Learning theoriesand online learningClaire Major, 2013
What is learning?
Learning is a process.
The process of learning   leads to change.
A change to what?
It depends….
Theories of learning
Learning changes an individual.
Psychological theories     of learning.
• Behaviorism• Cognitivism• Constructivism
Behaviorism
Learning is a change to behavior.
Famous behaviorists include
Skinner and PavlovClassical conditioning
http://mytwopixelsworth.files.wordpress.com /2011/04/2011_04_11_skinnerbox_large.gif
http://digitaldaily.allthingsd.com/files/2008/12/pavlov.j              pg
ThorndikeOperant conditioning
http://animalbehaviour.net/OperantCondition                  ing.htm
BanduraSocial learning theory
http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514272463/            html/x533.html
According to behaviorists
Acquiring knowledge
Stimulus and response
Rewards and punishments
Cognitivistm
Learning is a change to the way   that the brain processes.
Famous cognitivists include
WertheimerGestalt psychology
Atkinson; ShiffrinInformation processing       theory
AndersonSchema theory
Digitalbob8 CC
Cognitivists believe that
Changing mental processes
Duplication of knowledge  constructs of knower
Existing schemata and  prior experiences
Constructivsm
Learning is a processin which the learner constructs or  builds new ideas or concepts.
Learning is a personal endeavor.
Famous constructivists include…
PiagetCognitive constructivism
http://www.rugusavay.com/jean-piaget-              quotes/
VygotskySocial constructivism
PappertSocial constructionism
According to constructivists
Constructing new knowledge (e.g. a new internal reality)
Experience of an individualacting and engaging with others
Prior experiences
Cool theories!
But some people…
THINK
New ideas
• Sociology• Anthropology• Philosophy• Education
Social/relationallearning theories
Learning is a change inconnections, whether social, relational, or    technological.
Learning does not belong to an          individual
Hutchings, PerryDistributed learning theory  (distributed cognition)
Famous social/relationallearning theorists include
Classical cognition vs. distributed cognitionhttp://mindmaps.wikispaces.com/dcog
Lave; Wenger; Seely Brown Situated learning theory   (situated cognitition)
http://kim-tran.wikispaces.com/Situated+Learning+Theor                       y
Siemens; Downes    Connectivism(a bit like connected   cognition???)
Connected cognition:ttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/         pii/S0732312311000678
According to these theorists:
A group of individuals building a    networked intelligence
Resources are shared within a        community
Cultural context
Online learning?
http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Iss             ue/article01.html
Knowledge residesamongst individuals and technologies.
interact with each other and      with technology.
engage in joint activity and have         shared tools.
Employ social interactions with         technology.
think and learn with objects and tools.
They construct a common  language and shared     understanding.
construct a network of bothhuman and non-human actors/
Active agents
Is it important?
Beliefs drive actions…
conscious or subconscious.
Ask:
Who am I?
What do I believe?
What is the role of technology?
Make informed decisions.
Create better learningenvironments and activities.
Help students learn.
The point.
NOTES:
Forthcoming
Suggestions?
Permalink:http://clairemajor.net/ 2013/04/19/learning-theories-     and-online-learning/
Learning style presentation for pedagogy first
Learning style presentation for pedagogy first
Learning style presentation for pedagogy first
Learning style presentation for pedagogy first
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  • I’m Claire Major, and may talk today is about learning theories and online learning.
  • Central to this talk is the following question: What is learning?
  • Many scholars agree that learning is a process
  • They also agree that the result of the process of learning leads to some kind of change
  • The underlying question then is this:What kind of change does learning cause?
  • The answer depends upon whom you ask.
  • There are many different theories of learning, that attempt to describe what learning is, how it happens, and what change results.
  • Some of these theories describe learning as a change that happens within an individual’s mind.
  • These theories tend to come from the field of psychology, and there are three main psychological theories of learning…..
  • Behaviorism is the earliest of these theories
  • Famous behaviorists include
  • Skinner and Pavlov, with their ideas about classical conditioning.
  • Think about Skinner’s rats…
  • And Pavlov’s dog.
  • Thorndike is another famous behaviorists, with his notion of operant conditioning.
  • Think Thorndike’s cat in the puzzle box
  • Bandura is sometimes thought of as a bahaviorist, although he represents a bridge to cognitivist learning theory….
  • Particiularly with his conception of personal determinants, which include an individuals knowledge, prior experiences, and attitudes.
  • According to behavorists…
  • Acquiring knowledge through experience is the goal of learning is the goal of learning.
  • Stimulus and response is the mechanism for learning
  • Rewards and punishmentsare factors that influence learning.
  • Cognitivism is another pscyhological theory of learning
  • Cognitivists hold that learning is a relatively permanent change in a learner’s schemata or in the way the brain processes.
  • Famous cognitivists include
  • Wrtheimer, with his notion of Gestalt psychology
  • Which holds that the brian is holistic, with self organizing principles, such as multistabliity in which ambiguous images pop back and forth in our perception.
  • Atkinson and Shiffrin and their ideas about information processing
  • Which suggest that the mind works like a computer, as information is temporarily held in short term memory before moving to long term memory.
  • And Anderson, with his notion of schema theory is another famous cognitivist.
  • Which canbe described as a mental structure or a system for organizing and perceiving new information.
  • Cognitivists believe that
  • Changing mental processes (e.g. problem-solving) is the goal of learning.
  • Duplication of knowledge constructs of knower who organizes information for the learner is how learning occurs.
  • Existing schemata and prior experiences are factors that influence learning. 
  • The thirdpschological theory of learning is constructivism.
  • Constructivists believe that learning is a process in which the learner constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge.
  • Learning is a personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context.
  • Famous constructovists include
  • Piaget, with his notion of congnitive constructivism
  • Who says that knowing reality means constructing systems of transofrmations that correspond, more or less adequately, to reality
  • Vygotsky, with his notion of social constructivism
  • Wy says that through others, we become ourselves
  • Pappert who extended Vygotsky’s notion to a new form, which he called social constructionism.
  • Papert says that the role of the teacher is to create conditions for invention rathern than provide ready-made knowledge.
  • Constructivists believe that
  • Constructing new knowledge (e.g. a new internal reality) is the goal of learning.
  • Experience of an individual acting and engaging with others is how learning occurs.
  • Prior experiences are the key factors that influence learning.
  • These theories are interesting, and they have good evidence to support their efficacy.
  • Are starting to think about learning a bit differently…this shift is in part enabled because of technology
  • Thus a new camp of learning theories and theorists has developed…
  • Are coming from a range of fields, including sociology, anthropology, philosophy, education
  • These are at times called social learning theories, at times called realtional learning theories, and occasionally called contextual learning theoreis.
  • They set forth a view of learning that holds that all learning is a change in connections to other people and tools.
  • Learning, then, does not belong to an individual but to many, evidenced through the conversations amongst individuals.
  • Hutchings and Perry and their ideas about distributed learning theory
  • Which suggest that learning exists outside of the mind and resides with people and tools
  • Lave and Wenger and Seely brown and their ideas about situated learning theory
  • Which suggests that learning is contextually bound.
  • And Siemens and Downs and tehir notion of Connectivism
  • Which isuggests that learning is represented in nodes and ties between indivdiuals and artifacts.
  • According to social relational theorists:
  • A group of individuals building a networked intelligence is a goal of learning.
  • Resources are shared within a community, in which members interact with each other and with technological tools is the way in which learning happens.
  • Is a factor that Influences learning.
  • We can create online courses from an individualists perspective, developing them to support behaviorial, cognitive or social constructivist perspectives.
  • online learning can also support a social relational view of learning
  • In an online course, knowledge resides amongst individuals and their technological objects and tools
  • In online courses, students interact with each other and with technology.
  • Online, students engage in joint activity and have shared tools.
  • Their interactions with technology are by nature social ones.
  • Students use their objects and tools and they think and learn with them
  • They construct a common language and shared understanding while they are simultaneously engaged in the pursuit of individual and collective objectives.
  • STudents learn as they construct a network of both human and non-human actors, including technical tools.
  • Thus they are active agents in a socio-cultural and socio-technological environment.
  • Why is any of this important?
  • Because our beliefs about learning drive our pedagogical decisions and ultimately our teaching acts…
  • Whether they do so on a conscious or subconscious level.
  • We should ask ourselves the following questions:
  • Who am I theoretically speaking? What is my stance on learning?Am IA behavorists?A cognitivistA constructivist?
  • Can reside outside the mind of an individual?
  • Technological tools and artifacts in the process of learning?
  • Being aware of our stances toward learning can help us make better, more informed decisions.
  • Being more aware of what we see as the goal and process of learning can help us to create better learning environments and activities.
  • Being aware of and owning our stances can help us help students learn.
  • That is, after all, the point.
  • I plan to use an extended version of this information in a book that I’m currently writing…
  • Please comment if you have suggestions for improving this content!
  • The permalink to this presentation is at clairemajor.net
  • Learning style presentation for pedagogy first

    1. 1. Learning theoriesand online learningClaire Major, 2013
    2. 2. What is learning?
    3. 3. Learning is a process.
    4. 4. The process of learning leads to change.
    5. 5. A change to what?
    6. 6. It depends….
    7. 7. Theories of learning
    8. 8. Learning changes an individual.
    9. 9. Psychological theories of learning.
    10. 10. • Behaviorism• Cognitivism• Constructivism
    11. 11. Behaviorism
    12. 12. Learning is a change to behavior.
    13. 13. Famous behaviorists include
    14. 14. Skinner and PavlovClassical conditioning
    15. 15. http://mytwopixelsworth.files.wordpress.com /2011/04/2011_04_11_skinnerbox_large.gif
    16. 16. http://digitaldaily.allthingsd.com/files/2008/12/pavlov.j pg
    17. 17. ThorndikeOperant conditioning
    18. 18. http://animalbehaviour.net/OperantCondition ing.htm
    19. 19. BanduraSocial learning theory
    20. 20. http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514272463/ html/x533.html
    21. 21. According to behaviorists
    22. 22. Acquiring knowledge
    23. 23. Stimulus and response
    24. 24. Rewards and punishments
    25. 25. Cognitivistm
    26. 26. Learning is a change to the way that the brain processes.
    27. 27. Famous cognitivists include
    28. 28. WertheimerGestalt psychology
    29. 29. Atkinson; ShiffrinInformation processing theory
    30. 30. AndersonSchema theory
    31. 31. Digitalbob8 CC
    32. 32. Cognitivists believe that
    33. 33. Changing mental processes
    34. 34. Duplication of knowledge constructs of knower
    35. 35. Existing schemata and prior experiences
    36. 36. Constructivsm
    37. 37. Learning is a processin which the learner constructs or builds new ideas or concepts.
    38. 38. Learning is a personal endeavor.
    39. 39. Famous constructivists include…
    40. 40. PiagetCognitive constructivism
    41. 41. http://www.rugusavay.com/jean-piaget- quotes/
    42. 42. VygotskySocial constructivism
    43. 43. PappertSocial constructionism
    44. 44. According to constructivists
    45. 45. Constructing new knowledge (e.g. a new internal reality)
    46. 46. Experience of an individualacting and engaging with others
    47. 47. Prior experiences
    48. 48. Cool theories!
    49. 49. But some people…
    50. 50. THINK
    51. 51. New ideas
    52. 52. • Sociology• Anthropology• Philosophy• Education
    53. 53. Social/relationallearning theories
    54. 54. Learning is a change inconnections, whether social, relational, or technological.
    55. 55. Learning does not belong to an individual
    56. 56. Hutchings, PerryDistributed learning theory (distributed cognition)
    57. 57. Famous social/relationallearning theorists include
    58. 58. Classical cognition vs. distributed cognitionhttp://mindmaps.wikispaces.com/dcog
    59. 59. Lave; Wenger; Seely Brown Situated learning theory (situated cognitition)
    60. 60. http://kim-tran.wikispaces.com/Situated+Learning+Theor y
    61. 61. Siemens; Downes Connectivism(a bit like connected cognition???)
    62. 62. Connected cognition:ttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0732312311000678
    63. 63. According to these theorists:
    64. 64. A group of individuals building a networked intelligence
    65. 65. Resources are shared within a community
    66. 66. Cultural context
    67. 67. Online learning?
    68. 68. http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Iss ue/article01.html
    69. 69. Knowledge residesamongst individuals and technologies.
    70. 70. interact with each other and with technology.
    71. 71. engage in joint activity and have shared tools.
    72. 72. Employ social interactions with technology.
    73. 73. think and learn with objects and tools.
    74. 74. They construct a common language and shared understanding.
    75. 75. construct a network of bothhuman and non-human actors/
    76. 76. Active agents
    77. 77. Is it important?
    78. 78. Beliefs drive actions…
    79. 79. conscious or subconscious.
    80. 80. Ask:
    81. 81. Who am I?
    82. 82. What do I believe?
    83. 83. What is the role of technology?
    84. 84. Make informed decisions.
    85. 85. Create better learningenvironments and activities.
    86. 86. Help students learn.
    87. 87. The point.
    88. 88. NOTES:
    89. 89. Forthcoming
    90. 90. Suggestions?
    91. 91. Permalink:http://clairemajor.net/ 2013/04/19/learning-theories- and-online-learning/

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