A Tour of the Federal Budget and Possible Changes in Budget Policy
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Presentation to Economics 10 at Harvard University

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A Tour of the Federal Budget and Possible Changes in Budget Policy A Tour of the Federal Budget and Possible Changes in Budget Policy Presentation Transcript

  • Congressional Budget OfficeA Tour of the Federal Budget and PossibleChanges in Budget PolicyPresentation to Economics 10 at Harvard UniversityDouglas W. ElmendorfDirectorApril 26, 2013
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EOutline of the Talk Where Does Federal Spending Go and FederalRevenue Come From? How Has the Federal Budget Changed Over Time? What Will Happen to Federal Spending, Revenues,and Debt Under Current Law? What Will Be the Consequences of Those Trends? What Criteria Could Be Used to Evaluate ProposedPolicy Changes? What Policy Changes Have Been Proposed?
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EMuch of Federal Spending Goes to a Few Large ProgramsNet InterestTotal Spending in 2012$3,538 BillionSocial SecurityNondefense DiscretionarySpendingDefenseMedicare
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EMandatory Spending Totaled $2,031 Billion in 2012Social SecuritySocial Security and Medicare$1,234 BillionOther Mandatory Spending$797 Billion
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EDefense$670 BillionNondefense$615 BillionDiscretionary Spending Totaled $1,285 Billion in 2012
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EFederal Revenue Comes Mostly from Individual IncomeTaxes and Payroll TaxesIndividual Income TaxesOtherCorporate Income TaxesSocial Insurance TaxesTotal Revenue in 2012$2,449 Billion
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EIn 2012, Federal Revenue Was Low and Spending Was High Comparedwith Past Averages
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EA Growing Share of Federal Spending Is Transfers toPeople and State and Local Governments02550751001971 1981 1991 2001 2011Interest Payments and OtherNondefense Compensation ofFederal Employees andPurchases of Good and ServicesDefense Compensation ofFederal Employees andPurchases of Good and ServicesGrants-in-Aid to State &Local GovernmentsBenefit Payments toPersonsCompensation ofFederal Employeesand Purchases ofGoods and Services40% in 2011Transfers to Peopleand State & LocalGovernments60% in 2011Apart fromInterest Paymentsand Other:Percent
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EThe Number of Civilians Employed by the FederalGovernment Has Changed Little Over the Past 30 YearsFederal Employment by Type, In Millions of People EmployedBased on data from the national income and product accounts.0123456781971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011Government EnterprisesMilitaryCivilian
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C ETotal Average Federal Tax Rates for All Households,by Before-Tax Income Group, 1979 to 2009(Percent)Based on data from The Distribution of Household Income and Average Federal Tax Rates, 2008 and 2009 (July 2012).
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EBy 2023 Under Current Law, Federal Spending Will ShiftFurther Toward Social Security and Medicare
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EUnder Current Law, Federal Spending on Social Security, MajorHealth Care Programs, and Interest Will Grow Relative to GDPPercentage of GDPProjections from The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2023 (February 2013).
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EUnder Current Law, Federal Spending and Revenues WillBoth Be Larger Relative to GDP than HistoricallyPercentage of GDPProjections from The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2023 (February 2013).
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EUnder Current Law, Federal Deficits Will Shrink Relativeto GDP for a Few Years and Then Increase AgainPercentage of GDPProjections from The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2023 (February 2013).
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EUnder Current Law, Federal Debt Held by the Public WillBe Historically Large Relative to GDPActual ProjectedPercentage of GDPProjections from The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2023 (February 2013).
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EHigh and Rising Debt Relative to the Size of the EconomyIs a Significant Concern for Several ReasonsCrowding out of capital investment will be greater inthe medium run and long run.Lawmakers will have less flexibility to respond tounexpected challenges.There will be a heightened risk of a fiscal crisis.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EHigh and Rising Debt Relative to the Size of the EconomyIs a Significant Concern for Several Reasons (Continued)Debt would be even larger if current laws were modifiedto delay or undo certain scheduled changes in policy.The caps on discretionary funding set in 2011 (precedingsequestration) are already very low relative to GDP.Ten-year projections do not fully reflect long-term budgetpressures. Under current law, federal debt appears to beon an unsustainable path.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EProposed Changes in Budget Policy Can Be EvaluatedAccording to Many CriteriaHow Much Would Debt Be Reduced? The more that debt is reduced, the more that the harms caused byhigh debt would be avoided—but also the greater the loss ofgovernment benefits and services or the greater the burdens ofhigher taxes.How Quickly Would Debt Be Reduced? Deficit reduction would have a smaller negative impact on outputand employment in the short run if it occurred after the economywas stronger and the Federal Reserve was raising interest rates.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EProposed Changes in Budget Policy Can Be EvaluatedAccording to Many Criteria (Continued)How Would Policy Changes Affect Longer-TermEconomic Performance? Lower debt would be good for the economy, but higher marginal taxrates or smaller government investments would be a partlyoffsetting drag on the economy.Who Would Bear the Burden of Policy Changes? There would be different effects on people at different incomelevels, on people with similar incomes but other differences, and onpeople in different generations.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EProposed Changes in Budget Policy Can Be EvaluatedAccording to Many Criteria (Continued)How Would the Country’s Resources and Government’sResources Be Allocated? How much money should the government collect and what should itspend that money on?
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EHouse Republicans Estimate Their Plan Would Balance the Budget In2023 Through Large Cuts to Many Programs Relative to Current Law
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C ESenate Democrats Estimate Their Plan Would Reduce the Deficit In2023 Through Changes in Spending and Taxes Relative to Current Law
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EThe Budget Outlook Varies Under Different Projections40-YearAverage 2012CBO’s ProjectionUnderCurrent LawHouseRepublicans’Estimate ofTheir PlanSenateDemocrats’Estimate ofTheir Plan(Percent of GDP)2023Revenues 17.9 15.8 19.1 19.1 19.8Total Outlays 21.0 22.8 22.9 19.1 21.9Social Security andMedicare 6.2 7.9 9.0 8.8 8.9Defense 4.7 4.3 2.8 2.7 2.4Net Interest 2.2 1.4 3.3 2.4 3.1All other 7.9 9.1 7.9 5.2 7.7Deficit -3.1 -7.0 -3.8 0.0 -2.2
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C ECBO Analyzes Many Possible Changes to Federal Spendingand RevenuesCBO reports show budgetary effects and other effectsof possible changes in law. Reducing the Deficit: Revenue and Spending Options Reports on individual programs Choices for Deficit ReductionBut CBO does not make policy recommendations.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C ECBO Analyzes Only Certain Types of Budget ProposalsPresident’s Budget—CBO will release its analysis inmid-May.Budget Resolutions—CBO does not analyze.Other Proposals (Bowles-Simpson, think tanks, otherCongressional groups)—CBO does not analyze.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EConclusion, Part 1Under current law for 2023, federal spending for SocialSecurity and Medicare will be nearly 3 percent of GDP largerthan it has averaged during the past 40 years—while federalspending for defense will be nearly 2 percent of GDP smaller,and federal spending for all other programs will be the sameshare of GDP. Interest payments will be about 1 percent of GDPlarger because the debt will be much larger, and revenues willbe about 1 percent of GDP larger.Altogether, the deficit will be about 1 percent of GDP largerthan its average during the past 40 years.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EConclusion, Part 2House Republicans estimate that their plan would balance thebudget in 2023. Relative to current law for 2023, they wouldleave revenues and spending for Social Security, Medicare, anddefense at roughly the same shares of GDP, but would cut allother spending taken together by about one-third.Senate Democrats estimate that their plan would reduce thedeficit to about 2 percent of GDP in 2023. Relative to currentlaw for 2023, they would raise revenues by about ¾ percent ofGDP, reduce defense spending by about ½ percent of GDP,leave Social Security and Medicare spending at roughly thesame shares of GDP, and trim all other spending by a bit.
  • C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C EConclusion, Part 3Key Implication of CBO’s Budget Projections:Putting the debt on a sustainable path willultimately require increases in taxes or cuts ingovernment benefits or services for people whoconsider themselves to be in the middle class.