Contemporary China (1) (2) Smithtown High School West Christina Cone 2007
DO NOW:(3) (6) Which of these pictures were taken in China?A (8)(4) D (7) FB (9) (5)C E G
True or False?1. All Chinese people speak the same language.2. Mao unified China.3. China has sovereignty over Taiwan. (10)4. Deng Xiaoping intended to implement democracy. (11) (13) (12)5. The Great Wall is a man-made object visible from space.6. Over 20 percent of the worlds population are Chinese.7. Only Beijing and Shanghai represent the current China.8. China is backward and poor.9. The one child policy works.10. China is a communist country. (17) (14) (15) (19) (16) (18)
ExaminingContemporary China • Society • Population • Ethnic Diversity • One Child Policy • Politics (20) (21) • Economics • Development • Beijing Olympics • Environmental Impact
Population With just over 1.3 billion people, China is the worlds most populous country. As the _________worlds population is approximately 6.5 billion, China represents a full 20% of the worlds population so one in every five people on the planet is a resident of China. One third of the population today is under 14, two-thirds are under 30. About three-quarters of the people live in rural areas. However, urban centers are growing rapidly. TASK: Half of the class: Explain why a large population is a positive for a country. Half of the class: Explain why a large population is a negative for a country.
(23) Ethnic Minorities (24) The Han Chinese make up 92% of the population of China. Then, there are fifty- six extremely diverse ethnic minorities in China. Some of the minorities, including the Hui and the Zhuang, are very similar to the Han; others are very different, for instance, the Turkic peoples of the west such as the Uighurs or Kazakhs, or the Iranian Tajiks. The minority nationalities occupy about 60 percent of Chinas territory, including, above all, the vast western areas. (25)QUESTION: Think about China’s geography. Is it an advantage or a disadvantage to live in the western region? Why?
Chinese Nationalities and Their Populations Minorities Shown Left to Right Descending by Population Minority Population Minority Population Minority Population Minority Population Han 1,136,703,824 Zhuang 15,555,800 Manchu 8,846,800 Hui 8,612,000 Miao 7,383,600 Uygur 7,207,000 Yi 6,578,500 Tujia 5,725,000 Mongolian 4,802,400 Tibetan 4,593,100 Bouyei 2,548,300 Dong 2,506,800 Yao 2,137,000 Korean 1,923,400 Bai 1,598,100 Hani 1,254,800 Li 1,112,500 Kazakh 1,110,800 Dai 1,025,400 She 634,700 Lisu 574,600 Gelao 438,200 Lahu 411,500 Dongxiang 373,700 Wa 352,000 Shui 347,100 Naxi 277,800 Qiang 198,600 Du 192,600 Xibe 172,900 Mulam 160,600 Kirgiz 143,500 Daur 121,500 Jingp 119,300 Salar 87,500 Bulang 82,400 Maonan 72,400 Tajik 33,200 Pumi 29,700 Achang 27,700 Nu 27,200 Ewenki 26,400 Jing 18,700 Jino 18,000 Deang 15,500 Uzbek 14,800 Russian 13,500 Yugur 12,300 Bonan 11,700 Menba 7,500 Oroqin 7,000 Drung 5,800 Tatar 5,100 Hezhen 4,300 Gaoshan 2.900 Lhoba 2,300 (27)
(43) (44)Giant pandas are black-and-white Chinese bears that are on the verge of extinction. There are about 1500 pandas in the world. The Chinese people call the panda "Da xiong mao," which means "giant bear cat" in Chinese. The panda is a symbol of peace in China.The Red Panda is native to the Himalayas in Nepal and southern China. The word panda is derived from Nepalese word "ponya" which means bamboo and plants eating animals in Nepal.
Population Under Mao (28) The failure of the Great Leap was partly blamed on Maos idea of "the more people, the stronger we are" and the rampant overpopulation which resulted.In 1962 a Birth Control Campaign was launched. However, during the Cultural Revolution birth control was denounced as a bourgeois concept. As the Cultural Revolution ebbed, birth control again received official backing. Zhou Enlai declared that "one child is ideal, two are enough, three are too many."However in the late 70s it became clear that keeping family size down to 2 children was inadequate. China was faced by a population growth that threatened its progress.
One-Child PolicyChinas one child policy was established by Chinese leader _______________ in 1979 Deng Xiaoping to limit communist Chinas population growth. The policy limits couples to one child. QUESTION: What do you think happens if a couple has more than one child? Additional children will result in large fines. The families are required to payeconomic penalties, and might be denied bonuses at their workplace. (29)
QUESTION: What commonalities can you notice in these images? (30-33)
Exceptions to the One-Child Policy Rule• In most rural areas, families are allowed to have two children, if the first child is female, or disabled.• If a couple is composed of two people without siblings, they may have two children.• The one-child policy is mostly restricted to ethnic Han Chinese, not the minority populations.• Children born in overseas countries are not counted into the policy if they do not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese returned from overseas can have a second child. (34)
PROS AND CONS:TASK: Brainstorm with a partner the pros and cons of the one-child policy. Pros Cons Slows population growth Violation of human rights Good for the environment Government control over individuals Good for the economy Increasing hardships in caring for elderly Lack of sibling relationships (35) Gender discrimination/imbalance Age imbalance Increased pressure on only children Spoiled/Little Emperor syndrome (37) (36)
Confucianism and the One-Child PolicyQUESTIONS:1. In what ways might Confucian beliefs help support the one-child policy?2. In what ways might Confucian beliefs lead to discontent with the one-child policy? (38)
Effects of the One-Child Policy 1. Estimated to have reduced population growth. The fertility rate has fallen to 1.7 births per woman. (39) 2. Gender imbalance - the ratio is now 114 males for every 100 females. (40) 3. Ethnic minorities have had their proportion in China grow. (41)
DO NOW:“Corruption is the virus that has eroded the healthy body of the partyand the state. If we lower our guard and let it run wild, our party will be ruined, the people’s power will be lost, and the great cause of socialist modernization will be forced off track. Our party, our cadres, and our people will never allow such consequences. -Jiang Zemin, Communist Party general secretary, August 1993 1. What are the goals of the speaker? 2. Why do you think the speaker is so concerned with corruption? 3. Is there bias in this quote? Explain. Source: James A.R. Miles, The Legacy of Tiananmen, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996, p. 147.
Politics of the People’sRepublic of China (PRC) Chinas leader vows to uphold one-party rule International Herald Tribune:Asia-Pacific By Joseph Kahn, Published: June 27, 2007 BEIJING: President Hu Jintao said attempts to modernize Chinas political system must not jeopardize one-party rule…Hu, who is also the Communist Party chief,…embraced greater "political participation" by ordinary people but ruled out steps toward Western-style democracy. Such changes should… preserve the Communist Partys monopoly on political power, he said. (45)
Economic Development China is one of the worlds top exporters and is attracting record amounts of foreign investment. In turn, it is investing billions of dollars abroad. China is the largest oil consumer after the US, and the worlds biggest producer and consumer of coal. There has been a massive investment in hydro-power, including the $25 billion Three Gorges Dam project. (46)
Beijing Olympics (48) (47) “For many people in China, the Olympics symbolized that China has regained aprominent position in the world after almost 150 years of wars, political upheaval, and periods of relative isolation. The Olympics spurred a campaign to clean up environmental problems, renovate monuments to Chinese history and culture, and teach millions of people to speakEnglish. China expected to receive about a half a million visitors for the Olympics, a benefit to its economy.” - Mary Cingcade, Associate Director, East Asia Resource Center, University of Washington (50) (49)
Olympic Emblems, Symbols, Slogans EMBLEM The Color System: The Chinese Red The Glaze Yellow The Chinese Scholar-tree Green "Chinese Seal, The Blue and White Porcelain Blue Dancing Beijing" The Great Wall Grey The Jade White SLOGAN Beijing Olympic Cultural Festival Environmental Symbol of Beijing Volunteers Symbol of Beijing Symbol Olympics -Green Olympics OlympicsAll images from http://en.beijing2008.cn/62/67/column211716762.shtm
(51) Like the Five Olympic Rings from which they draw their color and inspiration, Fuwa will serve as the Official Mascots of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, carrying a message of friendship and peace tochildren all over the world. Fuwa also embody the natural characteristics of four of Chinas most popular animals -- the Fish, the Panda, the Tibetan Antelope, the Swallow -- and the Olympic Flame. Each of Fuwa has a rhyming two-syllable name -- a traditional way of expressing affection for children in China. Beibei is the Fish, Jingjing is the Panda, Huanhuan is the Olympic Flame, Yingying is the Tibetan Antelope and Nini is the Swallow.When you put their names together -- Bei Jing Huan Ying Ni -- they say "Welcome to Beijing," offering a warm invitation that reflects the mission of Fuwa as young ambassadors for the Olympic Games.
Displacement of People“For thousands of Beijings residents, this "urban makeover" came at anincredible cost. According to UNESCO, in the past three years a third ofthe 62km squared area that makes up the central part of the old city has now been destroyed. This has displaced close to 580,000 people – one and a half times the total population of Washington D.C.” - Sean Gallagher, Open Democracy, Ltd. (52)
Rural Versus Urban (53) (56) The economic disparity between urban China and the rural areas is among the largest in the world. Many impoverished rural dwellers are flocking to the countrys eastern cities, which are enjoying a construction boom. (54) Social discontent manifests itself in protests by farmers and workers. There were 87,000 protests, or "mass incidents," in 2005, according to official figures. VIDEO CLIP: How would you describe life for the migrant workers in the cities? (55)http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm China Rises: Getting Rich Migrant Workers (5:49) 0-3:25
A Migrant’s LamentA young woman from Sichuan, who died in a tragic workplace fire at her factory inShenzen…, had copied these words to a song in her diary. From Sichuan to Canton Thru’ Ou-yang to Shenzhen Home is lone gone Mom and dad had to leave Your words forever in my heart. They say Canton streets are made of gold It’s been over three years I wish my family were near But my pockets are still bare…. A day feels like a year It ain’t so easy to be away from home No cash, no salt, no oil, no grain To live is agony. Source: Anita Chan, China’s Workers Under Assault, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2001, pp. 113-114
Building a Harmonious Society Goal of President Hu and Chinas prime minister, Wen Jiabao, to reduce the gap between Chinas wealthy elite and a vast majority of its working population. Methods: Abolished agricultural tax Expanded subsidies for education in rural areas New retirement, unemployment, health care systems (57) Growing concern with the environment QUESTIONS: 2. How does this idea resonate with Confucianism? 3. Do you think this will be successful? Why or why not?
In Chinese culture, 8 is the luckiest number and 4 is theunluckiest number. The number 4, or si, also means death in Chinese. And the number 8, or ba, rhymes with fa the Chinese character for wealth. Having a license plate with an 8 or hopefully many 8s is suppose to bring you good fortune and wealth.
Other Issues/Problems• Human rights campaigners criticize China for executing hundreds of people every year• Chinese rule over Tibet is controversial. Some accuse the authorities of destruction of Tibetan Buddhist culture and the persecution of monks loyal to the Dalai Lama• Beijing says the island of Taiwan is a part of Chinese territory that must be reunited with the mainland, by force if necessary. It has threatened to invade should Taiwan declare independence.•The authorities have targeted the Falun Gong spiritual movement• Corruption• Growing rate of HIV infection• Environmental degradation - China is home to many of the worlds most-polluted cities 58-61
PredictionVIDEO CLIP: “China Rises: Getting Rich” – Introduction (1:12)The narrator asks, “Can China keep moving forward, or will theforces of change tear it apart?” How would you respond? (73) (71) (72)
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