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StudiVZ - Different gratifications for different types of users - Vortrag DGPs Fachgruppentagung Media Psychologie Duisburg-Essen 2009
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StudiVZ - Different gratifications for different types of users - Vortrag DGPs Fachgruppentagung Media Psychologie Duisburg-Essen 2009

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  • 1. University of CologneUniversity of Cologne Department ofDepartment of EconomicEconomic andand SocialSocial PsychologyPsychology Christian Bosau, Jana Becks & Lisa Aelker -- StudiVZStudiVZ –– Different gratifications for different typesDifferent gratifications for different types of usersof users
  • 2. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 2 PurposePurpose ofof thethe studystudy Main question: Why is StudiVZ one of the most succesful websites? Facts about StudiVZ: It‘s NOT a website that addresses only a special user group (like Blogs, Wiki-writers, online-gamers, etc.) instead: almost every student is a member Possible reasons: all human beings have a relatively high need for affiliation StudiVZ serves as a mean to satisfy this need, but in different ways for different people extraverted and introverted people may differ in their gratifications
  • 3. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 3 TwoTwo versionsversions ofof thethe debatedebate „rich-get-richer“-hypothesis: extraverted, highly sociable people get more social benefits from using social network sites (SNS) e.g. SNS serve as a mean to manage their social network more effectively (Kraut et al., 2002); especially regarding weak ties (Ellison, Steinfield & Lampe, 2007) “social compensation”-hypothesis: introverted people, lacking social support offline, benefit from the internet more, because they can form (new) connections more easily (McKenna & Bargh, 1998) anonymity and less fear of being rejected can stimulate self-disclosure (Derlega et al., 1993) using Facebook may be helping to overcome barriers faced by students who have low self-esteem (Ellison, Steinfield & Lampe, 2007)
  • 4. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 4 TheThe studystudy Method: online questionnaire (posted via mailing-lists and personal emails, snowball sampling in StudiVZ) in autumn 2008 366 participants (mainly students from universities in Cologne, Bad Honnef) age: mean=24,2 SD=3,4 male=36%, female=64% Former studies: Measurement of effects only online no comparison of real life and online behaviour Our study: asking for behaviour in real life AND in StudiVZ comparison of both Research question / hypotheses: Extraverted people are expected to have more social activities in real life. Do they benefit from StudiVZ more and they do even more socializing online than introverted people, so the “rich-get-richer”? Or, do introverted people catch up and they do more socializing online than in real life, so “social deficiencies can be compensated”?
  • 5. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 5 Real life: How many friends/acquaintances do you have? zero friends vs. zero acq. 1 to 2 friends vs. 1 to 4 acq. 3 to 4 friends vs. 5 to 9 acq. … DifferencesDifferences in real lifein real life 3,34 3,78 2,80 3,36 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 friends acquaintances amount(scaled) Extraverted Introverted F(1) = 11,70; p < .01; η² = 0,04 F(1) = 8,54; p < .01; η² = 0,03 2,34 2,10 1,5 2 2,5 3 Offline frequencyofsocialactivies Extraverted Introverted Social offline-activities (α = .77): How many times do you … go to the cinema with friends? go to the pub with friends? invite friends to your flat? call friends? … F(1) = 18,76; p < .00; η² = 0,06
  • 6. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 6 DifferencesDifferences inin StudiVZStudiVZ--usageusage However, NO differences regarding amount of use: frequency of log-ins duration per day (minutes) number of group membership Extraverted and Introverted use it in almost the same way 1,96 1,89 1,5 2 2,5 3 Offline frequencyofsocialactivies Extraverted Introverted Social online-activities (α = .85): NO EFFECT (F(1) = 1,13; p > .05) NO differences regarding kind of use How many times do you … „gruschel“ other people? search for old friends? chat via „Plauderkasten“? found a new group? … :
  • 7. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 7 DifferencesDifferences inin socialsocial behaviourbehaviour offlineoffline andand onlineonline Same scale offline & online (α = .77): If I like a person, I approach him/her (I „gruschel“ him/her). If I go clubbing (If I‘m in StudiVZ), I often get to know new people. If I‘m bored, I call friends (I write messages to friends in StudiVZ). reversed: Normally I wait to be called instead of calling friends (wait for messages instead of writing others). … Clear difference „Offline“ Simple main effect: F(1) = 139,41; p < .00; η² = 0,32 NO difference „Online“ Simple main effect: F(1) = 1,56; p > .05 Introverted do it more „Online“ Simple main effect: F(1) = 50,59; p < .00; η² = 0,15 Extraverted do it more „Offline“ Simple main effect: F(1) = 7,84; p < .01; η² = 0,03 Clearly: It‘s social compensation?
  • 8. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 8 DifferencesDifferences inin behaviouralbehavioural resultsresults F(1) = 7,08; p < .01; η² = 0,03 F(1) = 7,54; p < .01; η² = 0,03 F(1) = 8,34; p < .01; η² = 0,03 133,06 72,80 0 50 100 150 200 pictures amount(exactnumber) Extraverted Introverted 67,22 44,15 0 50 100 linked on pictures amount(exactnumber) Extraverted Introverted Pictures in StudiVZ Not the „rich-get-richer“? At least „rich-stay-rich“! 147,05 117,94 0 50 100 150 200 'friends' in StudiVZ amount(exactnumber) Extraverted Introverted F(1) = 7,04; p < .01; η² = 0,02 Number of StudiVZ friends 5,44 3,70 2 3 4 5 6 7 photo folders amount(exactnumber) Extraverted Introverted
  • 9. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 9 MotivesMotives Reasons for using StudiVZ: because I want to stay in touch with friends 1,07 1,55 1 2 talk about myself more than in real life agreement(scaled) Extraverted Introverted 4,55 4,29 4 5 stay in touch agreement(scaled) Extraverted Introverted F(1) = 5,80; p < .05; η² = 0,02 because I dare to talk more about myself online than in real life F(1) = 22,43; p < .000; η² = 0,07
  • 10. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 10 MotivesMotives Need for affiliation Psychological Motives (Multi-Motiv-Gitter): 4,89 5,54 4 5 6 7 fear of being rejected amount Extraverted Introverted 5,64 5,44 4 5 6 7 need for affiliation amount Extraverted Introverted NO EFFECT F(1) = 0,56; p > .05 Fear of being rejected F(1) = 4,16; p < .05; η² = 0,014 StudiVZ can help introverted people to compensate their fear of being rejected
  • 11. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 11 ConclusionConclusion „rich-get-richer“ or “social compensation”? however, extraverted people still have MORE friends and MORE pictures online and they use it MORE often to stay in touch with their large network so, the “rich ARE richer”, although not “rich-get-richer” introverted people are catching up compared to social behaviour in real life and behave online in the same way as extraverted people so, they compensate online their social deficiencies from real life and their fear of being rejected For introverted people: It‘s „social compensation“. However, for extraverted people the „rich-get-richer“-idea can not be neglected totally.
  • 12. Bosau, Becks & Aelker – StudiVZ 6th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, 2009 Seite 12 Thank you very much for your attention! Comments and questions can be sent to: Dr. Christian Bosau christian.bosau@uni-koeln.de

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