PART ONE In 1680, Pueblo Indians overthrew the Spaniards thathad been occupying their lands for treasure for over eightyyears… What inspired this revolt? First, we must discuss the history behind the revolt… In 1598, Juan de Onate, with a small group of colonists overtookthe mesa and canyon country of Northern New Mexico, lands occupiedby Pueblo Indians. The Pueblos were forced to work for privilegedSpaniards in “encomenderos”. The Pueblos always tolerated theseoutsiders, until the year 1680. The author and other historians attempt toanalyze why the Pueblos would allow Spaniards to colonize their landswith little fight… “An agricultural people, rooted to fertile valleys in a high desert land of little rain, Pueblos had no other place to go” (5).
PART ONE In 1680, Pueblo Indians overthrew the Spaniards thathad been occupying their lands for treasure for over eightyyears… Pueblo Indians launched a surprise attack on Spaniards, which they didn’t recover from for over a decade. Possible reasons are:-Pueblos rejected Christianity by burning churches and killing priests.-They long resented living lives like Spanish Christians.-Spaniards disrespected mixed blood Pueblos Indians.(Some historians believe that the main reason behind the revolt was amixed blood “mestizo” named Domingo Naranjo.)-A drought in the1670s.-Sexual exploitation of women by officials and missionaries.
PART TWO Chapter One:Did the Pueblos revolt to save their traditions? By: Henry Warner BowdenSpanish Missions, Cultural Conflicts, and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 -Bowden presents evidence that religion was the “heart of both Spanish and Pueblo cultures and the primary cause of the Pueblo Revolt” (21). -Discussions between Catholic Spanish missionaries and Pueblo tribal groups were positive encounters, but the constricting of Pueblo Indian activities created tensions. -August 1680, a general uprising to stop repressive measures robbing Pueblos of personal identity. -Spaniards were a direct threat to their culture and religion.
PART TWO Chapter Two: Did Franciscans invite martyrdom? By: Ramon A. Guiterrez Franciscans and the Pueblo Revolt-Guiterrez discusses how Franciscans invitedmartyrdom, as early as 1640, in response to losingauthority as Pueblos rebels spoke against theacceptance and lifestyle of Catholicism.Ex.) Friar Guerra beat and burned Pueblo IndianJuan Cuna.-Many of them were anxious to “die as fools forChrist” (43).-They were determined to stay faithful until death.Rather than try and abolish idolatry like FrayGuerra, they willing put themselves in todangerous and adversity.
PART TWO Chapter Three: Did the Pueblos revolt to save their lives? By: Van Hastings GarnerSeventeenth Century New Mexico, the Pueblo Revolt, and it’s Interpreters -Garner disagrees that religion was the cause of the revolt, but rather “immediate events” (55), were to blame. -Drought, famine, and Apache raids of the 1670s. -He acknowledges cultural and religious intolerance, but explains the revolt with specific events. -Pueblos stopped profiting by working the ‘encomenderos’. -Watching Franciscans and Hispanics fight demoralized the Indians. -Faced a rough economy (on top of not profiting from work), loss of maize, pestilence, and suffered raids of Athapascans. -Pueblos saw the revolt as absolutely necessity at the time. - “Setbacks” (73), could have provided equal grounds for Pueblo Indians and the Spaniards, and made the Indians feel more empowered and confident that a revolt was possible.
PART TWO Chapter Four:Did the right leader make the revolt possible? By: Angelico Chavez Pohe-yemo’s Representative and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 -Chavez, as early discussed in the book, attributes the revolt to mestizos (or mixed blood Pueblos). -It appears that Chavez’s argument is the least rooted in actual evidence, although it creates a compelling discussion. -Chavez doesn’t credit religion or culture to the revolt, instead he describes how the friars were kind to the Pueblos. -He says that mixed blood Pueblos claimed they were being persecuted to gain “power and revenge” (81).
PART TWO Chapter Five:Did the Spaniards loss of authority encourage the revolt? By: Andrew L. Knaut Acculturation and Miscengenation: The changing face of the Spanish presence in New Mexico -Knaut argues that the cultures neither divided nor unified, but rather the Pueblos waited for an opportunity to overthrow their new masters. -Perhaps this was the most simplistic argument, but it was also the most war-like, political, and survival-of-the-fittest-esque. -The Pueblos maintained and polished their culture and waited for an opportunity and weak spot in the Spanish ruling.
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