The Organisation Written Report

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This report focuses on the different types of organisational behavior and how they apply to Morrison's supermarkets. It looks at the work of F.W. Taylors Scientific Management and Motivation (Hertzberg and McGregor). Complete with Harvard referencing and 3,191 words, 21 pages.

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The Organisation Written Report

  1. 1. The Organisation (Written Report) 1
  2. 2. Contents and Appendices Executive Summary 3 Scientific Management in its Historical Context 5 The Human Relations (Neo-Human Relations) in its Historical Context 6 Motivation in its Historical Context 7 Scientific Management & Morrisons 9 Motivation & Morrisons 11 Appendix 1 : A Number of Approaches 14 Appendix 2 : Basic Model of Motivation 15 Appendix 3 : Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 16 Appendix 4 : Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 17 Appendix 5 : F.W. Taylors Scientific Management Model 18 Appendix 6 : Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 19 Appendix 7 : Motivating Knowledge Workers 19 References 20 (3197) 2
  3. 3. Managing Organisations Executive Summary Learning Outcomes  Identify to the extent as to which models/.concepts/ideas relate to your organisation.  Analyse the effect of using such ideas in the management of change.  Understand the key theoretical approaches in the organisational behaviour and their application  Understand the role of organisational behaviour and its historical context  Skills of critical thinking and analysis in the evaluation of concepts and theory in organisation behaviour. Scope: This assignment focus on the ideas, roles, and concepts of organisational behaviour, in their historical context as well as their application into today’s working society. The organisation concerned in this report will focus on the UK based retailer, Wm Morrisons Supermarkets PLC and examines how these organisational behavioural concepts are applied to the retailer in their operational practices. There are three levels of analysis, which are the influences of organisation behaviour; these are individual level, group level and organisational level. This report will look at the Individual level and the Organisation level, more specifically motivation and management respectively. Limitations: there will be limitations with regard to obtaining primary source of information as to how Morrisons managed the change when they took over Safeway’s so where necessary; will make some assumptions on some areas of the analysis. Findings: The study of motivation is why people do what they do. Motivation, according to Mullins, 2007) is a personal trait of organisational behaviour and may variables influence the motivation of an individual through attaining personal goal, weather its recognition and status, or impersonal goals such as pay and company perks. Many models have demonstrated, in picture, form what motivation is created by many academics and physiologists which look at the basic human instinctual needs 3
  4. 4. right through what is known as self-actualisation (Maslow, 1959) where the individual has achieved everything there is to be achieved. Scientific management also comes into play within the general operations of the business. Because of the legal and regulatory ‘red-tape’ which restricts their operational movements, this needs to be communicated down to the workers who are the ‘face’ of the business and who have the power to trade illegally of desired (i.e. illegal merchandising and price discrepancies). Gray (1975) believed that there was a component of motivation of people known as introverts, who were not only motivated by rewards, but were also motivated to avoid punishment. To apply this theory to the real world, Morrisons have a disciplinary and gravened procedure for employees who evidence against them for gross misconduct. However, scientific management is also used to apply standardisation to job roles within their stores and to ensure all operands are uniform with company expectations. These types of can be seen in Insert 1: A number of approaches, creating a hybrid model, where organisational behaviour, structure, technology, and decision-making approached can be incorporated. Management (Organisational Level) This section will focus on the approaches of management in the organisation. We will look at scientific management as well as the human relations approach, and on the individual level, the motivational theories and concepts and how they are applied to the retailer as well. Scientific Management in its Historical Context (Insert 1: Scientific Management Model) The idea of Scientific Management was founded F.W Taylor (1857-1917) and, according to Cossette (2002), Taylors works have generated the most interest among professionals and academics out of all management sciences . He was known as the ‘Father of Scientific Management’ and was concerned with increasing output within the workplace by monetary incentives and through formal organisational structure. He was writing at a time of the industrial revolution where there was a large-scale industrial reorganisation with new forms of technology being implemented into new working environments. Taylor was concerned with improving the worker-manager relationship with the larger aim of improved industrial proficiency (Mullins, 2007). 4
  5. 5. The form of management is also known as the machine theory model because Taylor regarded the workers as viewed as isolated components of the manufacturing process, not as human beings, and purely motivated by monetary reward (Mullins, 2007). Taylor used scientific management practices to derrive 'one best way' to do a job, with no room for deviation from that process. He also came up with five principals of Scientific Management: • A clear diviision of tasks and responsibilities between managers and workers. • The use of Scientific methods to determine 'one best way' to do a job. • A Scientifice selection of a person to do a new job/task. • The training of the selected worker for a specific job. • Survelince of workers throuth hircachy and close supervision. Taylor (1907) stated that Taylorism had little concern for worker psychology. Nyland (1995) stated that scientific managers had little room for worker psychology; a transcript of F.W.Taylor, (Journal of Management, 2008) states that ‘We do not want their imitative. All we want of them is to obey the orders we give them, do what we say, and do it quick’. He also further states that ‘We do not let them think, we do the thinking, we do not ask our men to think’ and ‘we will not let them think n the opposition to what we say’. The widest known example of Taylor’s work applied to the real world is to the Bethlehem Steel Company in the United States, where he was concerned with establishing principals within this line of work to maximise the load of Pig Iron the workers employed by the steel company could carry, at the optimum wage. (Taylor, 2008, pp. 214). Taylor’s scientific practices also go beyond focusing on the workers in the workplace and goes on to the selections of workers to do a specific job. Referring back to the Bethlehem Steel Company, Taylor (1907) states that, after selecting a man who can handle 47 tons a day, whereby previously they were only moving 12 and a half tons per day, it requires an ‘art to make those men carry that 47 tons and be content, and not kick, not have a strike, and not have labour issues’. He goes further to state that the way in which he approaches a man to convince him to do double the tonnage he is currently moving of Pig Iron, goes back to not asking for a man’s initiative. Asking for that man's initiative, he will tell you what he feel he can carry and a debate will begin between the manager and the 5
  6. 6. worker. Instead, linking the theory that all men are motivated my monetary incentives along, Taylor asks a man if he is a ‘high-price man’ ( the definition of a ‘high-price man’ us one who does just as he is told and is the differentiator between these and a man who is paid $1.15 to a day) who he can pay $1.85 a day to, he then get that man to prove that he can move 47 and a half tones of Pig Iron through a trial period for that man, if he does not have the strength to carry that load, he cannot stay with the firm. This method, they do not even discuss the tonnage that man is required to carry (Taylor, 2008). In summary, Taylors style of management concerns increasing the output of a firms production through ‘streamlined’ and standardized work practices, which are timed to the minute, and are not to be deviated from. Taylor believed that each worker was motivated by economic incentives alone. He asks from every man is to do as he is told and does not ask for his initiative or any suggestion to do a particular job in a ‘better’ way. (Taylor, 2008: Nyland, 1995: Mullins, 27). Scientific management is also linked to the beaurcracy of an organisation, which concerns rigid structures, set procedures and the dividing or authority. The Human Relations (Neo Human Relations) Approach in its Historical Context The Human Relations Approach can be seen as an opposite to the Scientific Management Approach (or Classical Management Approach) in that, whilst Classical Management is implemented to increase productivity through an extremely impersonal approach to their workers, the human relations approach takes into consideration the workers’ physiological and social needs of the informal organisation, as well as improving the managerial process. One major contributor to the neo-human relations approach was Maslow. Maslow developed a theoretical framework of individual motivations and individual personal developments. Other contributors to the neo-human relations approach where Hertzberg and McGregor who derived two factors that were linked to work content among individuals, these were hygiene factors and the motivators. These are explained in the ‘Motivation’ section of this work 6
  7. 7. Motivation (Individual Level) in its Historical Context The study of motivation concerns why people behave in a certain way (Mullins, 2007). It concerns why people choose a course of action in preference to another, and why people continue to use that course of action. ‘Motivation’ as a term can be seen as an internal state making way for a desire of feeling of personal onus to act (Westwood, 1992, pp. 288) whereas satisfaction, according to Warr (2002, pp. 1) is the extent to which people are satisfied with the work they do. This is usually a study over a long period of time and in conjunction with facing certain difficulties and problems (Mullins, 2007) (Insert 2: Basic Model of Motivation). Mitchell (1982) identifies the four main underlying values of the theory of motivation. These are that motivation is seen as an individual phenomenon, it is assumed to be under the workers control, the two factors of importance are (i) what the ‘arousal’ factor is, and (ii) the direction of behavioural choice, and the force of an individual to engage in a desired behavioural characteristic. Motivation is multi-faced. Furthermore, motivational theories are used to predict behavioural characteristics of individuals and do not concern the behaviour itself, nor the performance of the worker. It is used to assess the internal and external factors, which give inspiration to a person’s choice of behavioural action. Mitchell (1982) further summarises motivation as the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours’ The concept of motivation is a certain personal driving force within individuals to which to attempt a personal need or goal and is illustrated in Mullins (2007, p 251). Looking at the needs and expectations of work, Farren (1989) states that there are 12 human needs in society, these are home/shelter, learning, economic, work/career, well-being, social relationships, spirituality, environment/safety, community, leisure and mobility. The needs and expectations of work can be divided up in number of ways, such as physiological and social, intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. Focusing on the former, extrinsic are focused on monetary rewards or other tangible rewards. Intrinsic motivations are related to psychological rewards, such as a sense of achievement, positive recognition, being treated fairly and equally and receiving appreciation. 7
  8. 8. F.W. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management, which was based on economic- needs motivation, dissected the rational-economic concept of motivation. He believed that workers were motivated by receiving the highest waged through working the most efficient way. This is especially the case for people who are in occupations where there is little enjoyment and little opportunity for career advancement, such as the hospitality industry in jobs such as dishwashers, according to Mullins (2007) it seems that these people are motivated primarily by money. Money as a sole motivator to work depends on to what extent other personal circumstances and other satisfactions they get from working (Mullins, 2007). However, there are many other factors that contribute to motivation, such as the feeling of being recognised and valued by other individuals. There are many theories to explain the nature of motivation within the workplace. Maslow’s (Insert 6: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) work in individual development and motivation is primarily based on human beings always wanting more, and what they desire to want is determined by what they currently have. Therefore, Maslow developed a hierarchy of eight total ‘needs’ of the human being. Looking at Figure 7.5, these needs depicted need to be satisfied before the next need becomes the motivator with only unsatisfied needs become the motivating needs. Hertzberg and McGregor’s Two-Factor Theory (Insert 3 & 4 Hertzberg's Two- Factor Theory) suggests that, upon interviewing both engineers and 203 business accountants (these were selected to be interviewed because they played a dominant role in the business world), the analysis carried out by Hertzberg depicted two major factors which played an important role on motivation and work. Hertzberg at al (1959) stated that satisfaction and dissatisfaction where not opposite extremes but two separate factors caused by very difference ‘facets’ of work. This was known as the two-factor theory on motivation and job satisfaction. The factors which are related to the context of the job itself, its environment, policies, salary and relations with other co-workers and which if were absent would cause dissatisfaction to everyone concerned, and are classed as extrinsic to the job are called Hygiene Factors. The other set of factors, which serve to motivate everybody within that work environment, are known as motivators, which are intrinsic to the job and include recognition, 8
  9. 9. development, achievement, and responsibility. It is important to note that these set of factors, depending in the strength, will achieve satisfaction or not satisfaction, but not dissatisfaction. To summarise, hygiene factors are present to serve the absence of dissatisfaction, whilst motivators are present to motivate the individual to improve job performance and may achieve satisfaction but not necessarily dissatisfaction. (Mullins, 2007 : Eracelous & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009) However, these studies were only directed towards professionals and not to ‘blue collar workers’ according to provenmodels.com (2009) Scientific Management and Morrisons The second section will look at how each type of organisational behaviour, that is, scientific management and motivation, is applied to the UK-based retailer Morrisons. More specifically, the report will focus on their Market Street Seafood Preparation Department as well as their Health and Safety Training each employee receives during their induction period upon joining the Company. With Morrison’s being an open-food retailer, there are many strict guidelines concerning hygiene and Health and Safety in the workplace. Workers are handling raw food on a daily basis; therefore, there are many legal obligations, which the worker has to meet in order to be able to work on such departments. Furthermore, there are also company procedures which have to be met regarding counter merchandising and food preparation and, because Morrisons pack most of their fresh products in-store, fresh food personnel have to adhere to strict packing methods using a step-by-step guide which goes beyond the health and safety and regularity requirements to the packaging of such foods, such as presentation of the food product, the layout and labelling systems in order to achieve standardisation of such presentation and mechanising factors. However, even still there are some legal and regulatory requirements which merge in with such company policies in order to be able to adhere to them and ensure that the retailer are performing to within the legal framework. However, looking at the macro-environmental factors, which affect such matters, is outside the scope of this report. 9
  10. 10. Hand Washing Procedure The company have set out a standardised ‘hand washing procedure’, where there are posters displayed at every hand wash basin, complete with pictures, a step-by-step guide and at each stage of the process, displays a time on long each process should take. However, many employees ignore this because employees have been washing their hands competently and unaided from quite a young age, this can be seen as slightly patronising and that few people will actually take it seriously. People would have developed their own style of hand washing and would tend to ignore the hand washing procedure set by the company. Counter Merchandising Procedures The company have set out a standardised layout of the merchandising counter which each store must adhere to, whereby this ensures that the most expensive product lines are within the customers direct eye line whereas the cheaper lines are to the sides of what they call the ‘main crown’ which contains the ‘core range’ of seafood and this is set in the middle of the counter. Special/Additional Merchandising Procedures All live shellfish have their own merchandising procedure where by preserving them and that they are sold live. Each step is outlines below:  Place a gastro-norm tray buried in the ice-bed  Fill it halfway with ice  Place one layer of deli-wrap over the ice  Place the Oysters/Mussels cup-side down  Spray regularly Food Preparation Each fish must be cut and prepared in a specific way, which is referred to as the ‘Morrison's way’. The manual conducts a scientific approach over how each step should be taken in order to achieve the finished product, whether it is a fillet, a steak, a gutted, skinned, or a scaled fish. This scientific approach is taken in order to 10
  11. 11. maximize the amount of fish the worker sells and minimizes the waste of the fish left on the cartilage. There are many ways to fillet or gut a whole fish, and workers will find a way to prepare their stock in their own style. As a result, as it’s not ‘policed’ on whether the worker prepares the food the ‘Morrison's Way’ or not, the standard procedure does tend to be overlooked. Packaging Procedures As well as serving fresh seafood over the counter, there is also an express service whereby customers do not have to wait to be served over the counter if there are large queues. Workers can pack fresh fish to a set packaging specification whereby they select the correct tray size, lay the fish out in the tray in the correct position, and place the parsley in the correct position with the seafood. They then have to label this once wrapped, placing the labels in the correct position on the packaging and, with their manual, setting clear instructions through weekly bulletins as the promotions change, on where any promotional labels should go as well. Motivation & Morrisons Motivation will concern looking at the firm as a whole about how motivation of their employees applies to Morrisons. In their ‘Values in Action’ section of the Annual and Financial Statements 2009 (2009), they state that ‘Our aim is to attract, motivate, and develop skilled people to ensure that Morrisons becomes the food specialist for everyone’ Morrisons have undergone a major transformation in their training programmes. Previously, Morrisons have only provided in-house on-the-job training, which is still used today, however, they now have introduced NVQ qualifications (The Grocer, 2009) in hygiene and food preparation as well as their Fresh Food Academy which aims to strengthen their position within the food industry as being the ‘food specialise for everyone’ (Morrisons Annual and Financial Reports, 2009). This can be classed as a Motivator component of Hertzberg two factor theory that concerns power, recognition, and status of the employee. Another imitative which contributes to the motivator factor are their ‘Leading the Way’ Programme which aims to develop 11
  12. 12. people internally to develop and promote opportunities for senior, management and leadership careers within the business Furthermore, Morrisons also address the hygiene factors through employee engagement practices and surveys which ask the employee what could be improved about their working environment, company policies and anything that are seen that could be improved and therefore, remove the dissatisfaction for working in the current environment. According to Hertzberg, this will not necessarily motivate the employee but just remove the dissatisfaction. However, there has been a debate between academics as to whether hygiene factors really contribute to job satisfaction (Furnham et al, 1999: Warr 1987). Maslow’s work can also be applied to motivation through the employee achieving the different levels of the hierarchy, accumulating to self-actualisation. According to a research paper carried out by Eracelous and Chamorro-Premuzic (2008) hygiene factors can also be interpreted to be associated to power and recognition. They also go on to states that research suggests that people in lower positions, such as graduate level or non- managerial level, are more concerned about their working environment than people in higher positions. They suggested one reason for this was because people in higher positions, who have achieve a higher level in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, take pay, and working conditions for granted. (Warr, 1987). Tampoe’s theory on the motivation of knowledge workers is those that apply their knowledge to a specific area in practical terms to obtain a commercial or personal goal. He also stated that creativity and innovation should be encouraged but restricted to realistic commercial constraints. To apply this to the Morrisons, these is seen through their training programmes and their Visions and Values, which are the components toe company operate to and which encourage employees to find new ways of carrying out their day-to-day operations and being creative (Insert 7: Motivating Knowledge Workers) Conclusion The study of motivation is why people do what they do. Motivation, according to Mullins, 2007) is a personal trait of organisational behaviour and may variables influence the motivation of an individual through attaining personal goal, weather its recognition and status, or impersonal goals such as pay and company perks. Many models have demonstrated, in picture, form what motivation is created by many academics and physiologists which look at the basic human instinctual needs right 12
  13. 13. through what is known as self-actualisation (Maslow, 1959) where the individual has achieved everything there is to be achieved. Scientific management also comes into play within the general operations of the business. Because of the legal and regulatory ‘red-tape’ which restricts their operational movements, this needs to be communicated down to the workers who are the ‘face’ of the business and who have the power to trade illegally of desired (i.e. illegal merchandising and price discrepancies). Gray (1975) believed that there was a component of motivation of people known as introverts, who were not only motivated by rewards, but were also motivated to avoid punishment. To apply this theory to the real world, Morrisons have a disciplinary and gravened procedure for employees who evidence against them for gross misconduct. However, scientific management is also used to apply standardisation to job roles within their stores and to ensure all operands are uniform with company expectations. These types of can be seen in Insert 1: A number of approaches, creating a hybrid model, where organisational behaviour, structure, technology, and decision-making approached can be incorporated. 13
  14. 14. 1 A Number of Approaches (Mullins, 2007) 14
  15. 15. 2 Basic Model for Motivation 15
  16. 16. 3 Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 16
  17. 17. 4 Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory 17
  18. 18. 5 F.W Taylor's Scientific Management Model 18
  19. 19. 6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 7 Motivating 'Knowledge' Workers 19
  20. 20. References Mullins, L.,2007. Management and Organisational Behaviour. 8th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. Wm Morrison’s Supermarkets Plc, 2009, Annual and Financial Statements 2009. [Online] Available at http://www.morrisons.co.uk/ [Accessed 16th September 2009] Warr, P.B., Cook, J. And Wall, T.D, 1979. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of physiological well- being, 24 (8), pp. 765-779 Westwood, R. Organisational Behaviour. South East Asian Perspective. Longman, Hong Kong Hertzberg, F., Mauser, B. And Snyderman, B.B., 1959. The Motivation to Work, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY Furnham, A., 1992. Personality at Work; the Role if Individual Differences in the Workplace, Routledge, London Mitchell, T.R., 1982. ‘Motivation: New Directions for Theory, Research and Practice. Academy of Management Review, 7 (1), pp. 80-8 Gray, J., 1975. Elements of a two-process Theory of Learning, Academic Press, London Furnham et al., 2008. Personality, motivation, and job satisfaction: Hertzberg meets the big five. Journal of Management Psychology, 24 (8), pp. 765-79 20
  21. 21. Nyland, C., 1995. Taylorism and hours of work. Journal of Management History, [Online]. 1 (2). Available at: http://www.emraldinsight.com/ (Accessed 5th January 2010) Taylor, F.W., 2008. Report of a lecture by and questions put forward to Mr F.W. Taylor: a transcript. Journal of Management History, [Online]. 14 (3), Available at http://www.emraldinsight.com/1751-1348.htm Accessed 5th January 2010) Cossette, P., Audet, M (1992), "Mapping of an idiosyncratic schema", Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 29 No.3, pp.325-47 21

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