East asia and muslim empires test review
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  • Nobunaga slaughtered thousands of monks and villagers at the Buddhist monastery at Mount Hiei. 1573, deposed last Ashikaga shogun. Killed in 1580 – betrayed by General and burned in Kyoto Temple.

East asia and muslim empires test review East asia and muslim empires test review Presentation Transcript

  • East Asia and Muslim Empires Period 4 1450-1750 Test review Stearns, Chapters 28 and 26
  • Recovery in China Ming China Political Development Mongols collapsed in 1368. Hongwu established the Ming Dynasty. Erase memory of Mongol occupation. Confucian education and civil service reinstated. Private merchants traded and manufactured porcelain, silk, and paper. Ming “Brilliant” Dynasty lasted until 1644. Intellectual Development Neo-Confucianism promoted Yongle Encyclopedia promoted Chinese traditions. Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduce European technology and beliefs. Wider production of printed materials. Novels written in Chinese. Largest cities in world Hongwu controlled nobles with fear and violence
  • Exploration “ Comeback Back” Tours (7 between 1405 -1433). Massive naval and trade fleet headed by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim eunuch. Established tributary relations with regions throughout the eastern hemisphere. Voyages ended in 1433 as Confucian bureaucrats claimed foreign interests had no value to China and military resources should be directed towards protecting northern frontier from attack. Recovery in China Ming China
    • Indian Ocean Trade Route:
    • Multi-Ethnic
    • Mostly peaceful
    • Depends on Monsoon winds
    • Focus on port cities (enclaves) on coast
    Zheng He compared to Prince Henry the Navigator – started school for navigation
  • Japanese Unification Oda Nobunaga Tokugawa Ieyasu Emperor was a figurehead – no real power Shogun held real power! Major Achievements: Japanese novels, Kabuki Theater, Literature, art, Castles, block printers. Women’s rights restricted: lacked education, arranged marriages, Toyotomi Hideyoshi Highly regulated trade – Closed country edict Threatened by Christianity and Spain in Philippines Allowed the Dutch, Chinese, and Korea limited trade
  • Ottoman Empire Mehmet II
    • Mehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror”
    • 1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople
    • and conquered the Byzantine Empire.
    • Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital.
    • The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate”
    Suleyman the Magnificent
    • Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan
    • Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts
    • of Austria.
    • Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean
    • Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools
    • and mosques.
  • The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?
  • Decline of Ottoman Empire
    • Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries
    • Vague process of succession
    • Internal government corruption
    • Empire became too large to control
    • Loss of loyalty – no more land to conquer and give away
    • Lack of military technology
    • Economy suffered
    • Silk Road Trade monopoly ended – European water routes
    • Inflation due influx of silver
    • Did not industrialize – craft guilds
    • The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529
    • Lost the Battle of Lepanto to Spain in 1571
  • Mughal Dynasty
    • Babur (r. 1526-1530)
    • Military general who led his people to victory
    • Writer, loved music and art
    • Did little to administer the empire
    • Akbar (r. 1556-1605)
    • Great military commander
    • Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was
    • Reformed government
    • Accepted Hinduism –
      • allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built
    • Created the Din-i-Ilahi
  • Major Achievements
    • Enormous army
    • Cotton textiles – Demand for Asian goods becomes financed by New World silver
    • Polo
    • Artwork – influence from Europe
    • Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb
    • Literature: Baburnama (literally: "Book of Babur“)
    • Sikhism begins by Guru Nanak
  • Decline Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707)
    • Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims.
    • Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations.
    • Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court,
    • abolished ceremonies
    • Emperors neglect people
    • Bureaucracy was corrupt
    • Army backwards in technology and tactics
    • High taxes on people
    • Lack of tolerance for Hinduism
    • Tried to conquer all of India
    • Peasant uprisings
    • European intervention