Freedom to read!First Amendment of the United States
What does it mean to ‘censor’ something?In general, it means you get rid of something that offends you. However, it doesn’t only apply to you. It means that just because you don’t like something, you have ntIn general, it means you get rid of something that offends you. However, it doesn’t only apply to you. It means that just because you don’t like something, you have removed that content for EVERYONE. for EVERYONE.
The purpose of the Index was to guide secular censors in their decisions as to which publications to allow and which to prohibit, since printers were not free to publish books without official permission. At a time when society was dominated by religion, religious and secular censorship were indistinguishable. The Catholic Church continued to print this Index, which grew to 5,000 titles, until 1966, when Pope Paul VI terminated the publication.In 1650, a religious pamphlet by William Pynchon was confiscated by Puritan authorities in Massachusetts, condemned by the General Court and burned by the public executioner in the Boston marketplace. The incident is considered to be the first book-burning in America.In 1873, using slogans such as “Morals, not art and literature,” he convinced Congress to pass a law, thereafter known as the “Comstock Law,” banning the mailing of materials found to be “lewd, indecent, filthy or obscene.Between 1874 and 1915, as special agent of the U.S. Post Office, he is estimated to have confiscated 120 tons of printed works. Under his reign, 3,500 people were prosecuted although only about 350 were convicted. Books banned by Comstock included many classics such as Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales and The Arabian Nights. Authors whose works were subsequently censored under the Comstock Law include Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Victor Hugo, D.H. Lawrence, John Steinbeck, Eugene O’Neill and many others whose works are now deemed to be classics of literature.Paul Boyer, in Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age, claims that the Comstock Law merely formalized what had been a “gentleman’s agreement” among publishers, booksellers and librarians enforcing a Victorian “code” of literary propriety.Within a few months after the book-burnings in Germany, the landmark federal court decision in United States v. One Book Called "Ulysses" clearing Ulysses broke the back of the Comstock Law.
Censorship has occurred throughout history. One of the most famous censors was Hitler. The Nazis held bonfires and burned many, many books. They did this so that the German people would not be able to hear and think about ideas that conflicted with Nazi ideas.
Small forms of censorship are found in the here and now all of the time. Can you think of any? Movie ratings. TV ratings. What is actually in a library. Coursework.
Complaints? Some of the complaints against the book:It has homosexual “undertones”It goes against everything the Word of God speaks of in The BibleThe book promotes homosexual adoptionReading this book will encourage students to become homosexualClanApis example. Nonfictino Books. Depicting reproductive information about bees. Not to be shown in middle schools in PPS – that is here in Pittsburgh. Not looked at – just not allowed.
Interactive. Constantly updated. Find out more info about what has been banned near you and why.
Banned Book has been removed from the shelves of a library store of library. Historically banned books have been burned. What is a Challenged book?To arrive at a democratic decision, hearing those people for and against a challenge requires that challenges must be heard and reviewed by governing, and sometimes impartial, bodies including local and state courts, committees and school boards.Whatever you need to do to restrict ACCESS to an IDEA. A book is removed and stays lost to a school or community unknowingly, with or without review. Sometimes a parent, community member or even a librarian fearing controversy will quietly remove the book from the shelf. It is impossible to document and quantify this form of “stealth censorship.”Create like mindedness in a community by controling the content in order to maintain power. China and Google.
Bad Language, Sexually Explicit, Violence and Satanism are the top reasons that books are banned currently in the US. Some of these things are appropriate – just because something isnt OK to me doesn’t mean that it shouldn’t be to anyone. Parents should be involved in what their kids read. Not what everyones kids read.
Ocean View School District Huntington Beach CAHigh SchoolContents Inappropriate for studentsAlso Banned in a high school because staff were deemed inapporpritate to teach something that has to do with africanamerican culture.
High School – Language is vulgar and racist
Deemed unsuited for a classroom discussion in a co-ed high school class
Public Library – harmful to minors under state law
High School – Easton PAPromotes economic fallacies and socialist ideas. Also promotes drug use.
Includes sexual material and homosexual themes
High School Library because a students was able to find the word “oral sex”
Restricted in 5 different places across the country this year. Novel is about a freshman year of college and depicts scenes of drug use and sex. Deemed as inappropriate.
Plans by german scholars to reprint as an academic treatise were rejected because a new publication of the book could fuel support for far right groups.
Banned books presentation
Banned Books Week Celebrating the Freedom to Read! September 30 – October 6 2012A Democratic Societyand theIssue of Censorship
• Banned Books Week is the only national celebration of the freedom to read.• Launched in 1982 to sudden surge in number of challenges to books in schools, libraries and bookstores.• More than 1,000 books have been challenged since 1982.• The United States take the acts of banning or challenging a book as a serious matter, because these are forms of censorship which strike at the very core of our freedom to read.Banned Books Week Begins
Deciding to get rid of something that offends you…for everyone.Censorship.
• When you were in elementary school, you might have read In the Night Kitchen by Maurice Sendak. • It’s about a little boy named Mickey who wakes up in the middle of the night to a loud noise. He suddenly starts to float up out of his bed and eventually enters a bakers’ kitchen where he has lovely adventures.Here’s an example.
• Mickey falls out of his clothes as he enters the kitchen, and thus runs around naked for parts of the story. • Parents, teachers, and librarians have been so embarrassed and upset by this that they have taken to drawing shorts on Mickey or gluing stickers over his “private area.”The Problem?
FOR THE RECORD…The author, Maurice Sendak, said he wasn’t trying to be controversial.He just thought that it would be easier for Mickey to be naked when hefell in a bowl of cake batter so he wouldn’t have dirty clothes!
• Secular and religious authorities have censored books for as long as people have been writing them.• In ancient times, when hand-scribed books existed in only one or a few copies, destroying them (usually by burning) guaranteed no one would ever read them.• Invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg around 1450 made it possible to circulate more copies of books, essentially reducing the power of book burning to disseminate texts.History of BookCensorship
Censorship Timeline 1933: Frightening 1872: 1874-1915 views of Nazi 1933: 1535: 1559 - 1650 New York Anthony book burnings 1470: Comstock Law 1529: French king Censorship Society for the Comstocks in Germany First popular broken. Henry VIII Francis I issued followed Suppression of reign as special began to create books printed outlawed all Vice founded an edict European agent of the an anti- and sold in imported by pioneer of prohibiting the settlers to U.S. Post censorship Germany publications. American printing of America. Office. sentiment in the books. censorship, United States. Anthony Comstock.1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 1490: 1490 - 1529: 1559: Germanys first Henry VIII of Roman 1650: 1873: 1900’s: official England Catholic First book "Comstock Paul Boyer, 1920’s: censorship established a Church issued burning in Law" author of Purity Nationally office licensing the first America. established, in Print: Book publicized established system published and banning Censorship in court battles when local requiring most notorious mailing of America from over censored archbishop printers to list of materials found the Gilded Age books began to pleaded with submit all forbidden to be "lewd, to the erode the law. town officials manuscripts to books, Index indecent, filthy, Computer Age, to censor Church of Librorum or obscene." claims "dangerous England Prohibitorum, i "Comstock publications". authorities for n response to Law" merely a approval. spread of gentlemans Protestantism agreement. and scientific inquiry.
• Tango is based on a real-life story. In a zoo in New York City, a baby penguin egg was abandoned. Rather than let it die, two male penguins “adopted” the egg and took turns sitting on it until it hatched! • Aww…Most “dangerous” book of 2009
Author Laurn Myracle wrote a whole series of books starting in 2004 written entirely in instant messages. Banned in numerous places across for “adult situations,” “Flirtation with a teacher” and sexually explicitness.Most “dangerous” book of 2011
Challenges to Books• Challenges occur in every state and in hundreds of communities.• People challenge books based on political, religious, sexual, or social grounds.• People target books that explore the latest problems to beloved works of American literature.
United States Banning Books Challenging Books• Old practice of restricting access. • Fair practice in a democratic society.• Forcing control or regulation over First Amendment rights to • Invites questions, discussions, free speech and free expression. learning, exposure of issues and problems, raises awareness and• Burning books to suppress stirs various viewpoints. opinions, questions, and exposure to new thoughts and practices. • No restriction on First Amendment rights.• Create a like-mindedness— control content to maintain power (i.e. China and media • No centralized power or censorship). authority.
Books are usually challenged with the best intentions—to protect others, frequently children, from difficult ideas and information. *It is important to note that books must be taken as a whole and not out of context. Most challenges dispute certain parts of a written work without consideration of the nature of the work as a whole. However, challenges do not simply involve a person expressing a point of view; rather, they are an attempt to remove material from the curriculum or library, thereby restricting the access of others. Most challenges are unsuccessful, and most books are retained in the school curriculum and on the library and bookstore shelves.Why are BooksChallenged?
Tabulating Most ChallengedBooksAmerican Library Association (ALA) Office of Intellectual Freedom collects challenge information from newspapers, from reports submitted by individuals, and from those individuals who use the Challenge Database Form.Challenges are compiled in a database, and the full list is released each year for Banned Books Week.All challenges made to ALA are kept confidential.
“If there is a bedrock principle underlying the FirstAmendment, it is that the government may not prohibit theexpression of an idea simply because society finds the ideaitself offensive or disagreeable.” William Brennan US Supreme Court JusticeFirst Amendment
Individuals may restrict what they themselves or theirchildren read, but they must not call on governmental orpublic agencies to prevent others from reading or seeingthat material.First Amendment
Fight Censorship• Visit anti-censorship groups to join the fight! The American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression (ABFFE) American Library Association National Coalition Against Censorship Book Censorship Toolkit• Visit pro-censorship groups to learn about their issues. Parents Against Bad Books in Schools (PABBIS) Citizens for Literary Standards in Schools Facts on Fiction• READ A BANNED BOOK!