Cells, Cells, Cells 2008


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Cells, Cells, Cells 2008

  2. 2. A Look At Cells Graphics: Microsoft Clipart
  3. 3. Cells • Defined as the basic unit of living things.
  4. 4. Cell Theory • All living things are made of cells • Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things • Living cells only come from other living cells.
  5. 5. Overview • In the same way there are different kinds of cells inside you, different organisms have different types of cells. Trees have different cells than you and so do monkeys. Each of those cells is different in some way.
  6. 6. Cells and Organelles help perform homeostasis Homeostasis Is the process of any living thing that allows it to live and regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. Example: You get hot and sweat!
  7. 7. Oraganelles • ORGANELLES mean little organs. Basically this means that organelles have specific roles to play in how cells work just like organs help the body to function properly as a whole.
  8. 8. Cell wall - protects plant cells; gives cell support
  9. 9. Cell Membrane - “skin” around all cells that controls what goes in and out of cell
  10. 10. Cytoplasm - syrupy liquid that transports and stores materials
  11. 11. Nucleus - control center of the cell; tells other cell parts what to do
  12. 12. Chromosomes aka DNA -directions for the cell; tells cell what to do
  13. 13. Endoplasmic Reticulum - Provides parts for proteins; stores parts for ribosomes
  14. 14. Ribosomes - builds proteins for the cell
  15. 15. Mitochondria - “Power House”; turns food into energy for work
  16. 16. Chloroplast -converts sunlight energy into sugar
  17. 17. Vacuoles - storage container for cell, contains food and water
  18. 18. Lysosomes -digests food and kills invaders
  19. 19. Golgi Body • a set of flattened, membrane- bound sacs that serves as the packaging and distribution center of the cell
  20. 20. Key Terms • Organelles-structures that make up a cell • Cell Wall-outer most part of a cell • Cell Membrane-just inside the cell plant wall which forms the outer covering of the cell • Nucleus-brain of the cell
  21. 21. Vocabulary  Cell Membrane: The purpose of the cell membrane is to hold the cell together. It keeps all of the pieces, like the organelles and the CYTOPLASM, inside.  Cell Wall: Cell walls help the plant maintain its shape. Walls also help the plant keep its structure consistent  Nucleus: The NUCLEUS is like the brain of the cell. If you take the nucleus out of a cell it dies. It is the thing that tells every part of the cell what to do. It even tells the cell when to divide.  Endoplasmic Reticulum: The purpose of the ER is to collect proteins and create something called steroids and store ions
  22. 22. More Words To Know  Vacuoles: Vacuoles are bubbles that float in the cell. Those bubbles store the different molecules a cell needs to survive. Some contain food and others hold oil. There are even vacuoles that hold onto waste products.  Ribosomes: Ribosomes are the protein builders of the cell. When they build proteins, scientists say that they SYNTHESIZE the proteins. Ribosomes are found either floating around in the CYTOPLASM or attached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The floating ribosomes synthesize proteins that will be used inside the cell. The ribosomes attached to the ER make proteins that will be used inside the cell AND sent outside the cell.
  23. 23. Vocabulary Mitochondria: The big thing you need to remember about MITOCHONDRIA is that they are the cell's little powerhouses. They are the thing that lets cells survive. Their whole purpose is to break down food molecules so that the cell has the energy to live. Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts are very much like mitochondria. The big difference is that instead of taking food and breaking it down into energy, chloroplasts take energy from the sun and create food.
  24. 24. Vocabulary  Lysosome: Lysosomes combine with the food taken in by the cell. The enzymes in the lysosome bond to the food and start to digest it.
  25. 25. Cell Types • Plants • Animals
  26. 26. Plant vs. Animal
  27. 27. Plant cells • Plant cells have different structures than animal cells • . Plant cells have something called a CELL WALL while animals do not. • Plant cells have an organelle called a CHLOROPLAST that takes energy from the sun and converts it into sugars. • Does your body make sugar from the sun or do you get it from food?
  28. 28. Animal Cells • Animal cells organize the body. You have brain cells, stomach cells, bone cells, and many other types of cells. Each is different from the others. • Nerve cells conduct electrical impulses through the body. There are cells in your intestine that absorb nutrients from the food you eat. Stomach cells secrete an acid to digest your food • Do you think that your skin cells can absorb the nutrients from your lunch? Why not?
  29. 29. Typical Animal Cell
  30. 30. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells • Eukaryotic Cells: – Bigger than Pro cells – Have a nucleus Prokaryotic Cells: -Usually smaller than Eu cells -Have NO nucleus
  31. 31. CELLS! • SUMMARY