Genetics

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Genetics

  1. 1. Genetics
  2. 2. Father of Genetics <ul><li>Gregor Mendel was an Austrian Monk who discovered patterns in the inheritance of garden peas </li></ul><ul><li>His work was largely ignored during his lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovered in the 20 th century </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mendel’s Experiments <ul><li>Developed True Breeding P1 generations for each tested trait </li></ul><ul><li>Cross pollinated the two P1 generations </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded and counted the resulting F1 generation </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed the F1 generation to self pollinate </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded and counted the resulting F1 generation </li></ul>
  4. 5. Modern Laws of Inheritance <ul><li>Law of Segregation-pairs of genes, called factors by Mendel, separate during meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Independent Assortment- genes separate without regard to where other genes go if they are on separate chromosomes </li></ul>
  5. 6. Mendel’s Other Discoveries <ul><li>Discovered the nature of genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come in pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have dominant and recessive modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disproved the theory of “Blending” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Punnett Square R r R r
  7. 8. Punnett Square R r R r R R
  8. 9. Punnett Square R r R r R R Rr R r
  9. 10. Punnett Square R r R r R R R r R r r r
  10. 11. Dihybrid Cross
  11. 12. Pedigree <ul><li>Pedigrees trace the phenotypic and proposed genotypic makeup of a family </li></ul><ul><li>Used to help families determine the risk of having a child with a genetic disease </li></ul>
  12. 14. Incomplete Dominance <ul><li>Sometimes two traits are concurrently expressed in heterozygotes </li></ul><ul><li>Pink Flowers </li></ul>
  13. 15. Codominance <ul><li>Sometimes both traits are expressed in the heterozygote to their full extent </li></ul><ul><li>Human Blood types </li></ul>
  14. 16. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>These are genes where the number of genes present affects the phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>EX Height in humans, Skin color in humans </li></ul>

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