BA Business Management: Organisational Behaviour


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This is a presentation into the different types of management types in organisation behavior, their historical contexts and how they apply in the modern world to Morrisons Supermarkets. These include F.W. Taylors Scientific Management approach, Systems Theory and the Management of Change in the working environment. This was presented on 6th November 2009 at the University of East Anglia and was made by a student as part of their Assignment.

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  • Secondly I will examine the systems approaches the retailer used in terms of management systems and practices. I will analyse two main concepts to which the systems approach is based on; and that is the analysis of all the interactions involving the business activities, its various aspects and its environmental influences and the fact that we see a business from the perspective that a business is the sum of all these interactions and influences. The second aspect of the approach is the analysis of the businesses environmental inputs, its internal process and its outputs. This system approach is based on the interaction-influence model.The systems approach is seen as a living organism in that the business as a system must adapt to its environment. Like an animal in the wild where ‘only the fittest’ survive. These environmental changes can be PESTEL and that the businesses outputs must be a product of their environment inputs and not the other way around.A business can be sees as the sum of the business activities, environmental aspects and eventual outputs.
  • This is closely linked to Systems Theory in that the goal of change is to adapt to new environments, tackle new challenges and take advantage of new opportunities environment in which the business is operating presents. These can be smaller changes, like changing consumer fashions and the role of the economy, or they can be major changes, like in the instance of Morrisons acquiring Safeways in 2004, this was seen as an opportunity which Morrisons took advantage of, and to gain significantly more geographical exposure and increase sales per square foot.The result was there were major changes in store layouts, employee dress codes and new attitudes to fit into the new company culture, as well as new products and services. Change is only situational whilst transformation is psychological. So its important to identify the key elements which contribute to people resistance of change before they can address these elements in order to ensure their employees have a smooth transition from one environment or culture to another.
  • BA Business Management: Organisational Behaviour

    1. 1. BA Hons.Business Management.Managing Organisations: Systems Theory and Scientific Management<br />
    2. 2. Wm Morrison&apos;s Supermarkets PLC<br />Own supply chain.<br />Prepare fresh food in store<br />Visions and Values<br />Fourth Largest Supermarket Retailer in the UK.<br />Focus of Fresh and Value.<br />Founded in 1898 in Bradford.<br />Acquisition of Safeway in 2004.<br />Joined the FTSE 100.<br />
    3. 3. TEST<br />Systems Theory<br />Firms are seen as living organisms.<br />Adapting to their environments as they change.<br />Components of the systems are interdependent from one another, but cannot be understood unless examined as whole.<br />Interaction-influence model.<br />Activities are a product of their environments, not the other way around.<br />Socio-technical perspective.<br />A sum of a series of interactions involving organisation aspects, environmental aspects and business activities.<br />Environmental inputs, internal process and eventual outputs.<br />
    4. 4. Systems Theory Diagram<br />Input<br />Transformation<br />Output<br />Environmental influences<br />Political<br />Social<br />Economic<br />Technological<br />Legal<br />Environmental<br />Outputs from other systems<br />Environmental influences<br />Political<br />Social<br />Economic<br />Technological<br />Legal<br />Environmental<br />Inputs into other Systems<br />Environmental influences<br />Political<br />Social<br />Economic<br />Technological<br />Legal<br />Environmental<br />Feedback<br />Measurement of success<br />Inputs and Outputs into and out of other systems<br />
    5. 5. 5<br />Scientific Management<br />Founded by F.W.Taylor. (1856-1917)<br />Often criticized but to remember that he was studying this around time of major industrial changes<br />‘Father of Scientific Management’<br />Increasing levels of output by monetary incentives as a motivator as well as formal organisation structures.<br />‘One Best Way’ to carry out a job. <br />Ford Motors Manufacturing Plant and Pig Iron Experiment.<br />Hand Washing Procedure<br />●<br />Counter Merchandising Procedures<br />●<br />Special/Additional Merchandising Procedures<br />●<br />Food Preparation<br />●<br />Packaging Procedures<br />
    6. 6. Change Management<br />‘A structured process and a set of tools for leading the people side of change’<br />An organisation can perform effectively only through interactions of the external environment of which it is part. The structure and functioning of the organisation must therefore reflect the nature of the environment. Changes are normally implemented as a result of the recognised need to respond to the new challenges or opportunists presented by that environment. *<br />The two main roles here are;<br /><ul><li>Modifying the behavioural patterns of members of the organisation and
    7. 7. Improving the ability for the organisation to cope with changes in its environment</li></li></ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs*<br />.<br />...leading the people side of change’...<br />
    8. 8. Kotter’s 8 Stages of Change Management<br />leading the people side of change...<br />Optimisation Plan<br />●<br />Stakeholder Engagement<br />●<br />Employee Engagement<br />●<br />Corporate and Social Responsibility Practices<br />
    9. 9. It is unusual for any change not to attract some resistance. Even with foresight, pre-planning all the apparent logic behind the need to change, you should expect some resistance as the norm. Recognise and welcome it as a healthy response and an opportunity to openly debate possibilities and treat resistance as a powerful ally in facilitating the learning process<br />Phillip Atkinson - ’Managing resistance in change’<br />Conclusion<br />The System Approach is seen as a living organism whereby a business system interacts and adapts to its environment as it changes and the systems outputs are products of their environment.<br />Scientific management is derived from ‘one best way to do a job’ and that the people within the systems are seen as a part of the production process (or machines).<br />The Management of Change can be seen as an extension of the systems approach in that change management looks at the environmental influences, and adapts the business to those changes, but deals with the ‘people concerns’ of those changes internally. <br />
    10. 10. References<br />Anglia Ruskin University<br />Mullins, L.J., 2007. Management and Organisational Behaviour: 8th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.*<br />Class Notes<br />Wm Morrison Supermarkets PLC, 2009. Annual Report and Financial Statements 2009.[Online]<br />Available at:<br />[Accessed 16th September 2009]<br />Wm Morison Supermarkets PLC, 2009. Corporate and Social Responsibility Report 2009. [Online] <br />Available at:<br />[Accessed 16th September 2009]<br />