Shallow Depth of Field
» Definition: Shallow depth of field is the range of distance
within a scene that is sharp, small, or covering a smaller
depth in the scene.
» Aperture will be wide.
» Aperture value will be small, such as f/1.8.
» Lens opening will be wide.
Deep Depth of Field
» Definition: Deep depth of field is when an image is sharp
» Ways to affect depth of field is to change the distance
of the camera to the subject. To increase the depth of
field move back. To reduce the depth of field, move
» A small f-stop (like f/11) on a 35-70mm zoom set to 35mm
gives a deep depth of field. (from six to 20 feet with the
lens focused at 9 feet)
Fast Shutter Speed
» Definition: Fast shutter speed is used to produce the
effect that movement has been frozen. The subject must
be moving, and the camera still.
» Shutter speed is measured in seconds- The bigger the
denominator the faster the speed. (ex. 1/1000 is much
faster that 1/30).
Slow Shutter Speed
» Definition: Slow Shutter Speed is used to get a somewhat
moving picture. This is because as you take the picture
objects around you may be moving.
» Use a sliw shutter speed and follow the subject as it
moves pressing the shutter button as you pan. Your
subject will appear sharp, making it appear as id it
hasent movedposition, but the background will be
blurred making the subject look like its hurtling along.
» Keep camera at a fixed point, choose a slow shutter
speed, the press the shutter button. By using this
technique the background will be sharp and the subject
will be blurred as it passes across the view finder.
» By choosing slower shutter speed (4 seconds, f/3.2),
walking people in the background have been
eliminated. You can see a couple of “ghosts” in there.
» Definition: Film Grain is the random optical texture of
processed film due to the presence of the tiny particles
of metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver
» Digital photography does not exhibit film grain, since
there is no film for any grain to exist within. The effect of
film grain can be simulated in some digital photo
manipulation programs, such as Photoshop adding grain
to a digital image after it is taken.
» Definition: “Image noise” is the film grain for a camera.
For digital images, this noise appears as random speckles
on an image or otherwise smooth surface and can
significantly degrade image quality.
» Amplifier noise
» Salt-and-pepper noise
» Shot noise
» Quantization noise
» Film grain
» Anisotropic noise