Age of Exploration Hello, my name is Christopher Columbus and I am here to tell you about a major turning point in history! The Age of Exploration was a time when brave men, like myself, left the familiar shores of Europe in search of new lands, trade routes, and riches!
How did it all start?1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East.2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
Reasons for ExplorationLook at the following pictures and see if you can determine the major reasons for Exploration in the 15th thru 17th centuries!
Reasons for Exploration “Come on! Did you think we did it to find a new vacation spot?”1. “Gold” was a motivator! Many had a desire to find new sources of wealth.2. “Glory” encouraged men to take risks! Many wanted fame and fortune for themselves and their nation.3. “God” was used to justify their success. Due to Reformation, some wanted to spread Christianity.
Reasons for Exploration “All this technology and the Queen only gives me three scrawny little ships!” 4. “Water Route to the East” was needed due to Muslim and Italian control of trade routes. 5. “Humanism” stressed the power of the individual to question and explore the world around them. 6. “Technology” such as the compass, sextant, astrolabe, and the caravel made sea travel easier.
Motivation Iberian Northern EuropeanGold – Wealth and prestige for Gold – Wealth for individual the crown and trading companyGlory – Glory for their nation, Calvinists – wealth was a sign Individual Glory and of God’s good grace. fame Glory – Individual fame andGod – Great Missionary Spirit fortune to justify actions and God – Search for religiousgain new followers freedom (Puritans wereNeed for new forms of revenue persecuted) Competition developed withTake over trade from Muslims Iberian nationsand Italians who dominatedMediterranean
Location Iberian Portugal- Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, in Africa and Asia, like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton- Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500- Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the 1600s. In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led the way
Location Iberian The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages. - Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent“I just wanted to conquistadors to Central and South Americaget to the Indies, but no… these - Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, Spain settled Philippines two bigcontinents had to - Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico be in my way!” - Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes Mountains in Peru.
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniardscapture the Inca King
Location Northern European Dutch and British- Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.”- Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands- British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta 1707 map of Japan- Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. that depicts Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation William Adams’ allowed to trade with Japan) visit with- British later replace Dutch (New York, Tokugawa Ieyasu in South Africa, India, Malacca) 1600
Oversight Institution Iberian Northern EuropeanThe Crown – Monarch and Trading companies receivedChurch received 20% of profits! charters from KingMercantilism. East and West India CompaniesRelied on King and Pope to develop – Privately fundedmake decisions. Resulted in ventures with goal of making aslow, ineffective process of rule profit.Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494: Mercantilism existed, butPope made decision to split New development of capitalismWorld possessions into spheres began.of interest between Spain and Decisions can be made muchPortugal. faster by the settlers: Mayflower Compact
What do you think is the reason for the differences between Iberian and Northern European exploration?Here’s a hint: Pope Pius V Here’s a hint: Queen Isabella Religious differences: Political differences: Iberians had Iberians were Roman Absolute Monarchs with Divine RightCatholic and Northerners and Northerners had Limited were Protestant Parliamentary governments
How do these two images reflect Northern European Exploration? Merchants and Bankers who want to make a profit for themselves and trading company. Pilgrims and the MayflowerCompact: Search for religiousfreedom and settlers making their own decision
How do these two images reflect Iberian Exploration? Columbus arrives in America and plants flag for Spain. Glory for Spain and for himself. Columbus showing off findings from New World to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
The Columbian Exchange “The age of Exploration was a major turning point in history all because of me!”Columbian Exchange - the exchange of people, plants,animals, ideas, and technology between Europe and the NewWorld. From Old World to New World From New World to Old World Corn Potato Wheat Sugar Beans Peanuts Bananas Rice Squash Pumpkin Grapes Horses Tomatoes Avocados Pigs Cattle Chili Pepper Pineapple Sheep Chickens Cocoa Tobacco Measles Quinine (a medicine for malaria) Typhus
Impact of Exploration Positive Effects:• New trade: led to weakening of the feudal system, rise in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe.• Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought to New World• Global Trade: Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity The World in 1400 1600
Negative Effects:• Massive Destruction: Millions of natives died due to disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization.• Mercantilism: economic policy that created a favorable balance of trade for the parent country.• Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Atlantic Slave Trade: Africans faced a diaspora, or forcedmovement of its people, as slavery became the dominantlabor force in the Americas. The Triangle Trade
Important People to KnowCan you name the Explorer who went on each voyage?