Types of tools and methods for audience research 3
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Types of tools and methods for audience research 3



This presentation is part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) learning kit “Communication for Agriculture Disaster Risk Management. A resource kit for field ...

This presentation is part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) learning kit “Communication for Agriculture Disaster Risk Management. A resource kit for field projects”. It was prepared by Maria Protz, Communication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI) Regional Coordinator for the Caribbean.



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    Types of tools and methods for audience research 3 Types of tools and methods for audience research 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Types of Research, Tools andMethods for Audience Research Audience Research Methods
    • FOCUS GROUPS Factors to Consider
    • Let them know WELL in advance that youwant to meet with them…..
    • Tips to setting up Focus GroupsUse a brochure or letter to organize things before hand – let potential participants know in advance that they are important to the process
    • Schedule meetings at times that are CONVIENENT TO THEM!Share responsibilities with your team (land husbandry officers, home economics officers, pest control specialists, etc.) to get a cross section and representative sample)
    • Get a good cross section of young persons, older persons, better off folks, etc. and schedule separate groups for each if necessary.Work in teams, or at least in pairs – one person to ask questions – another to record information shared – if you can, record your sessions on videotape or audiotape
    • Pay attention to people who speak TOO much and to those who DON’T SPEAK ENOUGH.The “Meeting After the Meeting” is what’s most important. Try to hang around with people afterwards and hear what they really think of what was discussedRecognize that people need time to think – they may say one thing today – and another the next time you meet them
    • Avoid roadside bias!
    • Research (approach)QuantitativeQualitative – Participatory ToolsMixed Method
    • TriangulationUse more than one tool or method to check and verify findings with quantitative data.
    • Research – the steps1. Conceptualize - read – think it though2. Choose Research Methods3. Get ready4. Determine population and sample size5. Collect data in the field6. Process findings7. Analyze8. Share findings with participants and discuss what it will mean
    • Methods of participant observation(informal)‘Walk around’ researchDILO, MILO, TOMA, NOSAAnd others…
    • DILO A Day In the Life Of analysis
    • DILO - An exploration of the daily context in which the behaviour is being urged
    • DILO - A DILO is a step-by-step description of the behaviours exhibited by audience members over a selected period of time
    • DILO - HOW? - Observations - Narratives from individuals
    • MILO A Moment In the Life Of analysis
    • MILO A modification of DILO capturing the specific moment one expects behaviour to be performed
    • MILO How? - Observations - Role plays
    • MILO By anticipating what is going on at the moment the behaviour is expected, one can better prepare audiences for it
    • TOMA Top Of Mind Awareness (Positioning)
    • TOMA - An exploration of peoples’ perceptions of and immediate associations with a particular issue
    • TOMA - What is the first thing that comes to mind when you think of a particular word or phrase?
    • TOMA - Note how a particular behaviour is mentally positioned in people’s mind - Re-position the behaviour mentally so that it is perceived more harmoniously
    • NOSA Number Of Steps Away (Stages of Change)
    • NOSA This tool identifies those who are nearest to “doing” the behaviour you are promoting.
    • NOSA The logic is that if you can convince those who are closest to action then focusing on them will have an impact on those at other stages.
    • TAC (Take A Chance) Competitor Analysis
    • TAC -What alternative behaviours are carried out rather than the one we are trying to recommend?
    • Some participatory tools toconsider:
    • Historical Calendar Date/Time Event Consequences Frame Impacts2008 Hurricane Gustav2007 Hurricane Dean2006 Severe rain and flooding2004 Hurricane Ivan
    • Well-Being Ranking – Questions to Ask:• How would you identify a well-off person or household in this community?• What would he or she be wearing?• How would they get around? What type of transportation would they use?• do they live permanently in the community?• What type of house would they have? (wood construction? Cement block? Wattle and daub)?• What type of bathroom amenities would the household have? (latrine, in-door bathroom)• What type of water supply would they have?• What type of light source would they have?
    • • Would they own their own home?• How much land would they have?• What type of occupation would they have?• How many children would they likely have?• What type of household equipment would they likely own (TV, radio, computer, stove, etc.)• What type of cooking fuel would they use?• How many mobile phones would they have?• Would they be employed?• How many people in the household would be employed?• Would they receive remittances from abroad?
    • • What type of education would they likely have?• Would they be married or single?• and so forth.• In this case, you want more to listen and to get your respondents to list the suggested criteria on their own as possible and just record them on some flipchart paper. Keep them listing all the factors they can think of until they cannot think of any others that are really important. And then prepare a table and count the households in the community that represent each set of criteria.
    • Wealth Ranking exercises Livelihood Characteristics Well-being Number of Group Status Household s that fit this criteriaLarge Does not live permanently in the area, resides mostly in town Wealthy 1 landowne Owns land outright rs Size of land-15 acres irrigated Blue mountain Coffee grower Has hired helped Has permanent 2-story, 3 bedroom cement block home on property Water supplied to house Indoor bathroom Electricity Solar water heater Cable TV and phone Gas and electric cooking fuel Owns 2 cell phones Drives an SUV Married with 2 children, baby mother in area with 2 children Has business in corporate area, coffee growing is a secondary activity College educated Wireless computerMedium Land- Owns land outright Middle 7 owners 5 acres income Coffee and banana production, irrigated Drives pick up (owned) Lives on site permanently and owns house Cement block with indoor plumbing, 3 bedroom Water pumped to house Electricity
    • Transect Walks to Map OutLivelihood ZonesTransects can be drawn or illustrated.But they can also be photographic
    • Zone Residential and Some farming in Bauxite pit, farming slightly restored mined out land Farming Bauxite pit, areas. Cattle mined out land grazing. St. Ann Red Clay Loam, someSoil Type Chudleigh Clay St. Ann Red Clay St. Ann Red Clay St. Ann Red Clay St. Ann Red Clay 4 Loam Loam Loam Loam Loam 3Crops Peanut yam on 3 slopes, some Yam, sweet potato, Peanut, yam tomatoe, No crops. Mining area. Mined out pit. banana, coconut, pumpkin, peanut. callaloo around the tomatoe, callaloo yard around the yardMainProblems Poor land, no top soil, Far to walk to Soil quick to dry mined out land, little town, lack of out, shallow, no agricultural support, no Pits hard to walk Pits hard to walk transport, no water for crops water for crops around around water for crops Photo Transect Lime Tree Garden
    • Next we need to DevelopAccess and Control Profiles They tell us who has access to specific resources and who controls them
    • Access & Control Profile Community: Prickly Pole, St. Ann Resource Man’s View (Husband’s View) Woman’s View (Wife’s View) Alone Alone Access Access ♂ ♀ ♂ ♀Dwelling/house x xx x xxxxWell X X X XxYard X X X XxxxFruit trees in yard X X X XxxxPigs X X Xxx XCows XX XX Xxxx XXchickens X Xxx X Xxxxgoats Xxx Xxx Xx Xxxxdonkey X Xland Xxxxx Xx Xxxxx XTree crops Xxx Xxx Xxx Xxmachete Xxxxx X Xxxxx XSpray can Xxxxx XxxxxChicken manure X Xxx X Xxxcow manure X X X X
    • Seasonal Calendar• Much of this information is probably already available or known through some of the regular farm business planning activities and reporting that RADA does as there are obviously specific times to sow or reap crops, depending on the crops grown.• However, in this case, for seasonal calendars, participants fill in all the livelihood activities that they (or their households) would undertake over the course of the year. Planting seasons are indicated, reaping seasons, rainy seasons, drought periods, periods where pests may be more frequent, and so forth.• But additionally, households should indicate when people within the household may migrate to another area to supplement income, receive remittances, work additional jobs, take children out of school, send children to school, and so forth. All livelihood strategies should be illustrated accordingly on the calendar.
    • Full List of Local Coping Strategies• Planting different crops or different types of crops• Reducing farm inputs• Migrating away from the area• Cut grass for extra fodder for cattle• Keeping watch over remaining crops and livestock to fend of praedial larcenists (taking turns keeping guard, setting up traps and security systems)• Trying to plant seedlings ahead of time in a safe place in case re-planting is needed• Creating raised beds to avoid flooding• Drought year – use more mulch to conserve water
    • Pair-Wise Ranking MatricesOnce people list their coping and survival strategies, we also need to understand which of these are most important and most critical to them when a disaster happens. People Need to Prioritize
    • PAIR-WISE RANKINGExisting Overall Cheap Takes High Long- Reduces Require Far Have toOptions Ranking option time Risk/no term yields s Distance Reciprocversus t legal returns transpor to ate andrank more tation Obtain return sustaina the ble favour1.Share Good    voluntary Optionlabour toreducecosts –Day fiDay1.Sell Low  cow option1.Share moderat    Seeds e1.Cut use Fair   offertilizerandpesticides1.change Fair   cropping system1.grow Low   ganja option1.beg good     scraps forlivestockfeed1.cut Good     grass for optionextraanimal
    • criminality Temptation to Neglected children join gangs grow into angry youths Social stigma Cycle of poverty Poor income continues Poor parenting Neglected skills children IncompleteMore educationchildren withdifferent Teenagefathers Pregnancy No father at home to reconfirm Abuse from children’s value mother’s Lack of self- partners esteem Single mothers poverty
    • The benefits of this visual tool are that:•It quickly captures the input from allparticipants in the group;•It presents information visually, so thatliteracy is not required;•It encourages participation; and•It validates participant knowledge andexperience.
    • When the problem trees are completed andfully discussed, further field investigationscan commence to explore particular issuesand findings in more depth.•Community mapping•Venn diagrams•SWOT Analysis•Force Field Analysis•Access and control profiles….
    • Venn Diagrams
    • Community mapping..
    • SWOT AnalysisStrengths WeaknessesOpportunities Threats
    • Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a decision. In effect, it is a specialized method of weighing pros and cons. By carrying out the analysis you can plan to strengthen the forces supporting a decision, and reduce the impact of opposition to it.
    • More traditional audience researchersare more likely to concentrate on thefollowing methods:•Key informant interviews•Expert interviews•Quantitative surveys•Focus group discussions•Participant observation
    • Methods and their limitations Doing Primary Research Disadvantage: Time-consuming Advantage: You are in a position to influence the design of the study Would be good to start thinking of the types of indicators you will need for later evaluation and include them in this baseline study If possible, use mixed methods Longitudinal or experimental designs are ideal
    • In the end, we want to have:• A clear understanding of external factors and constraints that contribute to the problem• A clear understanding of what has to be done to address the root causes• A clear understanding of what has to be done to address the consequences• A clear understanding of likely obstacles and challenges to be expected• A clear understanding of existing strengths, opportunities and possible resources (both human and otherwise) that can be leveraged.• And an understanding of the communication opportunities to address such issues.
    • With the needs assessmentcomplete there should be ampleinformation to fully inform the goalsand objectives for your extensionlearning programme and to guidethe rest of the communicationstrategy design process.
    • Thank You