DO NOW: What does this cartoon say about working conditions during the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
Inventions Spur Technological Advances Britain’s textile industry would be the first to be transformed. By 1800, several inventions had modernized the cotton industry. 1733 – John Kay – “Flying Shuttle” A shuttle sped back and forth on wheels. The flying shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weaver could do in a day. 1764 – James Hargreaves – “Spinning Jenny” A spinning wheel used to weave yarn. It allowed a spinner to work 8 threads at a time. 1769 – Richard Arkwright – “Water Frame” Used water-power from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels. 1779 – Samuel Crompton – “Spinning Mule” Combined the features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to make thread that was stronger and finer. 1787 – Edmund Cartwright - “Power Loom” Run by water-power. Sped up weaving.
What were the advantages and disadvantages of these new machines?
Cloth merchants could boost profits by speeding up production
Needed to be run by __________
The machines were large and expensive. This took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house and into the factory.
Progress in the textile industry spurred other technological inventions.
1765 – ___________ – “Steam Engine” Need for a cheap, convenient source of power was met with the invention of the steam engine. James Watt
Improvements in Transportation Road Transportation John McAdam – Paved Roads – Early 1800s Equipped roadbeds with a layer of large stones for drainage. On top, he placed a smoothed layer of crushed rock. Previously, rain and mud often made roads impassable and men were known to drown in potholes. Steam Locomotives George Stephenson – “The Rocket” - 1829
Impact of the Railroads
Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport material and finished products.
Railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners.
The railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities.
By making travel easier, railroads encouraged people to take distant city jobs.
Factory Work Was Harsh:
There were rigid schedules with _______________________
Work was the same day after day, week after week.
There were high injury rates. Frequent accidents ___________________________
There was no ___________. Workers were fired for being sick, working too slow, or for no reason at all.
Women and children were _________________
Wages were low
long hours and few breaks (Ex: lost limbs in machines) job security paid less than men
Boys in Coal Mines
Miner A young driver in the Brown mine. Has been driving one year. Works 7 a.m. to 5:30pm daily.
Child coal miners
Girl hauling coal in a mine shaft
Children In Cotton Mill
Girl at Weaving Machine in Textile Mill
Girls in Box Factory
Children At Work
Glimpse of the Outside World What types of things do you think this young girl dreams of as she looks out the factory window?
View Of Spinning Room
Young Knitters in a Mill
Boys in a Mill
Cities became more common and more populated – some ______________________
People migrated to cities looking for work, especially unemployed farmers due to the ______________.
Cities were dirty and dangerous. There was a lack of sanitation laws, no fire and police departments, no running water.
Enclosure Acts doubled or tripled in size
“Dens Of Death”
Rear View of a Tenement Building
Working class neighborhood in Industrial London
A Dollar A Month To Sleep In Sheds
Life In A Tenement House
Night In A Tenement
How does this illustration depict city life for the lower class?
Results of the Industrial Revolution
I. Change in Social Structure
A. The ______________
Aristocratic nobles and landowners were still in control
B. The Capitalist Upper Class
They were ____________ who used their money to buy and
build factories and run large businesses.
C. The New Middle Class
Professionals, investors, merchants
They were financially stable, educated, and they _______ to
Traditional elite aspired entreprenuers uneducated workers
Middle Class views of the Working Class and the poor According to this drawing, how does the middle class view the lower class?
Middle-class families move away from cities (suburbanization)
Middle-class women gain new roles in caring for children and the home
Higher wages and increased leisure time (for some) led to more consumerism and a mass leisure culture (popular newspapers, entertainment, vacations, team sports)
II. Family Life Changes / Class and Gender Distinctions
Middle-Class (rich) American family in Paris.
III. Labor movements
Formed seeking better wages and working conditions.
Workers organized into unions and threatened to strike.
Eventually, laws limiting child labor, shorter working hours, and safer working conditions were introduced.
IV. New economic structures
Emerge to address the new industrial society.
V. New government functions
School compulsive until age 12, and even beyond
Wider welfare measures and regulatory roles
__________________ – Gave the Parliamentary right to vote to most middle-class men
Reform Bill of 1832
VI. Advances in scientific knowledge _____________– Discover of Germs = sanitary regulations Charles Darwin –________________ “Survival of the Fittest” Albert Einstein – Theory of Relativity _____________ – Theories of the human subconscious Louis Pasteur Theory of Evolution Sigmund Freud
VII. New directions in artistic expression _____________ – Artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the late 18th century and stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions. The Wanderer above the Snowfields by Caspar David Friedrich Sun Rising Through The Vapors by J.M.W. Turner Romanticism