What is hacking?
-While there are many definitions of hacking, a general
definition is to modify something to make it work for you.
-For computers, hacking includes fixing programs until they
work. Also, hacking includes modifying the computer
hardware to make it work better or tuned to the person's
-The type of hacking that the media discusses includes
breaking into secure systems to determine their weaknesses
and to explore them. However, the media only points out the
malicious uses for breaking into systems.
So as you can see, hacking is not always bad.....We can now get into
the types of hacking.....
Types of Hacking
-security experts who try to find the vulnerabilities in programs and systems, and report them to the
-"ethical hackers" because they either have authorization to break into the system or program, or they do
so with the intent of assisting the manufacturer in securing them.
-ones who are trying to find those same vulnerabilities and exploit them.
-Black Hat hackers, usually referring to the creation of software cracks to bypass anti-piracy methods.
-person who hacks into telecommunications services.
A Common Misconception
-MOST hackers work for security professions or hack to improve their personal
-Most white hats only hack their own systems in order to tweak them to the fullest extent
that they can. Most of the "white hat" hackers are working behind the scenes or in the
shadows. The media hardly, if ever, discusses them or their work.
-Through movies, and sound-bites, the media has jumped on the "hackers are bad"
bandwagon-- totally overlooking the people who are trying to make their (and our) lives
better through their hacking.
The First "Hacks"
1903 - Nevil Maskelyn
-The stage magician wrecked a public demo of Marconi's wireless telegraph in 1903 by sending insults in Morse code down the
1932 - Polish cryptologists Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Różycki
-broke the Enigma machine code
-gave the Allies a competitive advantage in reading Morse code
-Eisenhower considered this hack to be a pivotal factor in their victory in World War II.
1965 - William Matthews from MIT
-found a vulnerability in a Multics CTSS running on a IBM7094 .
-This flaw discloses the contents of the password file.
The First "Hacks"
1971- John T. Draper (Captain Crunch)
-Hacks long distance phone calling system
-Used the toy whistle found in a cereal box to generate a signal to make free long distance calls
1983 - The Warelords forms in The United States
-founded by Black Bart (cracker of Dung Beetles in 1982) in St. Louis, Missouri.
-Composed of many teenage hackers, phreakers, coders, and largely black hat-style underground computer geeks.
-Triggered many more hacker groups to form later
Open Source Software
• Source codes are freely available for anyone to inspect and
o No payment required/ No obstacles
• Several thousand languages used
o C+, C++, Java
• Without the source code it is difficult to modify
• Can't redistribute copies with your changes
• Has licenses that protect the author's integrity of the code
• Does not guarentee its users the additional freedoms that free
• everyone has the right to inspect and study the source
o also to use it for any desired purpose
making as many copies
installing on as many computers
modify and redistribute in its original or modified
o without monetary or other restrictions
• Free software is always also open source
• a.k.a. "trap door"
• a hole in the system that the
designers deliberately leave
• hackers may create these in order
to to make sure they can
return later on
• Obtaining logon banners from a
• Occurs when you try to stuff more
data into a buffer than it can
• configuring processors
or other computer chips
so that they contain
• Denial of Service
o attempt to shut down
access to a particular
system or network
o targets high-profile
• Distributed Denial of
o DoS attack with a
number of hosts who
direct their attacks to a
single target at the
• code fragment that hides
inside a program and
performs a disguised
• code fragment that copies itself into a
larger program, replicates, and infects
• independent program that reproduces
by copying itself from one computer to
another over a network
o does not modify other programs
• type of Trojan horse, used to release a
virus, worm, or other system attack
• impersonating another host on a
network by using the hosts IP or MAC
o helps mask an attack
• when an attacker takes over an existing
connection between client and server
• Redirecting network traffic from one IP
address/ports to another.
o circumvent firewalls or secure ports
• "Trusted Network Interpretation"
• the security requirements and rating
structure of TNI are extended to networks
• local area networks to wide area networks
• "Trusted Computer System Evaluation
o presents security requirements that a
host must meet in order to be
considered by the DoD a trusted system
Famous Individuals- BLACK HAT
Jonathan James- c0mrade-
- First juvenile sent to prison for hacking at 16
- Interested in challenges
- Targeted high profile organizations such as DTRA
-Defense Threat Reduction Agency
- Sniffer, captures 3000 data streams to control NASA
Adrian Lamo- Dubbed as "homeless hacker"
-Used coffee shops, libraries, etc., to perform intrusions
- NY Times
- Penetration Testing
- A method of evaluating the security of a
computer system or network by simulating
an attack from malicious outsiders.
- expert to view personal info and CC
Famous Individuals- WHITE HAT
Stephen Wozniak - The "other Steve"
- National Medal of Technology
- National Inventors Hall of Fame
Tim Berners Lee- Who is he? 1989 22 Years Merge Personal/Global
- Caught hacking at Oxford University
-CERN: European nuclear research organization
Famous Hacking Groups
Masters of Deception: Mastered Credit Card hacking
: Hacked phone companies in order to get CC#'s
: Julia Roberts
Red Hacker Alliance: 80,000
: Began with strong oppostion Indonesian riots
: Mostly chinese against imperial US
: Honker Union
Recent Harmful Hacks
Zappos: January 16, 2012
- CEO Tony Hsieh
- 12 years of developing a strong reputation
- Credit Card and Payment Data fortunately unaffected
Insurgent Hacks: December 19, 2009
- $26 software purchased off the internet
- Provide info needed to help invade/monitor US Operations
- Allowed for possible strategic advantages
- Computer Security Purposes
- Discovering security faults, not doing any harm
- Designing software, and building programs
- Home Use
Top Motivations for Hacking
- Obtaining money, bank information, modifying data
- Belief of accessibility
- Find cheaters
- Fun and Curiosity
- Having fun, learning the basics, gain recognition