A paradigm shift in teaching reading and
communication in the 21st century
Full credit is given to Don Leu and
his research team for developing and
generously sharing ideas about
digital literacy and creating a model
to empower teachers to prepare
students to communicate in the 21st
Why is it important for students to
understand and use technology to learn?
"The knowledge economy is about how the new
technologies have transformed the way we think and
act...To thrive in the global knowledge economy, it is
going to be important to change the whole educational
system to ensure a wide base of knowledge workers who
understand and use information technologies.”
(Riley, 2003, paragraphs 8-10)
How does online
reading compare to
Traditional vs. Information Age
Students use narrative texts In the information age
in the classroom. students are responsible for
more non-fiction text.
Students all read the same
text together. In the information age
students read text unique to
Struggling readers are placed their learning experience.
in small groups and get all
instruction from the teacher. In the information age,
students are heterogeneously
grouped and learn from each
Traditional vs. Information Age
Teacher models offline reading strategies. In the information age the teacher models online
The process of predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing becomes questioning,
locating information, evaluating the source of information and understanding and
communicating the information and sharing it with others.
The students share and ultimately take over the responsibility for modeling reading
Collaboration and discussion guides all students and the students actively become leaders in
the learning process.
Is Internet Reciprocal Teaching just adding
Tied to pedagogy
Lessons can be based on curriculum
Incorporates literacy strategies
A vehicle for addressing the goals of MLTI
Based on skills that all students need
As the teacher, I consistently support the development of these
dispositions among the students in my class:
I support the willingness to sustain effort especially when things become difﬁcult and/or when a
strategy appears not to be successful.
I support students in keeping in mind alternative strategies for accomplishing goals, continually look
for more effective and efﬁcient ways of working online
I encourage students to regularly seek out support and to support others while working online.
I support students in developing a healthy skepticism to information online, regularly questioning its
source, reliability, stance, and accuracy.
I support students and encourage them to self-monitor and self-regulate during online literacy and
A Teacher Generated Question
Where does my food
come from and why
should I care?
Student Generated Questions
Why wouldn't people care where their food What does ocean dumping ( including oil) do to
comes from? our seafood supply?
Where was the meat I eat processed? What is fed to the animals we eat?
How many people in our class eat food from the What is partially hydrogenated vegetable oil?
wild? How is pollution effecting the ﬁsh population?
What are ﬁddle heads and where can I ﬁnd them? How do farming practices effect wildlife?
When, what methods, and how much maple syrup What is food packaging made from?
is made in Maine? What animals that we get food products from are
Where are most of our fruits and vegetables force fed?
What percentage of the food I eat is altered?
What do food companies use to keep food fresh?
What growth hormones are used in foods and how
do they effect people?
What country does my food come from?
Where do restaurants buy their food?
What chemicals are found in foods?
How is food handled in processing?
What diseases are passed through food?
How fresh is food, when was it packaged?
What are pesticides and how are they used?
Access to literacy specialist to incorporate strategies
into Internet Reciprocal Teaching lessons
Based on school-wide strategies
Embedded into the lessons to improve comprehension
KNOWLEDGE RATING GUIDE
Introducing New Vocabulary
Apple Remote Desktop:ARD
Usually thought of as “spyware”
This software has been traditionally used
by system administrators to monitor the
use of computers.
Some educators have used this to ‘watch’
what students are doing on their
ARD as a Teaching Tool
Allows teacher to observe student work
and send real time electronic messages to
students while they are working.
As a communication tool this can simply
remind a student to check their
capitalization or address criteria for the
task they are completing.
Students can also send messages to the
teacher when they are working to clarify
their work or privately ask questions.
ARD for Reciprocal Teaching
ARD allows the teacher to use an LCD
projector to share an image of a student’s
screen or select a group of students to
view a particular screen by importing the
image onto the individual computers.
This tool facilitates students as the leaders
in the classroom. When the student’s
screen has been projected, the student
becomes the teacher, and shares their
learning experience with the other
students in the class.
The electronic NoteShare
notebook facilitates the
delivery of lessons.
Incorporates web links,
images, and screen captures
Allows for collaboration
Provides a space for students
to organize and save digital
Students use instant
messaging while they are
working on tasks to quickly
share web links and
Electronic Stickies allow
students to take notes and
gather key words while
Students use social
networking sites such as
Delicious to organize and
share bookmarks while
These sites also help students
organize resources for citing
sources for bibliographies
Blogs and Wikis
Blogs are used for students to
post ideas about a given topic
and respond to the ideas of
others for collaborative
Wikis allow students to
information and collaborate
with their peers on writing
Checklist has not yet been developed
Students research based on inquiry and teacher acts as a facilitator
Students define how they communicate the information
Students work collaboratively in the global online setting
Students are self-guided learners as they question, locate, evaluate,
synthesize, and communicate information using the internet
Unreasonable to think that students can get here in one year
The Post Testing Data
Students rated themselves as
having less expertise after the
Students resented that the
pretest and post test were the
The terminology of the test
was a barrier for many
students for both the pre and
Reflecting and Evaluating
Amount of time to implement all phases should be two years
Common sessions for participating teachers is necessary to share and
Participants need support from administration, technology leaders, and
TICA checklist informs instruction and informal assessments
Teachers benefit from online collaborative sharing