The Pacific Rime A s i a nJ a p a n a nd th T ig e r s : South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong
Japan History after WWII•Occupation was led by General DouglasMacArthur•Japan’s armed forces were disbanded•The American occupiers had the goal to endmilitarism and ensure a democratic government.Gave women the right to vote, increased civilliberties, encouraged labor unions.•A new Japanese Constitution was drafted by theAmerican occupiers creating a ConstitutionalMonarchy that limited the power of the Emperorand abolished Shintoism as the state religion.•The Japanese accepted this new constitutionand signed a treaty that took away Japan’soverseas empire•In 1952, the Allied occupation officially ended General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
Japan Economy •Japan Incorporated •Cooperation between state and private industry – led to expansion of exports •Concentrated on economic growth – led by government economic planning and production guidelines •Became World economic power – focuses on advanced technologies – automobiles and electronics •Focus on labor and management cooperation – wages remained low, living standards improved •Stressed importance of group cohesion – emphasized group decision making andGung Ho Film Clip stressed loyalty
Japan Political System•Blended modern democraticforms with traditional elitist ties Taro Aso - 92nd Prime Minister•Government was dominated by of Japanone Party – Liberal DemocraticParty – provided stability inJapan from 1955-1993.•Developed into a rulingoligarchy – stressed Patriotism,loyalty, development and Yoshihiko Noda –protection of Japanese industry, 95th Prime Ministerpollution and population control as of 2012 – Democratic Party•After 1993, corruption caused asplit of the Liberal DemocraticParty – Rise of Democratic Partyof Japan Prime Minister Visits WWII Shinto Shrine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Prime_Ministers_of_Japan
Japan Society•Government stress ofpopulation control – birth controland abortion legalized in the1950s•Education expanded – meritbased university enrollments Hideki Matsui, “People•Traditional cultural returns – Pushers” and the Bullet TrainPoetry, painting, tea ceremonies,chopsticks•Western culture adopted –Baseball, dress, music, gamesshows, soap operas Japanese Game•Male authority remained Showdominant – women’s role asmother stressed - small feministmovement
South Korea History after WWII•Korea was split after WWII – •North Korea was Communist ruled by dictator Kim Il Sung •South Korea was Capitalist ruled by autocratic President Syngman Rhee•Korean War was fought (1950-1953) –ended in fragile truce along the 38thparallel General MacArthur at Invasion of Inchon
South Korea Economy •Government attempt to recover from years of foreign occupation and civil war – instituted five-year plans on exports and infrastructure, land reforms •Achieved major economic growth – corporations like Samsung, Daewoo and Hyundai became massive conglomerates who have political and social influence •Development of consumer goods, steel, automobiles, textiles •Per capita income increased – created “Economic Miracle” •Economic problems exist today – corruption, trade deficit, unemployment, and bankruptcyHyundai plant in India and Seoul Korea.
North Korea andSouth KoreaSatellite Imagetaken at night•What does this satellite image tell us about each society? •What is the cause ofthis drastic difference?
South Korea Political System General Chung Hee park and•Syngman Rhee ruled harshly Guard at DMZuntil 1960 – corruption, unfairelections, police brutality•Military coup led by GeneralChung Hee Park in 1961 – newconstitution, slow democraticreforms•Limited freedoms – autocraticrule and suppression of alldissidents•Park was assassinated in 1979 –National elections took place in1989, limited power of bigbusiness and began President Lee Myung-bakcommunication with North Korea and Labor Union Protestsabout reunification
South Korea Society•Population increased to 48 million –highest density (1000 people per squaremile)•Government encourages limited birthrates for families Buddhist temple•Confucian principles of thrift, and statue andeducation, and hard work is basic South Koreanattitude of workers baseball player•Buddhist beliefs and respect for nature•Heavy influence of large companies(Chaebol) – built housing, schools,arenas for Tae Kwon Do•Western influence – Baseball, fast food,dress, music, karaoke
Taiwan History after WWII•Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang, fledfrom Communist Revolutionaries andwent to Taiwan in 1949•Led by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)•United States has vowed to protectTaiwan from Communist China –Security Treaty of 1954General MacArthur and Jiang Jieshi
Taiwan Economy •Achieved economic prosperity – Agricultural and Industrial production increased – standard of living increased •Government installed land reform program and economic planning – infrastructure and targeting strategic industries •Government stressed private business and foreign investment •Stress on education, literacy, technical training •Opened trade network with U.S., Japan, S.E. Asia and China Capital city of Taipei
Taiwan Political System•Authoritarian rule – emergency decree bythreat of communists. Lack of politicaldiversity and political parties•1978 U.S. recognized People’s Republic ofChina and severed diplomatic ties withTaiwan•1978 Jiang Jieshi died and son, ChiangChing-kuo eased authoritarian rule•Today, there is a more representative form Under pressure from China, Taiwanof government with elections and multiple participates in the Olympics underparties the name of Chinese Taipei, and its national flag and anthem cannot be•Discussion of declaring Taiwanese used when its athletes win medals.independence from China has createdtension and threats http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/world/•China wants “one country, two systems”
Taiwan Society•Population growth – government familyplanning programs to reduce rate ofgrowth (7 million to 20 million from1945-1980s)•Traditional beliefs – Confucian ideals,hard work, frugality, filial piety, medicalpractices, religious rituals•Government attempt to “Sinicize”population – Mandarin language – Todaythere is a push for English•Recent Taiwanese nationalism hasdeveloped – Taiwanese language•Western influence – medicine,hospitals, music, baseball, golf, forms ofentertainment, convenience stores Two 7-11 convenient stores face off in Taiwan
Singapore History after WWII• Was originally part of the Britishcolony of Malaya. GainedIndependence from Great Britain in1959 – British naval base until1971.•Led by Prime Minister Lee KuanYew until 1990Lee Kuan Yew and Singapore people welcome British after WWII
Singapore Economy Port of Singapore•Extraordinarily successful economicdevelopment•Government led initiatives combinedwith private enterprises inmanufacturing, banking, shipping,electronics, textiles, shipbuilding and oilrefining•2nd highest per capita in Asia andbusiest port in the world - tourismarrivals are up, average householdincomes are rising, and the job marketlooks white hot.
Singapore Political System•Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew led as anauthoritarian ruler•Government had tight controls over itspeople – proclaimed strict discipline andrestraint was needed because such a largepopulation crowded a limited space•Resulted in very low crime rates and limitedgovernment opposition due to harshpenalties.•New leader, Goh Chok Tong had promised akinder and gentler Singapore.• Current PM is Lee Hsien Loong (Lee Kuan’sson). In 1994 American 18 year old Michael Fay was convicted on vandalism in Singapore and sentenced to 83 days in prison and 4 lashes with the cane!
SingaporeSociety •Population growth – Singapore is the one of the most densely populated countries in the world •Government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s to reduce population. In the late 1990s, the government introduced a "baby bonus" scheme that encouraged couples to have more children. •Government run “Ministry of Education” sets curriculum standards •Government owns and controls all radio and television stations •Mix of traditional and western cultures – Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism with Christianity, Architecture, sports
Hong Kong History after WWII•Remained a British Colony until1997 when it was returned tocommunist China British Leave Hong Kong
Hong Kong Economy•Highly capitalist economy built on apolicy of free markets, low taxation andgovernment non-intervention•Developed into major world trading portand international banking center•High export levels- textiles, toys, andelectronics•Recently has develop more serviceindustries as manufacturing has movedto mainland China• Government has allocated funds fortransportation, education, publichousing and sanitation
Hong Kong Political System•Ruled as a British Colony from1842-1997•Hong Kong was handed over toCommunist China. Under the policy of"one country, two systems", thecommunists are responsible for theterritorys defense and foreign affairs,while Hong Kong is responsible for itsown legal system, police force, monetarysystem, customs policy, immigrationpolicy, and delegates to internationalorganizations and events. Protesters in Hong Kong fear spread of communism•Democracy – right to vote, legislativebranch, judicial system, multi-partystate, civil service
Hong Kong Society •Mix of British and Chinese cultures •Education follows western models – public schools run by Department of Education •Diverse culture – Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Daoist •Movie making industry – Bruce Lee, Jackie ChanThe Tian Tan Buddha, tallest outdoor Buddha statue
Similarities• Emphasize group loyalty over individualism• Stress hard work• Confucian morality• Government planning• Limits of dissent• Influenced others: Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia – “Little Tigers”