Exploring Cloud Computing Technologies For GIS (Location Based) Applications


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Online GIS applications can be delivered using cloud computing platforms which provide Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) resources. An introduction to essential cloud computing concepts and considerations will be reviewed in addition to a presentation of public sector industry trends involving other cloud hosted technologies related to GIS applications. The presentation will feature examples of cloud hosted GIS applications at federal, state, and local government levels including the City of Novi\'s ArcGIS Server 10 deployment using a public cloud hosting provider.

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Exploring Cloud Computing Technologies For GIS (Location Based) Applications

  1. 1. Exploring Cloud Computing Technologies for Geospatial Applications 2011 IMAGIN Conference DoubleTree Hotel & Conference Center Bay City, MI 3:30 – 4:15 pm Monday, May 2 nd Christopher Blough, PMP, MPA GIS Manager City of Novi Department of Information Technology
  2. 2. Today’s Discussion <ul><li>Cloud computing essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud benefits and obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector cloud service adoption trends </li></ul><ul><li>City of Novi’s cloud geospatial application deployment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gartner’s 2010 Hype Cycle: Cloud Computing
  4. 4. A Definition of Cloud Computing <ul><li>National Institute of Standards & Technology: Convenient, on-demand, network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. </li></ul>Networks Servers Storage Apps Services
  5. 5. Key Cloud Computing Characteristics <ul><li>On-demand self service </li></ul><ul><li>Broad network access </li></ul><ul><li>Resource pooling (independent of location) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Measured service </li></ul>
  6. 6. Service Models SaaS Software as a Service End user applications delivered as a service vs. on-premises software PaaS Platform as a Service Application platform or middleware as a service which developers build and deploy applications IaaS Infrastructure as a Service Compute, storage, and operating systems required for fundamental computing resources Increasing Service Provider Management Responsibility Increasing Tenant / Subscriber Management Responsibility
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  8. 8. Examples by Service Model Software as a Service Applications (SaaS) Geospatial Apps E-mail / IM Document Management Social Media Virtual Desktops Legacy Applications Organization’s Web Site Office Software Apps Line of Business Apps Platform as a Service (PaaS) Database Testing Tools Developer Tools Database Mgt System Directory Services Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) File Storage Systems Web Services Server Hosting Server VM Systems Virtual Servers
  9. 9. Deployment Models Private Cloud Enterprise Owned or Leased (on or off premises) Community Cloud Shared infrastructure for a specific community or industry Public Cloud Available to the general public and provides greatest economy of scale Hybrid Cloud – Composition of more than two of the above. Example: Cloud Gateways
  10. 10. Enterprise Cloud Architecture Examples Workloads Infrastructure Security Geospatial / Business Intelligence Virtualization Management Identity access management Customer Relationship Management Storage Network Data Security Development & Testing Environment Automated Provisioning Application Security Financials Cloud Gateways Physical Security Office Software Self-service portals Network Security Proprietary Applications Metering/chargebacks Anti-malware Disaster Recovery Compliance Monitoring * Table from Your Strategic Guide to Operationalizing Cloud – International Data Group Communications, 2011
  11. 11. Benefits of Cloud Computing <ul><li>Agility – Deploy, deliver, standardized resources in less time </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability – adjust resources on demand variation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Overhead – personnel / hardware / peak capacity situations </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Economies of Scale – multi-tenant model </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Pooling – multiple organization business units </li></ul><ul><li>On-demand Pricing – shifting fixed costs to variable base </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility – Internet delivery to mobile, office, home </li></ul>
  12. 12. Obstacles to Cloud Adoption <ul><li>Security / privacy liability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability (SLA) & performance guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of industry standards </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance and audit acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory – off-premise / unauthorized third parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal organizational polices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration with existing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Migration to different cloud hosting providers </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Plan for failure </li></ul><ul><li>Retain in-house expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Create internal backup options </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify holdings </li></ul><ul><li>SLA’s matter </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain your vendor has skin in the game in subcontracting situations </li></ul><ul><li>PC World – 4/25/2011 – Stephanie Overby </li></ul>
  14. 14. Public Sector Cloud Service Adoption Trends <ul><li>Non-sensitive data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Public web services (e.g. calls for transparency) </li></ul><ul><li>System development and testing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Redeployment of staff to mission critical areas </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster data recovery systems </li></ul><ul><li>Services and application sharing avenues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MiCloud: Provides governance and direction for cloud-computing efforts within State government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proving – piloting – sourcing the State of Michigan’s cloud offerings </li></ul></ul></ul>
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  16. 16. Event & Task Driven Cloud Deployments <ul><li>Recovery.gov – Tracking US Federal stimulus fund appropriation </li></ul><ul><li>UDS Mapper – Showing the allocations of Federal funding for healthcare expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Release – Created by ESRI to help in the response and recovery efforts. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Private Cloud Hosting (Public-Private Partnership) <ul><li>Ontario Facilities Director’s Council </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities Management GeoPortal Distributed Architecture </li></ul>Ministry of Energy & Infrastructure Ministry of Community and Social Services Ministry of Finance Ministry of Natural Resources Cabinet Office / Premier’s Office Ministry of Citizenship & Immigration Ministry of Transportation Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Attorney General Ministry of Community and Social Services Ministry of Education Ministry of Children & Youth Services
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  20. 20. City of Novi’s Application Design & Hosting Goals <ul><li>Independent site administration </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage ArcGIS Server investment </li></ul><ul><li>Manage updates on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging interface and responsive tools </li></ul><ul><li>Manage layer specific access rights </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage next generation technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ArcIMS was approaching twilight phase of the product cycle (set for deprecation after ArcIMS 10.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead concerns grow when maintaining legacy systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author – Serve – Publish Cycle Using ArcGIS Server </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Peer Evaluation <ul><li>Internal versus external hosting environment </li></ul><ul><li>Internal access </li></ul><ul><li>External access </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware architecture and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient maintenance practices </li></ul><ul><li>API’s for JS, Flex, Silverlight </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with existing GIS systems </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome inertia - Doesn’t Google Earth/Bing already solve the problem? </li></ul>
  22. 22. ArcGIS Server in the Cloud <ul><li>ESRI introduces ArcGIS Server bundled with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) at 10.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick application deployment via AMI’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent user administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IaaS & SaaS delivery options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other forms of ESRI cloud apps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online : Map Services, Task Services, Community Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SaaS : ArcGIS.com, ArcLogistics , Business Analyst Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile : ArcGIS API for iOS version 1.0 (iPhone, iPod, iPad) & ArcGIS API for Windows Phone devices </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hardware Architecture Options
  24. 24. Cloud Security <ul><li>Engage network security specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design / System Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrades & Service Pack Installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Recovery & Data Service/Restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amazon Web Services Whitepapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of Security Processes & Best Practices http://aws.amazon.com/whitepapers/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloud Security Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Threats to Cloud Computing v1.0 – March 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cloudsecurityalliance.org </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Project Timeline <ul><li>Issued RFP for AGS Server Development & Hosting Services on April 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Five qualified responses were rated via QBS </li></ul><ul><li>Contract awarded to GISi on May 3, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Site operational July 10, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Project completed July 30, 2010 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Highlights Demonstration
  27. 27. Results <ul><li>Extensible platform for AGS which Novi IT/GIS independently manages and updates </li></ul><ul><li>Single application shared by public and staff </li></ul><ul><li>Site complements future initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic site awareness / community outreach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure maintenance & management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety incident mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and agile in responding to future demands </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Lessons Learned <ul><li>One-size is not for everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud computing early in the technology life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud security is a joint responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud technology maturation will establish new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>New funding realities mean re-evaluating options </li></ul><ul><li>Know your business requirements </li></ul>
  29. 29. Great Resources <ul><li>Online References & Discussions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gartner Global IT Council for Cloud Services – Rights and Responsibilities for Cloud Computing Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LinkedIn Spatial Cloud Computing (SC2) & Managers in GIS Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions Media – Directions Magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIST Cloud Computing Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm v26 (www.nist.gov) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESRI’s GIS in the Cloud Resources (esri.com/cloud) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Age of Cloud Computing , Victoria Kouyoumjian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS in the Cloud , David Chappell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating the Cost of a GIS in the Amazon Cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ESRI White Paper– January 2011) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Questions / Feedback <ul><li>Review the City of Novi’s Internet Mapping Portal online at maps.cityofnovi.org </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Blough,City GIS Manager </li></ul><ul><li>(248) 347-3279 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.linkedin.com/in/blough </li></ul>