Establishing Metadata Practices

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Presentation at the New England Archivists Spring Meeting in Newport, Rhode Island - March 29, 2008.

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Establishing Metadata Practices

  1. 1. Establishing Metadata Practices Chris Burns Winona Salesky
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>IMLS </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Digital Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Initiatives Librarian </li></ul>
  3. 4. Infrastructure <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Asset Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul>
  4. 5. Digital Asset Management Systems <ul><li>The Contenders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ContentDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eXist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fedora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XTF </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Evaluation Matrix Software ContentDM Greenstone Fedora eXist XTF Data Types           EAD Finding Aids No No Yes Yes Yes TEI (full text) No TEI, poor full text handling No TEI, full text stored as plain text Yes Yes Yes Descriptive Metadata Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Preservation Metadata No No Yes Yes Yes Structural Metadata- METS Outputs Mets Outputs Mets Yes Yes Yes Other formats (Sound, video, PDF, etc) Limited Unclear Yes Yes Limited Costs           Purchase Price   Annual fee Open source & Free Open source & Free Open source & Free Open source & Free Staff Time Some time for customization, but is essentially an out-of- the-box system that runs as is Some time for customization, but is essentially an out-of- the-box system that runs as is Lots of customization needed. High learning curve. Lots of Customization depending on system needs. Unclear. Software “Add-Ons” Some versions come with JPEG200, and OCR None Possible integration with a “METS navigator” and Xforms Integration with METS navigator and Xforms Integration with Fedora
  6. 7. Evaluation Matrix Cont. Software ContentDM Greenstone Fedora eXist XTF Searching           Simple Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Advanced Yes (fielded searching and full text) Yes (customizable field searching and full text) Yes (May be customizable) Yes - customizable Yes – customizable Implementation Comes ready to go, can be customized Comes ready to go, can be customized Unclear Must be written Comes ready to go, can be customized Dynamic Browsing Yes, can browse on indexed terms ? Unclear Yes Unclear User Interface           Customizable Somewhat Somewhat Yes Fully customizable Fully customizable Browse Options Somewhat Customizable Titles, subjects. Others Unclear Fully customizable Unclear Preservation           Speed of deployment 2-3 months 2-3 months 12-14 months 6-8 months Unclear Proprietary Yes No No No No Ability to Extract Data for future Migrations A variety of export methods for descriptive metadata only. Yes. METS record with Greenstone metadata format for technical, relative links to images Yes, METS record Yes, METS record Yes, METS record
  7. 8. eXist XML Native Database <ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>XML native database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data as xml – retains data integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development time is reasonable </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to integrate web services </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to export data to future digital asset management systems if necessary </li></ul>
  8. 9. Faceted Browsing - Solr <ul><li>Increased avenues for discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Allows users to easily “build” complex searches </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent empty results sets </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates keyword searching with browse-ability </li></ul><ul><li>Always a visible “path” so users never feel lost </li></ul><ul><li>Allows users to expand and narrow results set </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to explore the true extent of the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition over recall </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to add new facets, categories, or items </li></ul>
  9. 12. Some limitations of facets <ul><li>Use of facets will make inconstancies in metadata obvious to users </li></ul><ul><li>Some facets become unmanageable with large result sets </li></ul><ul><li>Facets work better on some fields than others </li></ul>
  10. 13. Metadata Selection <ul><li>METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core / MODS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TEI </li></ul><ul><li>EAD </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation Metadata </li></ul>
  11. 14. Levels of Description <ul><li>Collection level </li></ul><ul><li>Items </li></ul><ul><li>Items with Transcriptions or OCR </li></ul><ul><li>Items with pre-existing descriptive metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Folder Level Description </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Aids with Links to Digital Objects </li></ul>
  12. 21. Metadata Workflow <ul><li>Captured at the time of scanning </li></ul><ul><li>OCR/Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Authority Control </li></ul>
  13. 22. Structural Metadata Creation
  14. 23. Descriptive Metadata Creation <ul><li>Xforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform and device independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates data and logic from presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML in, XML out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schema validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces or eliminates the need for scripting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require expensive round-tripping when the data is modified </li></ul></ul>
  15. 27. Lessons <ul><li>Staffing is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Images are faster than text to describe </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal descriptive metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Software choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible, easy to migrate out of, interoperable with other products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of eXist has been mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Xforms editor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has made xml data entry easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox extension </li></ul></ul>
  16. 28. More Info <ul><li>Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://code.google.com/p/xforms4lib/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cdi.uvm.edu/exist/xforms/mods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cdi.uvm.edu/exist/xforms/modsSimple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://thedil.wordpress.com/ </li></ul></ul>

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