Women play important role in all agricultural activities up until marketing.
Women are not considered to be ‘farmers’
High incidence of female headed households – 21% nationally
Women in male headed households marginalized
Illiteracy among rural women much higher than among men.
Women and agriculture
Jimma zone, Oromyia
Muslim region, polygamous marriages
In Limmu Kossa district, women were allocated coffee land
Mainly orthodox Christian region: high prevalence of early marriage
Overall Research Findings
Across both Jimma and West Gojam Zone
2 main types of CA:
Formal cooperatives (multi-purpose and commodity specific)
Savings (formal and informal, includes SHG)
Commodity coops are widespread & important in coffee, honey & m ilk.
But women constitute only 10-20% of cooperatives’ members (FHH)
Women concentrate at the production end of the value chain, few are involved in marketing
Most women are members of informal and formal CA, such as dadoo, iqub, SHGs and Savings & Credit. Get material and non-material benefits here.
Role of external agents is very significant – both in cooperatives and in SHGs, Savings & Credit Associations.
Coffee Gendered value chain map of coffee sector, Limmu district
Honey Gendered Value Chain Map
Honey: constraints to acting in markets Constraints to acting in markets Individual woman Mixed group Women-only group Get a low price X Gender issues and inequality Women lack decision making power within the HH and outside. Access to information/ training etc. X X Lack of information on prices and markets X Low bargaining power (of farmers) X Family responsibilities of women (lack of free time) X X X Restrictions placed by husband X X X Pesticide sprayed during the day affects bees X X X Modern beehive management is challenging for farmers used to traditional beehives X X X
Milk: benefits to women of CA Community Inputs Training Stable market Higher incomes Social support Saving & Credit Reduced cost & time Increase Asset of the CA Total Sebatatmit 9 10 30 56 35 140 Andassa 23 30 27 23 27 130 Tis-Abay 32 63 23 40 2 160
Maize: seed growers’ cooperative
Dadoo emerging as a source of income for women
Women only engaged in marketing small volumes
Women have little control over the income derived
West Gojam ,
when traditional women’s crops and products become commercialized men take over: milk and vegetables
Savings groups are very important to women:
They have control over the loan
Provides them with resources to participate in sub-sectors.
Recommendations for Phase III
Focus on the sub-sectors that are important to women and where CA occurs, e.g. honey and milk in West Gojam zone.
Role of external agents: how are they supporting CA? Is it sustainable, what is the long term impact on women, material and non-material benefits.
Explore linkages between the different CA groups: how does membership in several of these enable women to realize potential benefits more fully?
How can CA in potentially profitable areas, such as improved seed production, be designed so that women benefit?