Vietnam 1


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Vietnam 1

  1. 1. The Vietnam War
  2. 2. The U.S. during the 1960’s <ul><li>Civil Rights Movement and Desegregation </li></ul><ul><li>Power Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of JFK 1963; Malcolm X 1965; MLK 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War and Anti-Communism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth and consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Great Society and War on Poverty </li></ul>
  3. 3. The War on Communism <ul><li>The Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower’s “Domino Theory” </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam was the </li></ul><ul><li>next domino </li></ul><ul><li>Stop communism in S.E. Asia </li></ul>
  4. 5. History of Vietnam <ul><li>1858-1884 - France invades Vietnam and makes Vietnam a colony. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1930 - Ho Chi Minh helps found the Indochinese Communist Party. </li></ul><ul><li>September 1940 - Japan invades Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>1941- Communist activist Ho Chi Minh secretly returns to Vietnam after 30 years in exile and organizes a nationalist organization known as the Viet Minh (Vietnam Independence League). After Japanese troops occupy Vietnam during World War II, the U.S. military intelligence agency Office of Strategic Services (OSS) allies with Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh guerrillas to harass Japanese troops in the jungles and to help rescue downed American pilots. </li></ul><ul><li>September 2, 1945 - Japanese sign the surrender agreement in Tokyo Bay formally ending World War II in the Pacific. On this same day, Ho Chi Minh proclaims the independence of Vietnam by quoting from the text of the American Declaration of Independence which had been supplied to him by the OSS -- &quot;We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. This immortal statement is extracted from the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America in 1776. These are undeniable truths.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>September 26, 1945 - The first American death in Vietnam occurs, during the unrest in Saigon, as OSS officer Lt. Col. A. Peter Dewey is killed by Viet Minh guerrillas who mistook him for a French officer. Before his death, Dewey had filed a report on the deepening crisis in Vietnam, stating his opinion that the U.S. &quot;ought to clear out of Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>1950 - In America, the era of 'McCarthyism' erupts as Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin gives a speech claiming the U.S. State Department harbors Communists. As a consequence of McCarthyism, no U.S. politician is willing to appear to be 'soft' on Communism. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>January 1950 - The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union recognize Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>China then begins sending military advisors and modern weapons to the Viet Minh including automatic weapons, mortars, howitzers, and trucks. Much of the equipment is American-made and had belonged to the Chinese Nationalists before their defeat by Mao. With the influx of new equipment and Chinese advisors, General Giap transforms his guerrilla fighters into conventional army units including five light infantry divisions and one heavy division. </li></ul><ul><li>July 1950 - The United States pledges $15 million worth of military aid to France to help them fight in Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>May 7, 1954 - The French suffer a decisive defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. </li></ul><ul><li>July 21, 1954 - The Geneva Accords creates a cease-fire for the peaceful withdrawal of the French from Vietnam and provides a temporary boundary between North and South Vietnam at the 17th parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>October 26, 1955 - South Vietnam declares itself the Republic of Vietnam, with newly elected Ngo Dinh Diem as president. </li></ul><ul><li>December 20, 1960 - The National Liberation Front (NLF), also called the Viet Cong, is established in South Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>November 2, 1963 - South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is executed during a coup. </li></ul><ul><li>August 2 and 4, 1964 - North Vietnamese attack two U.S. destroyers sitting in international waters (the Gulf of Tonkin Incident). </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Gulf of Tonkin Crisis <ul><li>The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, or the USS Maddox Incident, are the names given to two separate incidents, one disputed, involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. On August 2, 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox, while performing a DESOTO patrol, was engaged by three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. A sea battle resulted, in which the Maddox expended over 280 3&quot; and 5&quot; shells, and which involved the strafing from four USN F-8 Crusader jet fighter bombers. One US aircraft was damaged, one 14.5mm round hit the destroyer, 3 North Vietnamese torpedo boats were damaged, and 4 North Vietnamese sailors were killed and 6 were wounded; there were no U.S. casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>The second Tonkin Gulf incident was originally claimed by the U.S. National Security Agency to have occurred on August 4, 1964, as another sea battle, but instead may have involved the &quot;Tonkin Ghosts&quot;, and no actual NVN Torpedo Boat attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by &quot;communist aggression&quot;. The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for deploying U.S. conventional forces and the commencement of open warfare against North Vietnam </li></ul>
  7. 8. North vs South <ul><li>Propped up Diem </li></ul><ul><li>Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) </li></ul><ul><li>CIA and counter-insurgency </li></ul><ul><li>National Liberation Front (NLF) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants supported Ho Chi Minh </li></ul>South Vietnam North Vietnam <ul><li>North Vietnamese Army (NVA) </li></ul><ul><li>Reunification </li></ul><ul><li>Expel foreign powers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Viet-Cong” </li></ul><ul><li>Communist </li></ul>
  8. 9. A Wider War, 1963-1968 <ul><li>Diem Assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos in Saigon </li></ul><ul><li>Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Da Nang, 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>ROLLING THUNDER </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. William Westmoreland </li></ul>