Hacking By: Chris Piccirilli, Carolyn Choi, John Malick, and Tom Croonquist
What comes to mind when you think of hacking?
What is hacking?
-While there are many definitions of hacking, a general definition is to modify something to make it work for you.
-For computers, hacking includes fixing programs until they work . Also, hacking includes modifying the computer hardware to make it work better or tuned to the person's wishes.
-The type of hacking that the media discusses includes breaking into secure systems to determine their weaknesses and to explore them. However, the media only points out the malicious uses for breaking into systems.
So as you can see, hacking is not always bad.....We can now get into the types of hacking.....
Types of Hacking
- security experts who try to find the vulnerabilities in programs and systems, and report them to the manufacturers
-"ethical hackers" because they either have authorization to break into the system or program, or they do so with the intent of assisting the manufacturer in securing them.
- "Black Hats"
-ones who are trying to find those same vulnerabilities and exploit them.
-Black Hat hackers, usually referring to the creation of software cracks to bypass anti-piracy methods.
-person who hacks into telecommunications services.
A Common Misconception
-MOST hackers work for security professions or hack to improve their personal experience.
-Most white hats only hack their own systems in order to tweak them to the fullest extent that they can. Most of the "white hat" hackers are working behind the scenes or in the shadows. The media hardly, if ever, discusses them or their work.
-Through movies, and sound-bites, the media has jumped on the "hackers are bad" bandwagon-- totally overlooking the people who are trying to make their (and our) lives better through their hacking.
The First "Hacks"
1903 - Nevil Maskelyn
-The stage magician wrecked a public demo of Marconi's wireless telegraph in 1903 by sending insults in Morse code down the wire.
1932 - Polish cryptologists Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Różycki
- broke the Enigma machine code
-gave the Allies a competitive advantage in reading Morse code
-Eisenhower considered this hack to be a pivotal factor in their victory in World War II.
1965 - William Matthews from MIT
-found a vulnerability in a Multics CTSS running on a IBM7094 .
-This flaw discloses the contents of the password file.
The First "Hacks"
1971- John T. Draper (Captain Crunch)
-Hacks long distance phone calling system
-Used the toy whistle found in a cereal box to generate a signal to make free long distance calls
1983 - The Warelords forms in The United States
-founded by Black Bart (cracker of Dung Beetles in 1982) in St. Louis, Missouri.
-Composed of many teenage hackers, phreakers, coders, and largely black hat-style underground computer geeks.
-Triggered many more hacker groups to form later
Open Source Software
Source codes are freely available for anyone to inspect and study
No payment required/ No obstacles
Several thousand languages used
C+, C++, Java
Without the source code it is difficult to modify
Can't redistribute copies with your changes
Has licenses that protect the author's integrity of the code
Does not guarentee its users the additional freedoms that free software guarantees
everyone has the right to inspect and study the source code
also to use it for any desired purpose
making as many copies
installing on as many computers
modify and redistribute in its original or modified form.
without monetary or other restrictions
Free software is always also open source
a.k.a. "trap door"
a hole in the system that the designers deliberately leave
hackers may create these in order to to make sure they can return later on
Obtaining logon banners from a target system
Occurs when you try to stuff more data into a buffer than it can handle
configuring processors or other computer chips so that they contain some unexpected functions
Denial of Service
attempt to shut down access to a particular system or network
targets high-profile web sites
Distributed Denial of Service
DoS attack with a number of hosts who direct their attacks to a single target at the same time
code fragment that hides inside a program and performs a disguised function
code fragment that copies itself into a larger program, replicates, and infects
independent program that reproduces by copying itself from one computer to another over a network
does not modify other programs
type of Trojan horse, used to release a virus, worm, or other system attack
impersonating another host on a network by using the hosts IP or MAC address
helps mask an attack
when an attacker takes over an existing connection between client and server
Redirecting network traffic from one IP address/ports to another.
circumvent firewalls or secure ports
"Trusted Network Interpretation"
the security requirements and rating structure of TNI are extended to networks of computers
local area networks to wide area networks
"Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria"
presents security requirements that a host must meet in order to be considered by the DoD a trusted system
Famous Individuals- BLACK HAT
Jonathan James- c0mrade-
- First juvenile sent to prison for hacking at 16
- Interested in challenges
- Targeted high profile organizations such as DTRA
-Defense Threat Reduction Agency
- Sniffer, captures 3000 data streams to control NASA
Adrian Lamo- Dubbed as "homeless hacker"
-Used coffee shops, libraries, etc., to perform intrusions
- NY Times
- Penetration Testing
- A method of evaluating the security of a
computer system or network by simulating
an attack from malicious outsiders.
- expert to view personal info and CC
Famous Individuals- WHITE HAT
Stephen Wozniak - The "other Steve"
- National Medal of Technology
- National Inventors Hall of Fame
Tim Berners Lee- Who is he? 1989 22 Years Merge Personal/Global
- Caught hacking at Oxford University
-CERN: European nuclear research organization
Famous Hacking Groups
Masters of Deception: Mastered Credit Card hacking
: Hacked phone companies in order to get CC#'s
: Julia Roberts
Red Hacker Alliance: 80,000
: Began with strong oppostion Indonesian riots
: Mostly chinese against imperial US MilitarianismJapan