More so than for their elders, the internet is a central and indispensable element in the lives of American teens and young adults. As of September 2009, 93% of American teens between the ages of 12 and 17 went online, a number that has remained stable since November 2006. In comparison, adults are less likely than teens to be online. As of December 2009, 74% of adults use the internet. The youngest adults, 18-29 year-olds, go online at a rate equal to that of teens (both 93%). Over the past decade, young adult have remained the age group that is most likely to go online even as the internet population has grown, and even as other age cohorts – such as adults 65 and older -- have increased the percentage of their populations online.
Overall the computer remains the most popular way for teens to go online, with 93% of teens with a desktop or laptop computer using the device to go online. But other more portable technologies are also now providing new paths to the internet. Among teen cell phone users, more than a quarter (27%) say they use their cell phone to go online. Similarly, 24% of teens with a game console (like a PS3, Xbox or Wii) use it to go online. Other handheld gaming devices also allow internet connectivity—among teens with a portable gaming device, about one in five (19%) use it for this purpose.
Although the number of adults who use social networking websites has grown rapidly over the last several years, adults as a whole remain less likely than teens to use these sites. As of September 2009, 47% of online adults used a social networking website, compared with the 73% of teens who did so at a comparable point in time. The percentage of adults who use online social networks has grown from 8% of internet users in February 2005 to 16% in August 2006 to 37% in November 2008. On a typical day in 2009, just over one-quarter (27%) of adult internet users visited a social networking site.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites This is a list of major active social networking websites and excludes dating websites.
Even with teens’ continued enthusiasm for social networking, recent changes in their communication patterns on the sites suggest they are somewhat less tethered to their profiles. Teens have remained steady or even shown a slight decline in their likelihood of using social network sites to connect with friends. A bit more than a third (37%) of social network-using teens said they sent messages to friends every day through the social sites, a drop from the 42% of such teens who said they did so in February of 2008. Additionally, fewer teens are sending bulletins or group messages or sending private messages to friends from within social network sites. About half of teen social network users send group messages, down from 61% in 2006. And two-thirds of social network-using teens send private messages to friends, down from 82% in November 2006. Fewer teens are posting comments to a friend’s blog within a social networking site, with 52% of teens commenting on blogs, down from 76% in 2006. The decline in blog commenting in social networks may also reflect recent findings about the overall decline in blogging among teens.
As the number of adults who use online social networks has grown, so has the percentage of social networking site users who maintain a profile on multiple sites. In May 2008, 54% of adults with a social networking site profile had a profile on just one site, while 29% had profiles on two sites and 13% had profiles on three or more sites.
Among adult profile owners, Facebook is currently the social network of choice; 73% of adult profile owners now maintain a profile on Facebook, 48% of all adult profile owners have a profile on MySpace and 14% of profile owners use LinkedIn as of September 2009.
The proportion of adults who create or work on a website (either a personal site, or someone else’s) has remained consistent over the last two years. Fourteen percent of online adults maintain a personal webpage (unchanged from the 14% who did so in December 2007), while 15% work on the web pages of others (also unchanged from the 13% who did so in December 2007). Adult internet users under age thirty are more likely than those ages thirty and up to work on a personal webpage (18% vs. 13%) as well as to work on a webpage for someone else (21% vs. 13%). Within the under-thirty cohort, those ages 18-24 and those 25-29 are equally likely to work on web pages of any kind. Men are more likely than women to work on their own webpage (16% of online men do so, compared with 12% of online women) as well as to work on webpages for others (17% vs. 12%).
Although Belief Groups are not listed as highly engaged groups (because “only” 67% of members send emails), even that category’s users report a relatively high incidence of emailing others to establish personal connections with other members. In some respects, the categories that have a Online experience seems most strongly associated with engagement in online groups, with the groups with the most frequent emailing having a large share of the Internet’s most experienced users. Active emailers are inherently more interactive than the others.
For teens as a whole, landline phones remain the most widespread method of communication with friends. Fully 88% of all teens – regardless of whether or not they own a cell phone – say that they talk to their friends on a landline phone at least occasionally. By comparison, 67% of all teens say they talk to friends on a cell phone, and 58% of all teens say they have ever sent a text message. When we look specifically at teen cell phone owners (71% of the teen population in the 2008 survey), 94% of them have used their mobile phones to call friends and 76% have sent text messages. Still, landlines have not lost their relevance for teens with cell phones; 87% of teenage cell phone users still talk to their friends on landlines. Perhaps more illuminating with regard to what teens really enjoy are the Project's findings on daily telephone related activities, and how these stack up against other types of communication. For daily activities, cell phone-based communication is dominant, with nearly 2 in 5 teens sending text messages every day. Voice calling on cell phones is nearly as prevalent, as more than a third (36%) of all teens (and 51% of those with cell phones) talk to their friends on the cell phone every day. Landline phones are also important in teens' daily lives, with 32% of teens saying they use them to make calls on a daily basis. A considerable number of teens with cell phones continue to use landlines daily and at the same rate as their cell phone-less counterparts, with 33% of cell owners making a call on a landline each day. Teens still speak and interact in person, too. About one in three teens (29%) spend time with friends in person outside of school on a daily basis. The three other primarily text-based forms of communication stand at the bottom of the list of daily communication activities. A bit more than a quarter (26%) of all teens send messages (emails, instant messages, group messages) through social networking sites – and 43% of teens who use social networks send messages daily. Similarly, another 26% of teens send and receive instant messages on a daily basis and 16% send email every day.
Among teens, age is the most important variable in mobile phone ownership. Older teens are much more likely to own phones than younger teens, and the largest increase occurs at age 14, right at the transition between middle and high school. Among 12-13 year olds, 52% had a cell phone in 2008. Mobile phone ownership jumped to 72% at age 14 in that survey, and by the age of 17 more than eight in ten teens (84%) had their own cell phone.
Use of text messaging by teens has increased since 2006, both in overall likelihood of use and in frequency of use. In 2006, 51% of all teens, regardless of cell phone ownership, had ever sent a text message, while 58% had done so by 2008. Similarly, daily use of text messaging is also up, from 27% of teens using text messaging daily in 2006 to 38% texting daily in 2008. Text messages aren’t just sent via phones – texts may be sent on desktops or laptops as well, generally through email clients. And as teens migrate away from standalone email to messaging through social networks, these online networks are often vehicles for the sending of text-based short messages by teens. Among social network users, 54% of teens on those sites send IMs or text messages to friends through the social networking system. Girls are more likely than boys to send and receive text messages frequently, as are older teens ages 15-17. More than 2 in 5 girls (42%) send text messages to friends daily, while about a third (34%) of boys do the same. The difference between younger and older teens is even starker – 25% of teens ages 12-14 send text messages daily compared 51% of teens ages 15-17. As with phone ownership and other uses of mobile devices, there are no racial or ethnic differences when it comes to text messaging. However, teens from wealthier households are slightly more likely to text message frequently compared with teens from lower income households; 42% of teens from households earning more than $50,000 annually send texts daily, compared with 33% of teens from homes earning less than $50,000 per year.
Among all the content creating activities discussed here, most striking is the decline in blogging among teens and young adults. Since 2006, blogging by teens has dropped from 28% of teen internet users to 14% of online teens in 2009. Teens are now beginning to resemble their elders in their likelihood of blogging, as about 12% of adults have consistently reported blogging since February 2007. This decline is also reflected in the decline of the number of teens who say they comment on blogs within social networking websites – 52% of social network-using teens report commenting on friends’ blogs within these sites, down from 76% commenting in 2006 (as discussed earlier in this report.) Continuing a trend in teen blogging that first emerged in 2006, teens from lower income families – those earning below $50,000 annually -- are more likely to report keeping a blog than teens from households earning more than $50,000. While 23% of online teens from families earning less than $50,000 per year keep a blog, just 8% of teens from households earning more than $50,000 a year say they keep a blog. Unlike in years past, boys and girls are statistically just as likely to keep a blog. There are no racial or ethnic differences in blogging by teens.
This decline in teen blogging mirrors a similar decrease in blogging activity among the youngest adult internet users. In December 2007, fully 28% of online 18-24 year olds maintained a blog. By September 2009 that figure had fallen by half, and just 14% of internet users ages 18-24 maintained a blog. Despite this decline among young adults, the proportion of all adult internet users who blog has not budged over this same time period (12% of adult internet users did so in 2007, and 11% do so now). The prevalence of blogging among adults as a whole has remained consistent because the decline in blogging among young adults has been marked by a corresponding increase in blogging among older adults. For example, in December 2007, 24% of online 18-29 year olds reported blogging, compared with 7% of those thirty and older. By 2009, that difference had nearly disappeared—15% of internet users under age thirty and 11% of those ages thirty and up now maintain a personal blog. Among adult internet users, blogging is equally common among men and women; whites, black and Hispanics; and those with low and high levels of income and education.
There has been much media attention given to Twitter and other microblogging services over the past year and initially the supposition was that, as with other types of social network services, teenagers would be leading the adoption charge on a social, connective technology. However, data from September 2009 suggest that teens do not use Twitter in large numbers. While a September 2009 survey of adults suggests that 19% of adult internet users ages 18 and older use Twitter or update their status online, teen data collected at a similar time show that only 8% of online American teens ages 12-17 use Twitter.
Among adults, young adults are the most active users of status update services such as Twitter; one-third (33%) of internet users under the age of thirty post or read status updates online. These services are especially popular among the youngest adults—fully 37% of online 18-24 year olds post status updates about themselves online or view the updates of others, up from 18% of the youngest adults in December 2008. These higher rates of Twitter use and status updating among young adults relative to teens may be partially due to our question wording capturing status updates on social networking sites. Many social networking sites offer the ability to post short status updates, and usage of social networking sites is highly correlated with status update behavior—fully 35% of social networking site users also post status updates online, compared with just 6% of internet users who do not use social networking websites. There is little variation in the use of status update services based on race, ethnicity or socio-economic status; however, online women (21% of whom use Twitter or other status update services) are more likely to use these services than men (17% of whom do so).
<ul><li>The proportion of adults who create or work on a website (either a personal site, or someone else’s) has remained consistent over the last two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteen percent of online adults maintain a personal webpage (unchanged from the 14% who did so in December 2007), while 15% work on the web pages of others (also unchanged from the 13% who did so in December 2007). </li></ul>Adult’s Use of Personal Web Sites
<ul><li>Social media activities are associated with several beneficial social activities, including having discussion networks that are more likely to contain people from different backgrounds. For instance, frequent internet users, and those who maintain a blog are much more likely to confide in someone who is of another race. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who share photos online are more likely to report that they discuss important matters with someone who is a member of another political party. </li></ul>Social Media’s Impact on Diversity
Social Media Quotes <ul><li>“ The bigger problem is the lack of critical thinking in the Information Age. What is presented online may not be correct, but interpreted as such by the reader.” Richard Forno, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University </li></ul><ul><li>“ In 2020 there is unlikely to be a list of classic tweets and blog posts that every student and educated citizen should have read. This is not a form of lasting communication.” Gene Spafford , Purdue University CERIAS, Association for Computing Machinery U.S. Public Policy Council </li></ul><ul><li>“ The internet will drive a clear and probably irreversible shift from written media to visual media. Expressing ideas in the future will just as likely involve creating a simulation as writing an expository essay.” Anthony Townsend, research director, Institute for the Future </li></ul>
Social Media Quotes <ul><li>“ We are currently transitioning from reading mainly on paper to reading mainly on screens. As we do so, most of us read MORE, in terms of quantity (word count), but more promiscuously and in shorter intervals and with less dedication. </li></ul><ul><li>As these habits take root, they corrupt our willingness to commit to long texts, as found in books or essays. We will be less patient and less able to concentrate on long-form texts. This will result in a resurgence of short-form texts and story-telling, in ‘Haiku-culture’ replacing ‘book-culture.’” Andreas Kluth, writer, Economist magazine </li></ul>
Social Media Quotes <ul><li>“ It's clear NOW that the internet has enhanced and improved reading, writing, and the rendering of knowledge. You have to know how to read, it encourages writing, and people can exchange knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't confuse this with the business models behind serious publishing, encyclopedias, and universities. The future of books is tied into whether there is a social/business model that supports writing for intellectual content rather than as marketing brochures or advertising-bait.” Seth Finkelstein, author of the Infothought blog, writer and programmer </li></ul>
Social Media Quotes <ul><li>“ This mode of instantaneous communication must inevitably become an instrument of immense power, to be wielded for good or for evil, as it shall be properly or improperly directed." </li></ul>Samuel F.B. Morse in a letter to Francis O.J. Smith in 1838 about the future of the telegraph
<ul><li>People’s mobile phone use outpaces their use of landline phones as a primary method of staying in touch with their closest family and friends, but face-to-face contact still trumps all other methods. </li></ul><ul><li>On average in a typical year, people have in-person contact with their core network ties on about 210 days; they have mobile-phone contact on 195 days of the year; landline phone contact on 125 days; text-messaging contact on the mobile phone 125 days; email contact 72 days; instant messaging contact 55 days; contact via social networking websites 39 days; and contact via letters or cards on 8 days. </li></ul>How People Communicate
Teen’s Use of Cell/Landline Phones Landline phones are also important in teens' daily lives, with 32% of teens saying they use them to make calls on a daily basis.
<ul><li>Use of text messaging by teens has increased since 2006, both in overall likelihood of use and in frequency of use. In 2006, 51% of all teens, regardless of cell phone ownership, had ever sent a text message, while 58% had done so by 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, daily use of text messaging is also up, from 27% of teens using text messaging daily in 2006 to 38% texting daily in 2008. </li></ul>Teen’s Use of Text Messaging
Social Media Overview <ul><li>Current impact on recruitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Current impact on recruits. </li></ul><ul><li>Future impact on recruits. </li></ul><ul><li>Future impact on recruitment. </li></ul>
Small Group Discussion(15)/Reports(5) <ul><li>What social networks (SN) do you use? </li></ul><ul><li>What top SNs work best for your recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>work and why did you chose them? </li></ul><ul><li>How have you used these sites effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>What SN advice would you give others? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you like to know about SN-ing? </li></ul>