Tree ID and Ecology - lecture 1 (9/28/13)

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Tree ID and Ecology - lecture 1 (9/28/13)

  1. 1. Tree Identification and Ecology The Morton Arboretum Instructor: Christopher David Benda
  2. 2. Plant Ecologist Illinois Natural History Survey President Illinois Native Plant Society Instructor, Flora of Southern Illinois Southern Illinois University Instructor, Tree ID and Ecology The Morton Arboretum Technical Expert Consultant Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board CHRISTOPHER DAVID BENDA, M.S.
  3. 3. Illinois Botanizer Facebook Group Illinois Botany
  4. 4. Illinois Native Plant Society www.ill-inps.org
  5. 5. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory Category I – High Quality Natural Communities
  6. 6. 0.07% in a natural condition
  7. 7. Natural Community Soil Moisture Gradient Xeric Dry Dry-mesic Mesic Wet-mesic Wet Hydric
  8. 8. Tree Identification and Ecology Go over syllabus Icebreaker Exercise
  9. 9. Simple leaf, magnolia a. Simple versus compound leaves Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut Palmately compound leaf, buckeye b. Arrangement of leaves on stem Opposite leaves, maple Whorled leaves, bedstraw Alternate leaves, American beech Leaf Characteristics
  10. 10. Simple leaf Magnolia petiole
  11. 11. Palmately compound leaf Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra petiole
  12. 12. Pinnately compound leaf Black Walnut
  13. 13. Alternate leaves American beech
  14. 14. Whorled leaves Bedstraw Galium pilosum Galium aparine
  15. 15. Opposite leaves Maples MADCapBuckHorse
  16. 16. Exceptions to the rule: 1. Bladdernut 2. Euonymous (Wahoo) 3. Wild Hydrangea 4. Catalpa 5. Buttonbush 4. Catalpa 5. Buttonbush
  17. 17. petiole vs. petiolule vs. rachis
  18. 18. Basic Flower Anatomy • The male part is termed the Stamen, which consists of the anther and filament. • The female part is the Carpel, which consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
  19. 19. Flower Structure Perfect (bisexual flowers) Vs. Imperfect (unisexual flowers)
  20. 20. Perfect Flowers • Flowers containing BOTH male (stamen) and female (carpel) sexual parts. • Automatically monoecious
  21. 21. Imperfect Flowers • Flowers containing the reproductive parts of only one sex. • These imperfect flowers may be on the same plant (monoecious), • or on separate plants (dioecious) Sparganium eurycarpum Thalictrum dioicum
  22. 22. Monoecious (one house) Vs. Dioecious (two houses)
  23. 23. Imperfect flowers Staminate Vs. Pistillate Typha angustifolia staminate pistillate
  24. 24. Imperfect, monoecious Imperfect, dioecious Carex grayi Thalictrum dioicum
  25. 25. Obligate (requires a specific habitat for survival) Vs. Facultative (requires a general habitat for survival)
  26. 26. Plant Taxonomy •Non-Vascular •Early Plants (spores) •Archaeplastida (algae) •Bryophyta (mosses) •Marchantiophyta (liverworts) •Anthocerophyta (hornworts) •Vascular •Seedless plants •Pteridophyta (Ferns) •Fern Allies •Equisetaceae (Horsetail) •Isoetaceae (Quillwort) •Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) •Marsileaceae (Water-Clover) •Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) •Seed Plants •Gymnosperms (Conifers/Evergreens) •Juniperus, Pinus, Taxodium •Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) •Monocots (Orchids, Lilies, Irises, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, aquatic plants) •Dicots (most other flowering plants)
  27. 27. Binomial Nomenclature “The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their rightful names.” Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Cordata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Emydoidea E. blandingii
  28. 28. The Top Ten reasons for using scientific names Understand the meaning of the names!
  29. 29. Latin Pronunciation Pronounce every letter except diphthongs Echinacea, Tradescantia, Opuntia, Ambrosia “ch” is a “k” sound Polystichum, Heuchera, Aristolochia If a word has two syllables, the accent always goes with the next to the last (called the penult); e.g., Àcer. If a word has three or more syllables, the accent always goes either with the next to the last (penult) or the third from the last (called the antepenult). Synandra hispidula, Onoclea sensibilis, Liriodendron tulipifera phyllum – rhizophyllum, Podophyllum, triphyllum ae Pellaea, Arisaema, Chamaecrista au Daucus carota Eu Teucrium, Leucanthemum Oe (phoebe), Platanthera peramoena, Ipomoea Ui Equisetum “oi” is not a diphthong! Pleopeltis polypodioides Pronounce when ending with “e” Silene, canadense, sessile, hyemale Latinized last names (one or two i’s) Dodecatheon frenchii, Emydoidea blandingii Most trees have been feminized! Quercus rubra, Fagus grandifolia, Ulmus americana
  30. 30. Latin Pronunciation English pronunciation of vowels A – E – I – O - U Latin pronunciation of vowels Ah – Eh – EE – Oh - OO
  31. 31. Plant Resources for Southern Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
  32. 32. What do you notice about the arrangement of the textbook?
  33. 33. Gymnosperms Vs. Angiosperms
  34. 34. • plants that don’t produce a protective fruit around the seed. • all the conifers - pines, cedar, tamarack, yew, and cypress. Gymnosperms (“naked seed”) Pinus echinata Taxodium distichum Larix laricina
  35. 35. • flowering plants where the seed is encased in a protective fruit. • This is the dominant group of plants on Earth today. Angiosperms (“hidden seeds”)
  36. 36. Angiosperms Monocot Vs. Dicot
  37. 37. One cotyledon in seed
  38. 38. Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
  39. 39. Flower parts in threes and multiples of three, irregular (nonsymmetrical)
  40. 40. Two cotyledons in seed
  41. 41. Leaf veins form a net pattern
  42. 42. Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples
  43. 43. Dichotomous Keys and Plant Collections
  44. 44. Dichotomous key demonstration
  45. 45. Dichotomous key demonstration 1.Needle-like or scale-like leaves 1. Leaves broad and flat 2. Leaves simple 2. Leaves compound 3. Leaves opposite or whorled 3. Leaves alternate 4. Leaves not toothed or lobed 4. Leaves toothed or lobed 5. Leaves toothed 5. Leaved lobed
  46. 46. • Reproductive feaures like flowers, cones, and fruits are less variable • Tree age • Time of season • Flowers available for only a short time early in the season. Why? • Leaves easier to use for ID but not always available • Twigs available all year but hard for most to use for ID
  47. 47. Coefficient of Conservatism The native species most successful in badly damaged habitats were given C values of 0. At the other end of the spectrum, species virtually restricted to natural areas in Illinois received C values of 10. (Taft et al. 1997) Further reading http://www.conservationresearchinstitute.org/assets/illinoisfqa.pdf http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/Home/S1029%20Mortellaro%20mo nograph.pdf
  48. 48. Erigenia link http://www.ill-inps.org/Erigenia T & E Species Link http://www.dnr.illinois.gov/ESPB/Documents/2015_Ch ecklistFINAL_for_webpage_051915.pdf
  49. 49. Gee whiz?! information If you can’t tell a joke about it, explain where the name comes from, or tell story about the plant then: WHO CARES!!!
  50. 50. Plant Humor How can you ID a dogwood tree? By its bark!
  51. 51. Break
  52. 52. Illinois Gymnosperms • Cypressaceae – Cypress family – Juniperus – 3 species • communis (Ground Juniper, rare) • horizontalis (Trailing Juniper, rare) • virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar) – Thuja – 1 species • occidentalis (White Cedar, rare)
  53. 53. Illinois Gymnosperms • Ginkgoaceae – Ginkgo family – Ginkgo – 1 species • biloba (Ginkgo)
  54. 54. Illinois Gymnosperms • Pinaceae – Pine family – Larix – 2 species • decidua* (European Larch) • laricina (Tamarack, rare) – Picea – 2 species • abies* (Norway Spruce) • mariana* (Black Spruce)
  55. 55. Illinois Gymnosperms • Pinaceae – Pine family – Pinus – 10 species • banksiana (Jack Pine) • echinata (Short-leaf Pine, rare) • nigra* (Austrian Pine) • resinosa (Red Pine, rare) • rigida* (Pitch Pine) • strobus (White Pine) • sylvestris* (Scots Pine) • taeda (Loblolly Pine) • 2 others
  56. 56. Illinois Gymnosperms • Taxaceae – Yew family – Taxus – 1 species • canadensis (Canada Yew, rare) • Taxodiaceae – Bald Cypress family – Taxodium – 1 species • distichum (Bald Cypress)
  57. 57. Cypress Swamp – Little Black Slough
  58. 58. Common Woody Angiosperms • Aceraceae (Maple family) – Acer - 11 species • barbatum (Southern Sugar Maple) • campestre (Hedge Maple) • ginnala (Amur Maple) • negundo (Box Elder) • nigrum (Black Maple) • palmatum (Japanese Maple) • platanoides (Norway Maple) • pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple) • rubrum (Red Maple) • saccharinum (Silver Maple) • saccharum (Sugar Maple)
  59. 59. Common Woody Angiosperms • Anacardiaceae (Cashew or Sumac family) – Rhus – 4 species • aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) • copallina (Winged Sumac) • glabra (Smooth Sumac) • typhina (Staghorn Sumac) – Toxicodendron – 4 species • radicans (Poison Ivy) • vernix (Poison Sumac)
  60. 60. Common Woody Angiosperms • Annonaceae (Custard Apple family) – Asimina - 1 species • triloba (paw-paw) • Betulaceae (Birch family) – Alnus – 3 species • glutinosa (Black Alder) • incana (Speckled Alder) • serrulata (Smooth Alder)
  61. 61. Common Woody Angiosperms • Betulaceae (Birch family) – Betula – 8 species • alleghaniensis (Yellow Birch, rare) • nigra (River Birch) • papyrifera (Paper Birch, rare) • pumila (Dwarf Birch, rare) • 2 other species and 2 hybrids, (rare)
  62. 62. Common Woody Angiosperms • Caprifoliaceae – Lonicera – 19 species • dioica – (Red Honeysuckle) • flava – (Yellow Honeysuckle, rare) • japonica* (Japanese Honeysuckle) • maackii* (Amur Honeysuckle) • tatarica* (Tartarian Honeysuckle)
  63. 63. Common Woody Angiosperms • Caprifoliaceae – Sambucus – 2 species • canadensis (Elderberry) • racemosa (Red-berried Elder) – Symphoricarpos – 1 species • albus* (Snowberry) • occidentalis (Wolfberry) • orbiculatus (Coralberry)
  64. 64. Common Woody Angiosperms • Caprifoliaceae – Viburnum – 13 species • acerifolium (Maple-leaved Arrowwood) • dentatum* (Arrowwood) • lentago (Nannyberry) • prunifolium (Black Haw) • rafinesquianum (Downy Arrowwood) • recognitum (Smooth Arrowwood) • rufidulum (Rusty Black Haw) • trilobum (High-bush Cranberry, rare)
  65. 65. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
  66. 66. Common Woody Angiosperms • Corylaceae (Hazelnut family) – Carpinus – 1 species • caroliniana (Musclewood, Blue Beech) – Corylus – 1 species • americana (Hazelnut) – Ostrya – 1 species • virginiana (Ironwood, Eastern Hop Hornbeam)
  67. 67. Common Woody Angiosperms • Cornaceae (Dogwood family) – Cornus – 12 species • alternifolia (Alternate-leaved Dogwood) • amomum (Swamp Dogwood) • canadensis (Bunchberry, rare) • drummondii (Rough-leaved Dogwood) • florida (Flowering Dogwood) • foemina (Stiff Dogwood) • obliqua (Silky Dogwood • racemosa (Gray Dogwood) • rugosa (Round-leaved Dogwood) • sericea (Red-osier Dogwood) • 2 non-native (alba and mas)
  68. 68. Flowering Dogwood – Cornus florida
  69. 69. Common Woody Angiosperms • Ebenaceae (Ebony family) – Diospyros – 1 species • virginiana (Persimmon)
  70. 70. Common Woody Angiosperms • Ericaceae (Heath family) – Gaylussacia – 1 species • baccata (Black Huckleberry) – Rhododendron – 2 species • prinophyllum – (Wild Azalea) – Vaccinium – 8 species • arboreum (Farkleberry) • pallidum (Blueberry) • stamenium (Deerberry)
  71. 71. Lowbush Blueberry - Vaccinium pallidum
  72. 72. Common Woody Angiosperms • Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia family) – Cercis – 1 species • canadensis (Redbud) – Gleditsia – 2 species • aquatica – (Water Locust) • triacanthos (Honey Locust) – Gymnocladus – 1 species • dioicus (Kentucky Coffee Tree)
  73. 73. Common Woody Angiosperms • Fabaceae (Bean/Pea family) – Amorpha – 3 species • canescens (Leadplant) • fruticosa (False Indigo Bush) • nitens (Smooth False Indigo, rare) – Cladrastis – 1 species • kentukea (Yellowwood, rare) – Robinia – 1 species • pseudoacacia (Black Locust)
  74. 74. Common Woody Angiosperms • Fagaceae (Beech family) – Castanea – 1 species • dentata (Chestnut) – Fagus – 1 species • grandifolia (American Beech)
  75. 75. Common Woody Angiosperms • Fagaceae (Beech family) – Quercus – 21 species • acutissima (Sawtooth Oak) • alba (White Oak) • bicolor (Swamp White Oak) • coccinea (Scarlet Oak) • ellipsoidalis (Northern Pin Oak) • falcata (Southern Red Oak) • imbricaria (Shingle Oak) • lyrata (Overcup Oak) • macrocarpa (Bur Oak) • marilandica (Blackjack Oak)
  76. 76. Common Woody Angiosperms • Fagaceae (Beech family) – Quercus – 21 species • michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak) • muhlenbergia (Chinquapin Oak) • pagoda (Cherrybark Oak) • palustris (Pin Oak) • phellos (Willow Oak) • prinus (Rock Chestnut Oak) • rubra (Red Oak) • shumardii (Shumard’s Oak) • stellata (Post Oak) • texana (Nuttall’s Oak) • velutina (Black Oak)
  77. 77. Blackjack Oak - Quercus marilandica
  78. 78. Common Woody Angiosperms • Hamamelidaceae (Witch Hazel family) – Hamamelis – 1 species • virginiana (Witch Hazel) – Liquidambar – 1 species • styraciflua (Sweet Gum)
  79. 79. Common Woody Angiosperms • Hippocastanaceae (Horse Chestnut family) – Aesculus – 4 species • flava (Sweet Buckeye, rare) • glabra (Ohio Buckeye) • hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) • pavia (Red Buckeye)
  80. 80. Common Woody Angiosperms • Juglandaceae (Walnut family) – Carya – 10 species • aquatica (Water Hickory, rare) • cordiformis (Bitternut) • glabra (Pignut Hickory) • illinoiensis (Pecan) • laciniosa (Shellbark Hickory) • ovalis (Sweet Pignut Hickory) • ovata (Shagbark Hickory) • pallida (Pale Hickory, rare) • texana (Black Hickory) • tomentosa (Mockernut)
  81. 81. Common Woody Angiosperms • Juglandaceae (Walnut family) – Juglans – 10 species • cinerea (Butternut) • nigra (Black Walnut)
  82. 82. Common Woody Angiosperms • Lauraceae (Laurel family) – Lindera – 1 species • Benzoin (Spicebush) – Sassafras – 1 species • albidum (Sassafras) • Magnoliaceae (Magnolia family) – Liriodendron – 1 species • tulipifera (Tulip Tree) – Magnolia – 1 species • acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia)
  83. 83. Common Woody Angiosperms • Moraceae (Mulberry family) – Maclura – 1 species • pomifera (Osage Orange) – Morus – 2 species • alba (White Mulberry) • rubra (Red Mulberry) • tatarica* (Russian Mulberry)
  84. 84. Common Woody Angiosperms • Nyssaceae (Nyssa family) – Nyssa – 3 species • aquatica (Tupelo Gum) • biflora (Swamp Gum) • sylvatica (Black Gum)
  85. 85. Common Woody Angiosperms • Oleaceae (Olive family) – Forestiera – 1 species • acuminata (Swamp Privet) – Forsythia – 1 species • suspensa (Forthysia) – Ligustrum – 2 species • obtusifolium (Blunt-leaved Privet) • vulgare (Common Privet)
  86. 86. Common Woody Angiosperms • Oleaceae (Olive family) – Fraxinus – 7 species • americana (White Ash) • biltmoreana (Biltmore Ash) • lanceolata (Green Ash) • nigra (Black Ash) • pennsylvanica (Red Ash) • profunda (Pumpkin Ash) • quadrangulata (Blue Ash)
  87. 87. Common Woody Angiosperms • Platanaceae (Sycamore family) – Platanus – 1 species • occidentalis (Sycamore) • Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn family) – Ceanothus • americanus (New Jersey Tea) • herbaceous (Redroot, rare) – Frangula – 2 species • alnus (Glossy Buckthorn) • caroliniana (Carolina Buckthorn) – Rhamnus – 6 species • cathartica (Common Buckthorn)
  88. 88. Common Woody Angiosperms • Rosaceae (Rose family) – Amelanchier – 5 species • arborea (Serviceberry) – Aronia – 2 species • melanopcarpa (Black Chokeberry) • prunifolia (Purple Chokeberry)
  89. 89. Common Woody Angiosperms • Rosaceae (Rose family) – Crataegus – 44 species • mollis (Hawthorn) – Malus – 8 species • ioensis (Iowa Crab Apple) – Prunus – 18 species • americana (Wild Plum) • mexicana (Big Tree Plum) • serotina (Black Cherry) • virginiana (Common Chokecherry)
  90. 90. Common Woody Angiosperms • Rosaceae (Rose family) – Rosa (many species) – Rubus (many species)
  91. 91. Common Woody Angiosperms • Rubiaceae (Madder family) – Cephalanthus – 1 species • occidentalis (Buttonbush)
  92. 92. Common Woody Angiosperms • Rutaceae (Citrus family) – Ptelea – 1 species • trifoliata (Wafer Ash) – Zanthoxylum – 1 species • americanum (Prickly Ash)
  93. 93. Common Woody Angiosperms • Salicaceae (Willow family) – Populus – 10 species • alba (White Poplar) • deltoides (Cottonwood) • grandidentata (Large-toothed Aspen) • heterophylla (Swamp Cottonwood) • tremuloides (Quaking Aspen)
  94. 94. Common Woody Angiosperms • Salicaceae (Willow family) – Salix – 29 species • babylonica (Weeping Willow) • discolor (Pussy Willow) • glaucophylloides (Blue-leaf Willow) • humilis (Prairie Willow) • interior (Sandbar Willow) • nigra (Black Willow)
  95. 95. Common Woody Angiosperms • Tiliaceae (Basswood family) – Tilia – 3 species • americana (American Basswood) • cordata (Heart-leaved Basswood) • heterophylla (White Basswood)
  96. 96. Common Woody Angiosperms • Ulmaceae (Elm family) – Celtis – 3 species • laevigata (Sugarberry) • occidentalis (Common Hackberry) • tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) – Planera – 1 species • americana (Water Elm) – Ulmus – 5 species • alata (Winged Elm) • americana (American Elm) • pumila* (Siberian Elm) • rubra (Red Elm) • thomasii (Rock Elm)
  97. 97. botanizer@gmail.com www.facebook.com/illinoisbotanizer www.illinoisbotanizer.blogspot.com www.illinoisbotanizer.com

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