F:\Ap World History10\1450 1750\Rise Of West\Refscie Ap
The Reformation and the Scientific Revolution
“ There could not have been a Protestant Reformation had there not been a Renaissance first.” 1. The strongest support for the idea expressed in this quotation is based on the fact that the Renaissance encouraged: A. Rejection of the Bible as a guide to life B. Strict observance of Christian doctrine C. A questioning spirit D. A lack of interest in classical knowledge E. The rejection of humanism C. A questioning spirit
Protestant Reformation Hello, hola, konnichiwa, whatever language you speak, that is how I would like to address you. For I am Martin Luther (the German guy…not Martin Luther King Jr.), the man behind the Protestant Reformation.
Problems in the Catholic Church Now, I don’t know about you, but I think priests and monks who can’t read is horrible. Not too mention those that gamble, drink, and spend a lot of money. Those things are quite wrong. But, you want to know what really gets me angered? INDULGENCES. Who did these priests think they were?? Selling indulgences so that sinners can be released from performing a penalty for a sin was ludicrous.
Renaissance Ideas Carry Over The emphasis on the secular and the individual really helped to challenge the authority of the church. That “questioning spirit” of the time meant that I didn’t feel the need to keep my mouth shut about those dreadful indulgences.
“ Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man or lends to a needy man does better than if he used the money to buy an indulgence.”
Martin Luther Takes Action Okay, so I know I am fairly well-known for writing the 95-Theses and posting them on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. Really, my initial intent was just to criticize the sale of indulgences. After thinking about it more though, I realized I did want a few more reforms.
Lutheranism <ul><li>People should win salvation by faith and good works </li></ul><ul><li>All Church teachings should be based on the Bible (and it should be in vernacular language) </li></ul><ul><li>All people with faith were equal. Priests are not needed to interpret the Bible </li></ul>My teachings rest on 3 basic ideas:
My Friend Calvin I am going to hand over the reigns to John Calvin. We believe some of the same things, yet we have our differences too.
Calvinism I also believe that salvation is achieved through faith alone and that the Bible is the only source of religious truth. However, I also think that humans are naturally sinful, and God has already determined who will gain salvation. It is called predestination . In 1541, Protestants in Geneva asked me to lead their city. It was therefore a theocracy. I stressed hard work, discipline, and morality. There were no theatres allowed and no elaborate dress. Come to think of it, this PowerPoint is too entertaining for me to continue to be a part of……
Catholic Counter Reformation So, the Church was losing members and support. They jumped on the bandwagon and launched their own reforms to strengthen and spread the Catholic religion. Council of Trent (1545) – Meeting of church leaders to reform the church. 1. Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final 2. Christian’s need faith and good works for salvation. 3. Stopped church corruption and educated clergy.
Results Of My Movement I, meaning me, Luther, really didn’t know that my actions would change so much. Here are some of the results: <ul><li>The Reformation led to the growth of the Protestant religion </li></ul><ul><li>Europe became religiously divided </li></ul><ul><li>Pope and church lost power, while monarchs gained it and nations formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter Catholic Reformation </li></ul>
2. Which of the following most accurately describes the nature of popular support for Luther’s religious reform movement? A) Luther failed to attract the support of the German princes because he advocated the overthrow of their authority in favor of unification under the Holy Roman Empire. B) German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories. C) The poor supported Luther’s movement in return for Luther’s promise of redistribution of land and property. D) German merchants refused to support Lutheranism, because the reform movement was less favorable to money-making than Catholicism. E) Support for Lutheranism was uniform across the Holy Roman Empire.
Hello, my name is Galileo Galilei, I’m one of a handful of people that brought about great changes in Europe. I’ll tell you a tale of my journey as well as the journey of others. Thanks Luth, I’ll take over for awhile.
Well, the Renaissance and Reformation really got the ball rolling in creating a new spirit of inquiry. They inspired us scientists to start questioning traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. It all took place in Europe during the 15 th and 16 th centuries . One of the first things we decided was that the old way of doing science was too outdated, so we came up with this idea that we call the Scientific Method . Yes, the same thing that you still learn in your science classes today was created hundreds of years ago in Europe.
The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works.
3. Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on B. experimentation and observation E. the ideas of the absolute monarch A. the experiences of past civilizations C. emotions and feelings D. the teachings of the Catholic Church B. experimentation and observation
With this way of studying the world around us, scientists really started to make great strides in putting things in a new perspective about the world around us. My buddy Nicky , ( Nicolaus Copernicus for those of you who are not down with him) , developed the heliocentric model of the universe. This states that the sun is at the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
Despite his calculations, many scholars disagree with his theories and continue to believe in the geocentric model proposed by the ancient Greek Ptolemy 1500 years earlier. So, I was just a little bit off…. it seemed like a good idea at the time.
I, Galileo continued Copernicus' work by observing the skies with a homemade telescope . Although I was able to prove Copernicus correct, my work was rejected by the Church and I was forced to recant (take back) or face execution. This is where I come in...that’s me with my homemade telescope….pretty cool, huh!?
Isaac Newton built upon the earlier work of Copernicus and Galileo and used mathematics to describe gravity as the force that keeps planets revolving around the sun. He also explained that this same force is what causes objects to fall to earth. It’s okay, don’t be afraid to say it…. you’re digging my hair.
Results: The success of the Scientific Revolution and Europe’s increasing wealth led to the Enlightenment in the 1700s. Enlightenment thinkers believed that by applying reason and science, they could better understand nature and human society. They questioned the divine right of kings, the privileges of the nobility, and the power of the Church. Thanks a lot guys! Thanks a lot guys! Thanks a lot guys!
4. During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they D. examined natural laws governing the universe E. Often came up with theories to suit their own needs A. relied heavily on the ideas of medieval thinkers. B. favored an absolute monarchy as a way of improving economic conditions C. received support from the Catholic Church D. examined natural laws governing the universe