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Dynamic earth ppt to go with notes

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries Causes of Plate Tectonics
  • 3. The plate tectonic theory
    • Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth's outer layer is made up of plates, which have moved throughout Earth's history. The theory explains the how and why behind mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes, as well as how, long ago, similar animals could have lived at the same time on what are now widely separated continents.
  • 4. Pangaea
    • In 1912 a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener (1880-1931) hypothesized a single proto-supercontinent that divided up into the continents we now know because of continental drift and plate tectonics. This hypothesis is called Pangaea because the Greek word "pan" means "all" and  Gaea  or Gaia (or Ge) was the Greek name of the divine personification of the Earth. Pangaea, therefore, means "all the Earth." 
  • 5. Plate Tectonics
  • 6. What is Plate Tectonics
    • The Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into sections called plates
    • Plates move around on top of the mantle like rafts
  • 7.  
  • 8. What is the Lithosphere ?
    • The crust and part of the upper mantle = lithosphere
      • 100 km thick
      • Less dense than the material below it so it “floats”
  • 9.  
  • 10. What is the Asthenosphere ?
    • The plastic layer below the lithosphere = asthenosphere
    • The plates of the lithosphere float on the asthenosphere
  • 11.  
  • 12. 2 Types of Plates
    • Ocean plates - plates below the oceans
    • Continental plates - plates below the continents
  • 13. Questions...
    • What is the theory of plate tectonics?
    • What is the lithosphere?
    • What is the asthenosphere?
    • What is the connection between the two?
    • What are the two types of plates?
  • 14. Plate Boundaries
  • 15. Divergent Boundaries
    • Boundary between two plates that are moving apart or rifting
    •  
    • RIFTING causes SEAFLOOR SPREADING
  • 16. Features of Divergent Boundaries
    • Mid-ocean ridges
    • rift valleys
    • fissure volcanoes
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Convergent Boundaries
    • Boundaries between two plates that are colliding
    •  
    • There are 3 types…
  • 21. Type 1
    • Ocean plate colliding with a less dense continental plate
    • Subduction Zone : where the less dense plate slides under the more dense plate
    • VOLCANOES occur at subduction zones
  • 22.  
  • 23. Andes Mountains, South America
  • 24. Type 2
    • Ocean plate colliding with another ocean plate
    • The less dense plate slides under the more dense plate creating a subduction zone called a TRENCH
  • 25.  
  • 26. Aleutian Islands, Alaska
  • 27. Type 3
    • A continental plate colliding with another continental plate
    • Have Collision Zones:
      • a place where folded and thrust faulted mountains form.
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Transform Fault Boundaries
    • Boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other
    • EARTHQUAKES along faults
  • 31.  
  • 32. San Andreas Fault, CA
  • 33. Questions...
    • What are the three types of boundaries?
    • What direction do plates go for each?
    • Which boundary has a subduction zone…what occurs at a subduction zone?
  • 34. Causes of Plate Tectonics
  • 35. Convection Currents
    • Hot magma in the Earth moves toward the surface, cools, then sinks again.
    • Creates convection currents beneath the plates that cause the plates to move .
  • 36.  
  • 37. Questions...
    • What causes plates to move?
    • How is a convection current formed?