Question: Discuss the political changes and continuities that took place in Latin America from 1750-Present. Be sure to explain the major causes of change and continuities that developed over time. Change Over Time Essay
Revolutions – wars of independence
Bolivar – Colombia
Hidalgo – Mexico
L’Ouverture - Haiti
Turning Point Unit IV 1750 - 1914 Unit V 1914 - Present Political
Monarchy - Spanish
Power of the Church
Peninsulares – got most land and best jobs
Limited privileges for creoles
No rights for lower classes
Caudillos – strong man rule
Backed by Military
lack of pol rights
Liberals and Conservatives
Limited power of Church
Some rights given
Developing a Thesis After you analyze your planning chart, what conclusion can you make about the political and economic situation in Latin America over time?
Think about major events or turning points that led to major changes over time.
Think about causation and impact of major events to help formulate a thesis.
Look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the beneath-the-surface significance of these relationships.
Look for common trends or information. Is there overwhelming evidence that supports one aspect over another?
Make sure your thesis answers the question and attempts to prove something.
Question: Discuss the political changes and continuities that took place in Latin America from 1750-Present. Be sure to explain the major causes of change and continuities that developed over time.
Introduction and Thesis Many areas of the world have struggled to achieve independence and establish a democratic government. One could say that this was a major trend from the years 1750 to the present day. These areas include Russia, Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America. In Latin America, foreign colonial rule had control of the land and made the people of Latin America rise up and revolt against their rulers. From 1750 to the present day, Latin America has struggled to break free from colonial rule and establish a democratic government, through all of their changes over time, there has still been some foreign influence and political instability kept intact which is a major continuity. Includes time periods Reference to 1 st time period Reference to turning point Thesis Statement Refers to continuity Refers to major change or turning point Analyzes the impact of change or continuity – provides something to prove! Thesis Self Test: "Did I answer the question?" "Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose?" "Does my thesis pass the 'So What?' test?" “ Can I use evidence to support my thesis?” Global context
Body Paragraph #1 – Set the Stage Analysis of original “chunk” of time. Evaluate status of region and/or topic prior to the turning point selected. Focus on the topic. Latin America from around 1750 can be summed up in four words: domination by foreign rule. Back during the Age of Exploration the Europeans claimed land in the New World and exploited it for its resources. The Spanish installed viceroys to rule over the indigenous population. Peninsulares, or people of European descent, always got the top political positions in society. The people of Latin America did not have a say in how their country was to be run, and they wanted reform. The time period of Latin America’s colonial rule starts back in 1750 and moves all the way up to about 1825, when wars of independence helped Latin America break free. Topic sentence Political facts causation
Body Paragraph #2 – Turning Point What is the cause of change? Focus on why this turning point was selected. Should be a major conflict, event, invention, leader, etc. Analyze it! After 300 years of Spanish rule, many educated creoles were inspired by the American and French Revolutions, enlightenment ideals, and a growing sense of nationalism. Creole leaders like Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo set out to free their people from colonial rule. Similar to the American Revolution, lack of political rights, unfair taxation, and social inequality became the main causes for revolt. As Spain was distracted by an invasion by Napoleon, many of these revolts gained momentum and after many battles, the people of Latin America were liberated from Spanish control. However, once free from Spanish rule the creoles assumed power and simply replaced the Peninsulares as the privileged class in society and continued to exploit the common people of their nations. They would also continue to rely on the production of cash crops as their main exports, allowing Latin America to be on the short side of economic spheres of influence. Topic sentence Turning Point causation Analysis of Turning Point – Impact and lead into next paragraph Supports Thesis global context
Body Paragraph #4 – Results What Changed? Evaluate changes AND continuities resulting from turning point (2nd time chunk) on the given topic and region. Analyze impact! By 1850, most Latin American nations were independent from European political control. However, many people would not experience much of a difference in their everyday life. For example, in Mexico, a series of Caudillos, or strong men, would come to power and rule with an iron fist. Together, with the church, they retained power by buying all the land taken from the Spanish. There were new political philosophies developing as some leaders were inspired by the United States. These “Liberals” wanted to limit the power of the Church and redistribute land to the lower class. Their opponents, the conservatives, wanted to protect the church and the upper class land owners. Some leaders, like Santa Anna, were a mix of both depending on how it benefited their rule. Santa Anna did create a written constitution, but limited the power of the people when he crowned himself Emperor and dragged Mexico into countless losing wars. Some of these Caudillos had secret police, imposed strict law and order, and allowed foreigners to freely invest in their nations. Latin America did not follow the same political path as the United States which created a viable democracy based on natural rights. The primary reason for the instability of Latin American politics after independence is because of their lack of democratic traditions during their colonization. Spain was ruled by a monarchy that contained limited rights for its people. They ruled their colonies in the same way and did not prepare them for democratic self –rule. As a result, Latin American nations leaned to what they knew best and what they could depend on to bring law and order to society. So, despite the few Liberals such as Juarez in Mexico that sporadically came to power, the tendency for most of these nations would be to empower authoritarian rule led by Caudillos and backed by a strong military. Topic sentence Political facts that support thesis! Further explanation Supports Thesis Specific examples Analysis Summary of major point!
Conclusion Paragraph #5 – Summary Wrap it up. Restate thesis. Conclude: overall impact positive/ negative, helpful /harmful, global trends, etc. The Wars of Independence were not revolutions because very little changed politically for most of the people. The majority of people were exploited by Spanish colonialism and continued to be exploited by their own authoritarian governments. Lack of democratic traditions and widespread education helped to prevent stable economic and political systems that would benefit the success of these nations. As a result, like many former European colonies around the world, Latin American nations are still struggling with the negative impact of massive poverty, civil unrest, and a constant dependence of cash crops. Restatement of the Thesis Summary of major points Summary of major reasons for negative results Summary of major point!
COT Essay Structure 1. Introduction with thesis – Prove something! 2. Be sure to answer all parts of the question (Change, continuities, political, economic, etc.) 3. Using a three stage frame work for your body paragraphs: Body paragraph #1: Set the stage. Discuss the characteristics of first “chunk” of time. Body paragraph #2: Describe a turning point in that society. It does not necessarily have to be in the middle of the period, but should be a source of change. Discuss the immediate impact of this turning point. Body paragraph #3: Discuss the characteristics of second “chunk” of time. Explain the impact of the turning point and analyze-why they occurred? (Both change and continuity) 4. Use a minimum of 5 or 6 pieces of evidence for each part of your essay. This evidence should include both changes and continuities. 5. In conclusion, the essay must connects to the big picture (the global context).
Words to express change/continuity: Still Maintained Constant Throughout Remained Continued Stable Status Quo Secure Invariable Consistent The whole time Carried over Modify After Evolves Immigration Flux Migration Adapt Reform Turning point Transform Varies Shifted Differed Emerged Continuity Change