How the test works The HIV test looks for HIV antibodies in a person’s blood. NOT FOR AIDS. If you have enough of the antibodies, your test will be positive, which means you have been infected with HIV If you do not have the antibodies (or enough of them), your test will be negative, and this could mean one of two things: You do not have HIV OR You have been infected but your body has not made enough antibodies for the test to detect them.
It takes about 3 months after HIV infection for people to develop antibodies to HIV.
It is best to wait at least three months after the last time you could have been exposed to HIV before taking the test.
Even if your test is negative after 3 months, some test centers may recommend testing again at 6 months, just to be extra sure.
Types of Testing
Home Testing Kits 1.Purchase kit from a local pharmacy. 2. Take your own sample (usually blood sample) 3. Send it off to a laboratory for testing. 4. After a few days, the person will call in, with a personal identification code to receive results.
Home Testing Kits: DISADVANTAGES It’s not as efficient or reliable! There are many home test kits out that are not approved by the FDA which potentially can lead to unreliable results. The testing kit may be expensive (~ $80.00)
Rapid Testing The rapid HIV test consists of either a small blood sample, or saliva. Some testing centers require that a patient provide their name and a mailing address. ADVANTAGE short amount of time you wait to receive your results. DISADVANTAGE tests are expensive and there are a few places that offer it free of charge.
ConfidentiaL Testing This test takes place in a clinic. Personal information and results will be kept in your medical record. DISADVANTAGE Takes a little longer to get results HOWEVER…. ADVANTAGE These results are given to you at the clinic Usually, FREE! It becomes part of your medical history
Anonymous Testing This test also takes place in a clinic. You’re given a code that you’ll use to call and get your results. DISADVANTAGES Also takes a little longer to get results ADVANTAGES Quality counseling Anonymous Usually FREE!!
Free HIV Testing To find free HIV Testing near you go to: http://www.hivtest.org/
THE PILL Effectiveness: 92-99.7% Still need to use a condom Disadvantages: Must take pill everyday No protection from HIV, STD’s
The Shot: DepoProvera Effectiveness: 97-99.7% Still need to use a condom Advantages: Not taken daily and prevents pregnancy for 12 weeks. Disadvantages May cause delay in getting pregnant after shots are stopped.
The condom Effectiveness: 85-98% Advantages: Latex Condoms offer protection against HIV & STDs. Inexpensive & readily available. Disadvantages: Uncooperative partners, allergies, and possibility of breakage
STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases Also known as STIs: sexually transmitted infections STDs are infectious diseases usually transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse or other intimate contact If untreated, they can cause permanent damage such as infertility and can lead to life-threatening conditions STD transmission can be prevented by the use of condoms or the practice of abstinence.
There are 65 million people living in the US with an incurable STD. That is 1 in 4 people! In the US there are over 19 million new STD infections every year, and almost half of them are among young people ages 15-24 years old
How are STDs transmitted? Vaginal Sex Oral Sex Anal Sex Any exchange of bodily fluids (blood, semen, vaginal secretions, pre-ejaculate, breast milk) STDs can still be transmitted even when there are no symptoms!
Common STDs Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Syphilis HIV/AIDS Hepatitis
Chlamydia The most widespread STD in the United States It is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics More than 50% of those infected have no symptoms at all In 2007, the rate of infection for females was over 3 times greater than the rate for males
Chlamydia Symptoms Female: Abnormal discharge (may have an odor) Painful periods or bleeding between periods Pain while urinating or having sex Abdominal pain or fever Itching in or around vagina
Chlamydia Symptoms Male: Clear or cloudy discharge from the penis Painful urination Burning and itching around the opening of the penis Pain and swelling of the testicles
Gonorrhea Also known as “the clap” It is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics Symptoms usually appear within 2-5 days of exposure but many people have no symptoms
Gonorrhea Symptoms Women: Vaginal discharge Burning and pain while urinating and increased urination Sore throat Fever Pain in the lower abdomen Pain during intercourse Labial swelling caused by gonorrhea
Gonorrhea Symptoms Male: Pain and burning while urinating Discharge from the penis (green, yellow, or white in color) Increased urinary frequency Red or swollen opening of the penis Tender or swollen testicles Sore throat
Genital Herpes 1 in 4 adults has herpes There are 30 million cases of herpes in the US with about 1 million NEW cases every year! The infection is caused by a virus that has no known cure. Most people infected with the virus do not know that they have it since they have no symptoms.
GenitalHerpes Symptoms Small, red bumps, blisters and open sores in the genital, anal and nearby areas. Pain or itching around genital area, buttocks or inner thighs
Hepatitis B A virus that primarily infects the liver causing inflammation Results from exposure to blood or bodily fluids containing blood, including unprotected sexual contact and contaminated needles. Can be prevented by a vaccine Can be treated with antiviral treatment
Hepatitis B Symptoms Abdominal Pain Dark Urine Joint Pain Loss of appetite Weakness and fatigue Nausea and vomiting Yellowing of the skin
HPV HPV stands for Human Papillomavirus There is no cure for HPV There are over 100 types of HPV, some which can cause complications such as cervical cancer. Can be prevented by a vaccine.
HPV Symptoms Warts in the genital area- may be raisedor flat, alone or in groups, small or large and are sometimes cauliflower shaped. Lesions may appear on the anus, scrotum, groin, thighs, penis, cervix or in the vagina.
Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics It is a three stage infection with different symptoms in each stage
Syphilis: Stage 2 Symptoms Fever Fatigue Aches and pains Loss of appetite Skin rash on the palms or soles
Syphilis: Stage 3 Symptoms Brain, Heart and Nervous System problems Damage can occur in the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints.
Protect Yourself! The only way to be 100% safe from contracting HIV or STDs is:and not sharing needles of any kind!! ABSTINENCE
CONDOM DEMO Check the expiration date Make sure there is an air bubble Slide the condom to the side and open the package Place condom on banana (ridges up) and slide all the way down Roll condom off of banana and place in napkin
Last Minute Tips! Do not exchange bodily fluids Do not use oil based lubricants Use a new latex condom every time you engage in sex. If you are allergic to latex condoms, Polyurethane condoms can be used as a replacement.