Japan and pacific rim2


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Japan and pacific rim2

  1. 1. The Pacific Rim Japan and the Asian Tigers: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong
  2. 2. Japan History after WWII <ul><li>Occupation was led by General Douglas MacArthur </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s armed forces were disbanded </li></ul><ul><li>The American occupiers had the goal to end militarism and ensure a democratic government. Gave women the right to vote, increased civil liberties, encouraged labor unions. </li></ul><ul><li>A new Japanese Constitution was drafted by the American occupiers creating a Constitutional Monarchy that limited the power of the Emperor and abolished Shintoism as the state religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese accepted this new constitution and signed a treaty that took away Japan’s overseas empire </li></ul><ul><li>In 1952, the Allied occupation officially ended </li></ul>General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
  3. 3. Japan Economy <ul><li>Japan Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between state and private industry – led to expansion of exports </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on economic growth – led by government economic planning and production guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Became World economic power – focuses on advanced technologies – automobiles and electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on labor and management cooperation – wages remained low, living standards improved </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed importance of group cohesion – emphasized group decision making and stressed loyalty </li></ul>Gung Ho Film Clip
  4. 4. Japan Political System <ul><li>Blended modern democratic forms with traditional elitist ties </li></ul><ul><li>Government was dominated by one Party – Liberal Democratic Party – provided stability in Japan from 1955-1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed into a ruling oligarchy – stressed Patriotism, loyalty, development and protection of Japanese industry, pollution and population control </li></ul><ul><li>After 1993, corruption caused a split of the Liberal Democratic Party – Rise of Democratic Party of Japan </li></ul>Prime Minister Visits WWII Shinto Shrine Taro Aso - 92 nd Prime Minister of Japan http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Prime_Ministers_of_Japan Kan Naoto – 94 th Prime Minister as of 2010 – Democratic Party
  5. 5. Japan Society <ul><li>Government stress of population control – birth control and abortion supported </li></ul><ul><li>Education expanded – merit based university enrollments </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional cultural returns – Poetry, painting, tea ceremonies, chopsticks </li></ul><ul><li>Western culture adopted – Baseball, dress, music, games shows, soap operas </li></ul><ul><li>Male authority remained dominant – women’s role as mother stressed - small feminist movement </li></ul>Japanese Game Show Hideki Matsui, “People Pushers” and the Bullet Train
  6. 6. South Korea History after WWII <ul><li>Korea was split after WWII – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea was Communist ruled by dictator Kim Il Sung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korea was Capitalist ruled by autocratic President Syngman Rhee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korean War was fought (1950-1953) – ended in fragile truce along the 38 th parallel </li></ul>General MacArthur at Invasion of Inchon
  7. 7. South Korea Economy <ul><li>Government attempt to recover from years of foreign occupation and civil war – instituted five-year plans on exports and infrastructure, land reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved major economic growth – corporations like Samsung, Daewoo and Hyundai became massive conglomerates who have political and social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Development of consumer goods, steel, automobiles, textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita income increased – created “Economic Miracle” </li></ul><ul><li>Economic problems exist today – corruption, trade deficit, unemployment, and bankruptcy </li></ul>Hyundai plant in India and Seoul Korea.
  8. 8. North Korea and South Korea Satellite Image taken at night <ul><li>What does this satellite image tell us about each society? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cause of this drastic difference? </li></ul>
  9. 9. South Korea Political System <ul><li>Syngman Rhee ruled harshly until 1960 – corruption, unfair elections, police brutality </li></ul><ul><li>Military coup led by General Chung Hee Park in 1961 – new constitution, slow democratic reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Limited freedoms – autocratic rule and suppression of all dissidents </li></ul><ul><li>Park was assassinated in 1979 – National elections took place in 1989, limited power of big business and began communication with North Korea about reunification </li></ul>President Lee Myung-bak and Labor Union Protests General Chung Hee park and Guard at DMZ
  10. 10. South Korea Society <ul><li>Population increased to 48 million – highest density (1000 people per square mile) </li></ul><ul><li>Government encourages limited birth rates for families </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian principles of thrift, education, and hard work is basic attitude of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist beliefs and respect for nature </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy influence of large companies (Chaebol) – built housing, schools, arenas for Tae Kwon Do </li></ul><ul><li>Western influence – Baseball, fast food, dress, music, karaoke </li></ul>Buddhist temple and statue and South Korean baseball player
  11. 11. Taiwan History after WWII <ul><li>Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang, fled from Communist Revolutionaries and went to Taiwan in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) </li></ul><ul><li>United States has vowed to protect Taiwan from Communist China – Security Treaty of 1954 </li></ul>General MacArthur and Jiang Jieshi
  12. 12. Taiwan Economy <ul><li>Achieved economic prosperity – Agricultural and Industrial production increased – standard of living increased </li></ul><ul><li>Government installed land reform program and economic planning – infrastructure and targeting strategic industries </li></ul><ul><li>Government stressed private business and foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on education, literacy, technical training </li></ul><ul><li>Opened trade network with U.S., Japan, S.E. Asia and China </li></ul>Capital city of Taipei
  13. 13. Taiwan Political System <ul><li>Authoritarian rule – emergency decree by threat of communists. Lack of political diversity and political parties </li></ul><ul><li>1978 U.S. recognized People’s Republic of China and severed diplomatic ties with Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>1978 Jiang Jieshi died and son, Chiang Ching-kuo eased authoritarian rule </li></ul><ul><li>Today, there is a more representative form of government with elections and multiple parties </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of declaring Taiwanese independence from China has created tension and threats </li></ul><ul><li>China wants “one country, two systems” </li></ul>Under pressure from China, Taiwan participates in the Olympics under the name of Chinese Taipei, and its national flag and anthem cannot be used when its athletes win medals. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/world/asia/23taiwan.html?_r=1
  14. 14. Taiwan Society <ul><li>Population growth – government family planning programs to reduce rate of growth (7 million to 20 million from 1945-1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional beliefs – Confucian ideals, hard work, frugality, filial piety, medical practices, religious rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Government attempt to “Sinicize” population – Mandarin language – Today there is a push for English </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Taiwanese nationalism has developed – Taiwanese language </li></ul><ul><li>Western influence – medicine, hospitals, music, baseball, golf, forms of entertainment, convenience stores </li></ul>Two 7-11 convenient stores face off in Taiwan
  15. 15. Singapore History after WWII <ul><li>Was originally part of the British colony of Malaya. Gained Independence from Great Britain in 1959 – British naval base until 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew until 1990 </li></ul>Lee Kuan Yew and Singapore people welcome British after WWII
  16. 16. Singapore Economy <ul><li>Extraordinarily successful economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Government led initiatives combined with private enterprises in manufacturing, banking, shipping, electronics, textiles, shipbuilding and oil refining </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd highest per capita in Asia and busiest port in the world - tourism arrivals are up, average household incomes are rising, and the job market looks white hot. </li></ul>Port of Singapore
  17. 17. Singapore Political System <ul><li>Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew led as an authoritarian ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Government had tight controls over its people – proclaimed strict discipline and restraint was needed because such a large population crowded a limited space </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in very low crime rates and limited government opposition due to harsh penalties. </li></ul><ul><li>New leader, Goh Chok Tong had promised a kinder and gentler Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Current PM is Lee Hsien Loong ( Lee Kuan’s son ) . </li></ul>In 1994 American 18 year old Michael Fay was convicted on vandalism in Singapore and sentenced to 83 days in prison and 4 lashes with the cane!
  18. 18. Singapore Society <ul><li>Population growth – Singapore is the one of the most densely populated countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s to reduce population. In the late 1990s, the government introduced a &quot;baby bonus&quot; scheme that encouraged couples to have more children. </li></ul><ul><li>Government run “Ministry of Education” sets curriculum standards </li></ul><ul><li>Government owns and controls all radio and television stations </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of traditional and western cultures – Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism with Christianity, Architecture, sports </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hong Kong History after WWII <ul><li>Remained a British Colony until 1997 when it was returned to communist China </li></ul>British Leave Hong Kong
  20. 20. Hong Kong Economy <ul><li>Highly capitalist economy built on a policy of free markets, low taxation and government non-intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Developed into major world trading port and international banking center </li></ul><ul><li>High export levels- textiles, toys, and electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Recently has develop more service industries as manufacturing has moved to mainland China </li></ul><ul><li>Government has allocated funds for transportation, education, public housing and sanitation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hong Kong Political System <ul><li>Ruled as a British Colony from 1842-1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong was handed over to Communist China. Under the policy of &quot;one country, two systems&quot;, the communists are responsible for the territory's defense and foreign affairs, while Hong Kong is responsible for its own legal system, police force, monetary system, customs policy, immigration policy, and delegates to international organizations and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy – right to vote, legislative branch, judicial system, multi-party state, civil service </li></ul>Protesters in Hong Kong fear spread of communism
  22. 22. Hong Kong Society <ul><li>Mix of British and Chinese cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Education follows western models – public schools run by Department of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse culture – Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Daoist </li></ul><ul><li>Movie making industry – Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan </li></ul>The Tian Tan Buddha, tallest outdoor Buddha statue
  23. 23. Similarities <ul><li>Emphasize group loyalty over individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Stress hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian morality </li></ul><ul><li>Government planning </li></ul><ul><li>Limits of dissent </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced others: Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia – “Little Tigers” </li></ul>