Breastfeeding Breast milk alone is the only food and drink an infant needs for the first 6 months of life. Breast milk is easy for the baby to digest. It promotes growth and development and protects against illness A baby who is 6 months and old needs to be fed food along with breast milk. This should continue until the child is two years old.
Breastfeeding If regular weighing shows that a breastfed body under six months is not growing well: The child may need more frequent breastfeeding. At least 12 feeds during a 24 hour period may be necessary. The baby should suckle for at least 15 minutes The child may need help to take more of the breast in it’s mouth The child may be ill and should be taken to a trained health worker Water or other fluids may be reducing the intake of breast milk. The mother should not give other fluids and should breastfeed only
Breastfeeding There is a risk that a woman infected with HIV can pass the disease on to her infant through breastfeeding. Women who are infected or think that they may be infected should be tested and advised on how to reduce the risk of infecting their child The best way to avoid the risk of transmitting the infection is to avoid becoming infected.
Breastfeeding Newborn babies should be kept close to their mothers and begin breastfeeding within one hour of birth. Having the baby breastfeed soon after birth stimulated the production of the mother’s breast milk. Colostrums- is the think yellowish milk the mother produces in the first few days after birth. Mothers should feed this to their baby as it is very nutritious. Mothers who give birth in a hospital or clinic have the right to keep their baby with them during the first 24 hours in the same room, and should insist that only breast milk-not formula or water- is fed to their baby.
Breastfeeding Frequent breastfeeding causes more milk to be produced. Almost every mother can breastfeed successfully. Many new mothers need encouragement and help to begin breastfeeding. How the mother holds her baby and how the baby takes the breast into its mouth are very important. Signs that the baby is in a good position for breastfeeding are: The baby’s whole body is turned towards the mother. The baby is close to the mother. The baby is relaxed and happy.
Breastfeeding Holding the baby in a poor suckling position can cause such difficulties as: Sore and cracked nipples Not enough milk Refusal to feed Signs that the baby is feeding well: The baby’s mouth is wide open The baby’s chin is touching the mother’s breast More of the dark skin around the mother’s nipple can be seen above the baby’s mouth than below it The baby takes long deep sucks The mother does not feel any pain in the nipple
Breastfeeding Almost every mother can produce enough milk when: She breastfeeds exclusively The baby is in a good position, has the breast well in the mouth The baby feeds as often and as long as he or she wants including during the night If a newborn sleeps more than 3 hours after breastfeeding he or she may be gently awakened and offered the breast
Breastfeeding Mothers should not give babies other food or drinks in the first few months of life because this causes the baby to suckle less often, so less milk is produced Pacifiers, dummies or bottles should not be given to babies because the suckling action for these is very different than the suckling action at the breast. Mothers need to be reassured that they can feed their babies properly with breast milk alone. They need encouragement and support from the child’s father, their families, neighbors, friends, health workers, employers and women’s organizations
Breastfeeding Breastfeeding helps protect babies and young children against dangerous illnesses. It also creates a special bond between the mother and child Breast milk is the baby’s “first immunizations.” It helps protect against diarrhea, ear and chest infections, and other health problems Protection is greatest when breast milk alone is given for the first six months and continues well into the second year and beyond
Breastfeeding Bottle feeding can lead to illness and death If a woman cannot breastfeed her infant, the baby should be fed breast milk or breast milk substitute from an ordinary clean cup Unclean bottles and teats can cause illnesses such as diarrhea and ear infections Diarrhea can be deadly for babies Illness is less likely if bottles and teats are sterilized in boiling water before each feed, but bottle fed babies are still far more susceptible to diarrhea and other common infections than breastfed babies.
Breastfeeding The best food for a baby who cannot be breastfed is milk expressed from the mother’s breast or from another healthy mother The breast milk should be given from a clean open cup If breast milk is not available a nutritional adequate breast milk substitute should be fed to the baby by a cup Infants who are fed breast milk substitutes (formula) are at greater risk of death than breastfed infants
Breast Milk Substitutes Feeding the baby breast milk substitutes can cause poor growth or illness if too much or too little water is added or the water is not clean It is important to boil and then cool the water and then carefully follow the instructions for mixing breast milk substitutes Animals milk and infant formula can go bad if left at room temperature for more than a few hours. Breast milk can be stored at room temperature for up to 8 hours before going bad. Keep it in a clean, covered container.
Complimentary Feeding From the age of 6 months babies need a variety of additional foods, but breast milk should be continued through the child’s second year and beyond Although children need additional foods after they are 6 months old, breast milk is still an important source of energy, protein, and other nutrients such as vitamin A and iron From the age 6 months to 1 year, the child should be offered breast milk before other foods The child’s diet should include peeled, cooked and mashed vegetables, grains, fruit, fish, eggs, chicken, meat or dairy products to provide vitamins and minerals In the second year, breastfeeding should be offered after meals and at other times. A mother can continue to breastfeed her child for as long as she and the child wish.
General Guidelines From 6-12 months: breast feed frequently and give other foods 3-5 times a day. From 12-24 months: breast feed frequently and give family foods 5 times a day. From 24 months onward: continue breast feeding if both mother and child wish and give family foods 5 times a day. Babies fall ill frequently as they begin to crawl, walk, play and drink and eat other foods. A sick child needs plenty of breast milk. It is a nutritious, easily digestible food, when a child loses appetites for other foods. Breastfeeding can comfort a child who is upset.
Working Mothers If a woman cannot breastfeed at her workplace she should express her milk 3 times a day and store for use later. A woman employed away from her home can continue to breastfeed a child if she breastfeeds as soon as possible when she is with her infant. If a mother cannot be with her baby during working hours she should breastfeed often when they are together, frequent breastfeeding will ensure her milk supply. The mother should not give breast milk substitutes if she is able to breast feed the baby. Families and communities can encourage employers to provide paid maternity leave and the time and a suitable place for women to breastfeed or express their milk.
Protection Against Pregnancy Exclusive breastfeeding can give a woman more than 98% protection against pregnancy for 6 months after giving birth, but only if her menstrual periods have not resumed, if her baby breastfeeds frequently day and night, and if the baby is not given any other foods or drinks or pacifier. It is possible for a mother to become pregnant before her period returns, this becomes increasingly likely 6 months after the birth. Mothers should avoid becoming pregnant again until her youngest child is more than 2 years of age. A woman who wants to delay another pregnancy should choose another method of family planning if any of the following apply: Periods have resumed. Baby is taking other foods or drinks or using a pacifier. Baby has reached the age of 6 months.
Photos Manual breast pumpPacifiers Electric breast pump
Quiz 1.What is the best form of nourishment for a baby during the first 6 months of life? a. infant formula b. water c. Breast milk
Quiz 2.At what age should babies be given complimentary foods along with breast milk? a. 4 months b. 6 months c. 8 months
Quiz 3.Mothers who are HIV positive can pass the virus to their child during childbirth and by breastfeeding. a. TRUE b. FALSE
Quiz 4.If a mother has HIV what should she feed her baby? a. Her own breast milk b. Infant formula c. Breast milk from another mother who does not have HIV if socially acceptable d. Either B or C
Quiz 5. How long is it recommended that mothers feed their babies breast milk? a. 6 months b. 1 year c. 2 years
Quiz 6.How many hours can breast milk be kept at room temperature before going bad? a. 4 hours b. 6 hours c. 8 hours
Quiz 7.Babies who are breast fed are healthier than babies who are given infant formula a. TRUE b. FALSE
Quiz 8.When a baby has diarrhea, mothers should a. Give them water b. Give them more breast milk c. Wait until the diarrhea has stopped before feeding
Quiz 9.Infant formulas are equally as good for babies as breast milk a. TRUE b. FALSE
Quiz 10.Benefits of breast feeding for mothers include: a. Bonding time with child b. Decreased risk of certain types of cancer c. Natural family planning for up to 6 months d. All of the above