trade circuits in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Trans-Saharan and across the Eurasian steppe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Think about it… <ul><li>Predict what trends will change and which will stay the same. </li></ul><ul><li>As the world continues to become more integrated circa 1300, predict which societies are in the best position to take advantage of new technologies and new discoveries. Think about virgin soils, location and luck. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Empires: Ming China 1368-1644 Manchu Qing Dynasty 1644 - 1912 <ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. MING CHINA <ul><li>Yuan (Mongols) out – Ming Dynasty proclaimed. </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of Chinese culture </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Confucianism (strict social structure) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Emperor - scholar-gentry - farmers - artisans - merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture (champa rice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public works (reforestation, irrigation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese goods like paper, porcelain, and silks were in demand throughout Asia and Europe. Europeans were allowed to come to Macao and Canton to do business. </li></ul><ul><li>Active traders in Indian Ocean (major ports were Hangzhou, Quangzhou, and Guangzhou). Traded for silver with Europe and Japan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ming China and Absolutism <ul><li>Hongwu removed chief minister position </li></ul><ul><li>Established a bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Imperial City and the Forbidden City </li></ul><ul><li>Killed rivals, ruled through terror (public beatings) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service exam (stopped family connections) </li></ul><ul><li>Chose imperial wives from humble families </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of eunuchs </li></ul><ul><li>Censored writings </li></ul><ul><li>Continued subordination of youth to elders and women to men </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exploration and Decline Emperor Yongle – eunuch Zheng He - 7 voyages between 1405-1423, collect tribute - Stopped: too costly, internal factionalism, domestic concerns. Decline – poor leaders, corrupt government, public works fail, foreign threats (Japanese ‘pirates’ and Manchus from North) * Conquered by Manchus
  11. 11. Empires: Japan
  12. 12. Tokugawa Japan Oda Nobunaga – started unification Toyotomi Hideyoshi – continued and launched attacks on Korea Tokugawa Ieyasu – 1600 – consolidated power, unified Japan, became shogun “ Ieyasu ate the pie that Nobunaga made and Hideyoshi baked .”
  13. 13. Tokugawa Japan <ul><li>Ieyasu created new capital at Edo. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not continue Hideyoshi's overseas expansion plans (Korea), but concentrated internally. </li></ul><ul><li>Led bureaucracy and controlled daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured Tokugawa succession </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture increased - improved farming techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomed trade at first – muskets, gunpowder for Japan’s silver </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Country Edicts - Restricted foreign trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feared foreign conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned Christianity (threatened loyalty to the shogun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned Western books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Dutch and Chinese could trade at Nagasaki </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensured rigid class structure (Neo-Confucianism) </li></ul>ISOLATION for the next 250 years.
  14. 14. Empires: Ottoman 1281-1914 <ul><li>1350’s – Initial Ottoman Invasion of Europe (Osman) </li></ul><ul><li>Janissary Corps raised to be loyal to Sultan </li></ul><ul><li>1453 – Ottoman capture of Constantinople (Sultan Mehmid II) </li></ul><ul><li>Suleiman the Magnificent advances to Hungary and Austria </li></ul><ul><li>1683 – Failed Ottoman siege of Vienna </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ottoman Empire Led by Sultan - absolute monarch, political and religious authority Bureaucracy – vizier (real power), granted on merit Janissary protected Christians and Jews (diverse empire) Gunpowder civilization Land empire DECLINE – Sultans neglect power Vague process of succession Empire too large Corrupt officials Lack of change in military technology
  16. 16. Empires: Mughal India 1526-1739 <ul><li>Babur invaded and conquered Northern India </li></ul><ul><li>Empire based on military strength </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar – Religious tolerance. Attempt to combine beliefs into new religion to unite Hindu and Muslim subjects: Din-I-Ilahi </li></ul><ul><li>Indian textile trade – value to Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Patronage to the arts (Shah Jahan) </li></ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb – No religious tolerance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Decline of Mughal Empire <ul><li>Corruption/neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Army behind the times </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign invaders </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rise of the West Turned initial disadvantages into advantages
  19. 19. Age of Exploration and the Rise of Europe
  20. 20. Motivation Gold – Wealth and prestige for the crown Glory – Glory for their nation, Individual Glory and fame God – Great Missionary Spirit to justify actions and gain new followers Need for new forms of revenue Take over trade from Muslims and Italians who dominated Mediterranean Iberian Gold – Wealth for individual and trading company Calvinists – wealth was a sign of God’s good grace. Glory – Individual fame and fortune God – Search for religious freedom (Puritans were persecuted) Competition developed with Iberian nations Northern European
  21. 21. 1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How did it all start? How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
  22. 22. <ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India </li></ul><ul><li>Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, </li></ul><ul><li>like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the 1600s. </li></ul>Location In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led the way Iberian
  23. 23. The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages.   <ul><li>Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent </li></ul><ul><li>conquistadors to Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, </li></ul><ul><li>Spain settled Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains in Peru. </li></ul>Location Iberian
  24. 24. The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniards capture the Inca King
  25. 25. <ul><li>Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.” </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands </li></ul><ul><li>British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation allowed to trade with Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>British later replace Dutch ( New York, South Africa, India, Malacca ) </li></ul>Location 1707 map of Japan that depicts William Adams’ visit with Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600 Northern European
  26. 26. Oversight Institution The Crown – Monarch and Church received 20% of profits! Mercantilism. Relied of King and Pope to make decisions. Resulted in slow, ineffective process of rule Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494: Pope made decision to split New World possessions into spheres of interest between Spain and Portugal. Iberian Trading companies received charters from King East and West India Companies develop – Privately funded ventures with goal of making a profit. Mercantilism existed, but development of capitalism began. Decisions can be made much faster by the settlers: Mayflower Compact Northern European
  27. 27. European Empires: 1660
  28. 28. Impact of Exploration <ul><li>Positive Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>New trade : led to weakening of the feudal system, rise </li></ul><ul><li>in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought </li></ul><ul><li>to New World </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade : Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in </li></ul><ul><li>cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity </li></ul>The World in 1600 The World in 1400
  29. 29. <ul><li>Mercantilism : economic policy that created a favorable </li></ul><ul><li>balance of trade for the parent country.  </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an </li></ul><ul><li>exclusive market for the parent country.  </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Destruction : Millions of natives died due to </li></ul><ul><li>disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization.  </li></ul>Parent Country Colony Raw Materials Profits $$ Products
  30. 30. The Triangle Trade Atlantic Slave Trade : Africans faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became the dominant labor force in the Americas. 
  31. 31. Commodities: Sugar, Silver and Slaves <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 32. Commodities
  33. 33. Empires: African <ul><li>Characteristics of: </li></ul><ul><li>Stateless societies - organized around kinship, often larger than states, forms of government </li></ul><ul><li>Large centralized states – increased unity came from linguistic base – Bantu, Christianity and Islam, as well as indigenous beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Trade – markets, international commerce, taxed trade of unprocessed goods. </li></ul>
  34. 34. African Empires <ul><li>Benin – Eware the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Kongo – King Afonso </li></ul><ul><li>Asante – Osei Tutu (Asantehene) </li></ul>* Centralized kingdoms Slave Trade – Europeans on coast with African middlemen Slaves in exchange for firearms
  35. 35. East Africa – Indian Ocean Trade <ul><li>Swahili trading cities </li></ul><ul><li>Zanzibar – clove plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Trade with Ottomans – ivory, gold, silver, people </li></ul>
  36. 36. Empires: Russia <ul><li>Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and development </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing absolutist rule and territorial expansion by 16 th Century – Ivan the Terrible </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Boyars, Cossacks, serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>Peter the Great accelerated westernization process </li></ul>
  37. 37. Changing Beliefs <ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cultural and Intellectual Development <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Patronage of the Arts </li></ul>
  39. 39. Comparisons <ul><li>Be able to compare the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial systems: European monarchy vs. a land-based Asian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive labor systems </li></ul><ul><li>Empire building in Asia, Africa and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s interaction with the west compared to others </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>What are the major themes that seem apparent? </li></ul><ul><li>What global processes are in action? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Do You Know Your Stuff? Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period. Ming China - Tokugawa Japan - Ottoman Empire - Mughal Empire - Western Europe - Africa - Americas - Russia <ul><li>Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (3 S’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Nomads </li></ul>
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