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Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies
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Assessing Environmental Sound Technologies

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  • 1. Assessing and Evaluating Environmentally Sound Technologies Dr. Hari Srinivas Chief, Urban Environmental Management Unit International Environmental Technology Centre United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-IETC)
  • 2. Environmentally Sound Technologies 1
  • 3. IETC and Agenda 21 <ul><li>The mandate of IETC is based on Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) </li></ul><ul><li>The main function of IETC is to promote the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) </li></ul>
  • 4. Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 defines ESTs as technologies which: <ul><li>“ protect the environment, </li></ul><ul><li>are less polluting, </li></ul><ul><li>use all resources in a more sustainable manner, </li></ul><ul><li>recycle more of their wastes and products, and </li></ul><ul><li>handle residual wastes in a more acceptable manner than the technologies for which they are substitutes” </li></ul>
  • 5. Agenda 21 also states that: <ul><li>“ new and efficient technologies will be essential to increase the capabilities (in particular of developing countries) to achieve sustainable development, sustain the world’s economy, protect the environment, and alleviate poverty and human suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent in these activities is the need to address the improvement of technology currently used and its replacement, when appropriate, with more accessible and more environmentally sound technology”. </li></ul>
  • 6. As stated in Agenda 21, <ul><li>ESTs in the context of pollution are “process and product technologies that generate low or no waste, for the prevention of pollution” . </li></ul><ul><li>They also cover “end of the pipe technologies for treatment of pollution after it has been generated” . </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, ESTs are not just individual technologies, but total systems that include “know-how, procedures, goods and services, and equipment as well as organizational and managerial procedures” . </li></ul>
  • 7. Thus the definition of ESTs: <ul><li>applies to all technology and the transition of all technology to more “environmentally sound” technology. </li></ul><ul><li>captures the full life cycle flow of the material, energy and water in the production and consumption system; </li></ul><ul><li>covers the full spectrum from basic technologies that are adjunct to the production system, to fully integrated technologies where the environmental technology is the production technology itself; </li></ul><ul><li>includes closed system technologies (where the goal is zero waste and/or significant reductions in resource use), as well as environmental technologies that may result in emissions and high levels of resource use; </li></ul><ul><li>considers technology development within both the ecological and social context. </li></ul>
  • 8.     Taxonomy of Sustainable Technologies Technologies Environmentally Sound Technologies Non - Environmentally Sound Technologies Environmental Technologies Non - Environmental Technologies Sustainable Technologies Transitionary Technologies Un - sustainable Technologies
  • 9. Environmental Sustainability <ul><li>Protection of watersheds, aquifers and freshwater ecosystems and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection and enhancement of air quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use and conservation of land, forests, wildlife, fisheries and water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of biological resources, ecosystems and life support systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable or optimum use of land, forest, energy and mineral resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced local, regional and global environmental impacts of fossil fuels and increased development and use of renewable alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of environmental principles in public information and education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use of natural resources. </li></ul>
  • 10. ESTs and Sustainable Development Integrated Ecosystems Management Prevention Monitoring & Assessment Control ESTs Remediation & Restoration
  • 11. Definition of ESTs under Agenda 21 … is broader and includes technologies: <ul><li>with the potential for significantly improved environmental performance relative to other technologies, and </li></ul><ul><li>that use resources in a sustainable manner </li></ul>
  • 12. Framework for the Identification and Selection of ESTs ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION (How to collect and analyze…) ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (How to define and apply…) ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA (How to define and apply…) GUIDELINES FOR ASSESSING AND EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE (How to define and apply…) IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION OF ESTs ADOPTION AND USE OF ESTs
  • 13. EST Criteria 2
  • 14. Generic EST Criteria <ul><li>Protection of air, water, land and biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally sound technologies and management practices </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable resource management </li></ul>
  • 15. Technical Suitability <ul><li>Addresses fundamental scientific and engineering principles (i.e., laws of thermodynamics and reactivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Production or process yield </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminant removal rates or treatment efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for generation of secondary pollutants/byproducts </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal losses and radiation emissions </li></ul>
  • 16. Technical Suitability (cont’d) <ul><li>Performance at different settings and different locations </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to specific operating conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Replicability </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for system failure </li></ul><ul><li>Profiling of risks and uncertainties </li></ul>
  • 17. Compliance with Regulations and Standards <ul><li>Quantity of waste generated (water, air and solids) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of waste controlled by environmental permits </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with local and regional standards </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with MEAs (i.e., POPs, Biosafety, etc.) and other internationally recognised standards (i.e., ISO, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of reliable data </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a 3 rd party assessment programme (i.e., Ecolabelling, ETV, etc.) </li></ul>
  • 18. Eco-Efficiency and Biodiversity <ul><li>Useful life (in accordance with optimal performance specifications) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of energy, water and materials use relative to the service provided </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle performance (i.e., overall GHG emissions throughout lifecycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of renewable resources </li></ul>
  • 19. Protection of Water Resources <ul><li>Water use </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of water </li></ul><ul><li>% use of recycled water </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Level of treatment (primary, secondary, tertiary) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall water efficiency </li></ul>
  • 20. Optimisation of Materials and Energy Use <ul><li>Use of fuels and energy resources </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of non-renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>% of recyclable and reused materials in the production process </li></ul><ul><li>Use of environmentally friendly materials </li></ul>
  • 21. Minimisation of Toxic Materials and Waste <ul><li>Quantity of waste (air, water and solids) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of toxic and hazardous waste used and generated </li></ul><ul><li>% of waste materials used as raw materials for other industries (i.e., based on industrial ecology and CASE principles) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of byproduct recovered </li></ul>
  • 22. Protection of Land Resources <ul><li>Space required for construction </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with immediate or adjoining facilities and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation and materials flow requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for soil contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for geomorphology, landscape and eco-hydrological impacts </li></ul>
  • 23. Protection of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Air emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for long range transport of atmospheric pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for climate change impacts </li></ul>
  • 24. Requirements for Assessing and Evaluating ESTs <ul><li>Defining the context in relation to sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder involvement and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the boundaries (or scope) of the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and reporting </li></ul>
  • 25. Stakeholder Involvement and collaboration <ul><li>Determining expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Defining policies and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Building local capacity </li></ul>
  • 26. Applying Various Assessment Tools <ul><li>Technology Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems Valuation </li></ul>
  • 27. ESTs and Forest Governance 3
  • 28. ESTs play a critical, but one part of, a comprehensive approach to forest management and governance. ESTs and Forest Governance
  • 29. In addition to everything we have seen so far … ESTs have more roles to play! ESTs and Forest Governance
  • 30. ESTs and Forest Governance ESTs Community-driven planning and actions Job creation and income generation Help reduce disaster risk Manage forest waste and non-timber debris
  • 31. Thank you! Please keep yourself informed through the IETC Website: www.unep.or.jp

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